Palliative Care
2014 - 2017

This formulary for pain and symptom management in adults is intended as a guide for prescribers in hospital and community.
Special care should be taken when prescribing strong opioids, particularly in opioid naïve patients, because of the risk of respiratory depression. The dose and frequency should be carefully stated on the prescription. For further guidance see BNF.
Many drugs listed are unlicensed in their use or route and as such the clinician takes personal responsibility for prescribing.
If symptoms are not controlled, please contact Specialist Palliative Care for advice. Advice should be sought early to avoid symptom crisis - see contact numbers, page 11.
When prescribing for Barnsley patients out of hours this formulary should be adhered to.
Management of Pain Management of Symptoms Pre-emptive prescribing 7 Syringe Drivers Core Drug Stockist Scheme 10 Key for 14 days supply: £: <£5 ££: £5-25 £££: >£25
Consider patient's TOTAL PAIN Physical + Psychological + Spiritual + Social Assess pain using a pain assessment tool—professionals should use a tool with which they are familiar such as a verbal rating scale (VRS) or visual analogue scale (VAS) WHO ANALGESIC LADDER
Non Opioid (Paracetamol 1g qds) + Strong Opioid (see page 2)
If pain persists or increases
Non Opioid (Paracetamol 1g qds) + Weak Opioid (Codeine Phosphate 30-60mg qds
Or Tramadol 50-100mg qds) If pain persists or increases
Non Opioid (Paracetamol 1g qds) NB: Analgesia should be prescribed on a regular basis.
Co-prescribe laxatives at Steps 2 and 3 (see page 5) Usual max
oral dose
Codeine Phosphate £ Morphine is NOT recommended in renal failure; seek specialist
Paracetamol £ AND
Strong opioid to replace Step 2 weak opioid Oral Morphine Solution £ (Oramorph ® 10mg/5ml): 2.5mg - 10mg every (previous opioid use - see conversion chart) Co-prescribe laxatives (see page 5) plus anti-emetic, eg Haloperidol £ 0.5-1mg PRN Once pain stabilised on a regular 4 hourly Oral Morphine Solution, calculate total dose given over previous 24 hours (regular plus PRN) Administer in two divided doses as twice daily Modified Release Morphine £ (e.g. Zomorph ®) .
Co-prescribe Oral Morphine Solution PRN of 1-4 hourly equivalent to
approximately 1/6th total daily dose of Modified Release Morphine.
Oxycodone ££ available as:
Immediate Release Oxycodone (OxyNorm® Liquid 5mg/5ml) and
Modified Release Oxycodone (OxyContin ®)

NB OxyNorm® is also available as Concentrate 10mg/ml. Prescription of
this in error has led to cases of respiratory arrest.
To convert from subcutaneous diamorphine to subcutaneous morphine multiply by 1.5
NB Conversion varies widely between individual patients
1. Fentanyl ££
Fentanyl patches (each patch over 72 hrs) Fentanyl is a potent opioid - a 25microgram/hr patch is equivalent to up to 90mg/day Oral Morphine Fentanyl is not suitable for unstable pain and should NOT be used as a
1st line strong opioid. It is more likely to cause respiratory depression than oral opioids.
Fentanyl is hepatically cleared. It is suitable for use in end stage renal failure but may accumulate in hepatic failure and cause respiratory Seek specialist advice if the Fentanyl dose exceeds 75microgram/hr
When converting to Fentanyl from:
Modified Release Morphine 12 hourly: Apply the first patch at the same time as taking the final dose of Modified Release Morphine For terminal management DO NOT REMOVE FENTANYL PATCH. Pa-
tients may require additional SC opioid via syringe driver: seek specialist
Dose Conversion for Fentanyl
Oral Morphine
Fentanyl patch
2. Buprenorphine ££ Buprenorphine can be considered to be equipotent with Fentanyl
It is not renally cleared so is suitable for use in end stage renal failure Buprenorphine may cause less Opioid Induced Hyperalgesia (OIH) than
other opioids (see page 5) It is available in two formulations: BuTrans® 7 day patch or Transtec® twice weekly patch Buprenorphine is not suitable for unstable pain BuTrans® may be useful for patients in the community who have been using a weak opioid and are no longer able to swallow See section on syringe drivers on page 8 Alfentanil ££ may be useful for patients with renal impairment (eGFR <30) for whom a patch is not suitable. Alfentanil has a short half-life so PRN doses may need to be given every 30 minutes Adjuvant analgesics are recommended at all 3 steps of the analgesic
Neuropathic pain (neuro-modulatory agents):
Amitriptyline £ 10mg nocte increasing to 75mg nocte (larger doses may be used by specialists). Caution in cardiac disease and patients aged Gabapentin £, Pregabalin ££ or Duloxetine ££ - see titration in BNF but caution in elderly and renal impairment Clonazepam, Ketamine and other drugs may be used - seek specialist advice. A shared care guideline with Barnsley Hospice exists for Bone pain:
Consider neuro-modulatory agents as above NSAIDs (e.g. Ibuprofen £ or Naproxen £) +/- gastroprotection as per local Raised intracranial pressure:
Dexamethasone 8mg bd for 5 days titrating down according to symptoms/ response. Discuss with Oncologist re radiotherapy Consider gastroprotection; steroids alone do not significantly increase risk of GI bleed Initiate anticonvulsants after first seizure; Levatiracetam 250mg od starting dose is recommended - consider specialist Hepatic distension syndrome (liver capsule pain):
First line: follow WHO analgesic ladder If pain uncontrolled, consider Dexamethasone under specialist advice. Monitor closely for steroid induced side effects e.g. hyperglycaemia, proximal myopathy
All patients on opioids will have small pupils; this alone does not
Always co-prescribe a laxative (softener plus stimulant) - see page 5.
Expect a sedative effect for the first 2-3 days after starting opioids. If this persists consider seeking specialist advice. Patients may require an opioid switch, dose reduction or/and addition of an adjuvant. Specialists may initiate Methylphenidate to counteract sedation.
Nausea and vomiting:
Nausea and vomiting may occur for first 5-7 days (30% of patients). Consider co-prescription of PRN anti-emetics. Review regularly as anti-emetics may not be required long term.
eg Haloperidol 0.5-1mg PRN (maximum 2.5mg over 24 hours) This is commonly mild, and may include sedation, myoclonus and vague hallucinations (patients report seeing ‘shadows on their shoulders'). May respond to opioid switch/use of adjuvants. Seek specialist advice.
Significant respiratory depression is rare with chronic oral opioid Do not administer naloxone without seeking specialist advice.
Do not administer naloxone unless RR<8 AND Oxygen sats <92%
Naloxone use in palliative care: Dilute a standard ampoule containing 400microgram to 10mL with 0.9% Administer 0.5mL (20microgram) i.v. every 2 minutes until respiratory status satisfactory Exclude other possible causes before attributing to opioids. Seek advice.
Opioid induced hyperalgesia (OIH):
Increasing pain with rapidly escalating opioids. Seek specialist advice.
Consider cause and non-drug management Perform rectal examination Prevention and maintenance: Prescribe softener plus stimulant, eg:
Docusate £ 100mg caps and Senna £. Titrate as needed.
Co-danthramer ££ 25/200 mg capsules 1 bd increasing according to response (also available in liquid form 1 caps = 5ml suspension and Co-danthramer Strong ££ 37.5/500 micrograms) Macrogols and Lactulose are often poorly tolerated; patients rarely have adequate additional fluid intake for these to be effective Rectal: Suppositories: Bisacodyl £ 10mg -20mg od Glycerin £ 1-2 od or Sodium Citrate £ Micro-enema PRN Phosphate enema ££ PRN Oral: Macrogols (Laxido ®) ££ up to 8 sachets daily have been used Consider cause (for example constipation) Hyoscine butylbromide £ SC 20mg 1-2 hrly PRN Hyoscine butylbromide £ 60mg -120mg/24 hrs SC via syringe driver plus 20mg PRN 1-2 hrly Nausea and vomiting:
Consider cause and non drug management Exclude bowel obstruction Consider SC route early - convert to oral route once symptoms resolved Ondansetron £££ should not be used 1st line—specialist prescription only; causes constipation Haloperidol £ 0.5-1mg PRN, 2.5mg -5mg SC /24 hours - good for metabolic causes Cyclizine £ 50mg tds or 50mg - 150mg/24 hrs in syringe driver - do not co-prescribe Domperidone/Metoclopramide
Domperidone £ 10mg - 20mg oral every 4-8 hours or 30mg -60mg PR useful in gastric stasis Metoclopramide £ 10mg - 20mg tds oral or 30mg - 100mg/24 hours via - useful for gastric stasis - do not co-prescribe Cyclizine
NB recent guidelines about maximum dose and duration of metoclopramide are deemed not to apply to palliative care Levomepromazine ££ 6.25mg -12.5mg nocte orally 6.25mg stat or 12.5mg -25mg SC via syringe driver 2nd line - broad spectrum, sedating Consider cause and remember non drug management. A fan is as good as oxygen in palliative care patients who are breathless but not hypoxic. Avoid prescribing oxygen in patients who are not hypoxic (O2 sat >92%).
Oral Immediate Release opioids (Oramorph ®/OxyNorm ®) titrated according to response using minimal doses e.g. 1mg PRN Lorazepam tablet £ 0.5mg - 1mg oral or sublingual (maximum 2mg in 24 hours) if associated with anxiety Consider reversible causes (for example hypercalcaemia, constipation, urinary retention) and non-drug management Haloperidol 0.5-1mg prn 4 hourly Lorazepam 0.5-1mg bd – tds (can be given via sublingual route) Midazolam can be used under specialist advice Haloperidol 2.5mg stat or 5-10mg/24 hours in a driver Levomepromazine 12.5mg stat or 12.5-50mg/24 hours in syringe driver Midazolam 2.5mg stat or 10mg -30mg/24 hours in syringe driver Higher doses of both drugs can be used under specialist advice.

Oral thrush:
Ensure good oral hygiene and denture care Nystatin ££/Nystan ® £ 5mL qds Miconazole £ gel 5 -10mL qds if end of life/unable to tolerate nystatin Fluconazole ££ 50mg od for 7 days Please refer to local mouthcare guidelines Excessive respiratory secretions:
Hyoscine butylbromide 20mg stat or prn or 60mg – 120mg/24 hours via Hyoscine hydrobromide ££ patch 1mg/72 hours Can cause confusion and drowsiness PALLIATIVE CARE EMERGENCIES
Symptoms may be non-specific e.g. If Ca>2.8mmol/l and symptomatic; admit to rehydrate if necessary and then Zoledronate 4mg IV.
METASTATIC SPINAL CORD Early detection is key. Refer to NICE
COMPRESSION (MSCC) guidelines. Any patient with symptoms suggestive of spinal metastases and neurological symptoms such as radicular pain, limg weakness or difficulty walking needs referral immediately. Objective neurological
examination may be normal.
Dexamethasone 8mg bd. Discuss with spinal surgeon on-call/oncologist.
SUPERIOR VENA CAVA Dexamethasone 8mg bd. Discuss with oncologist/ Interventional radiologist regarding stent.
CATASTROPHIC TERMINAL Sit patient up and give reassurance. If time, consider Morphine 10mg IV/SC and Midazolam 5-20mg IV/SC.
On call Acute Oncologist 7 days, 9am - 5pm: 07949 021449 Out of hours via Sheffield Teaching Hospitals: 0114 271 1900 PRE-EMPTIVE PRESCRIBING AT THE END OF LIFE
These are a guide for prescribing for patients not currently requiring
opioids or antiemetics. For other patients, please seek advice.
Morphine sulphate 10mg/mL injection 2.5-5mg sc hourly PRN For pain or dyspnoea Supply 5 x 10mg/mL vials Midazolam 10mg/2mL injection 2.5-5mg sc hourly PRN For agitation, distress or dyspnoea Supply 5 x 10mg/2mL vials Hyoscine butylbromide 20mg/mL injection 20mg sc hourly PRN For respiratory secretions or colic Supply 5 x 20mg/mL vials Seek advice over 120mg/24 hours Haloperidol 5mg/mL injection 0.5-1mg sc 2-4 hourly PRN max 5mg/24 For nausea or agitation/delirium Supply 5 x 5mg/mL vials Seek advice over 5mg/24 hours Also supply water for injection 10mL x 5 vials SYRINGE DRIVER COMPATIBILITY:
Compatibility information for mixing two drugs
Drugs listed below for use in a syringe driver should be diluted with water for injection. If more than two drugs are used, please seek specialist advice or see
Strong opioids, i.e.
Hyoscine butylbromide For others, seek advice Hyoscine butylbromide Hyoscine butylbromide Hyoscine butylbromide Hyoscine butylbromide Hyoscine butylbromide All combinations should be checked for signs of precipitation before and The compatibility of some combinations listed is concentration dependent: Cyclizine in particular can cause any other drugs to precipitate at high Syringe drivers and sites must be checked 4-hourly for irritation; once skin is irritated absorption of drugs may be affected.
The following is a list of core palliative care drugs that a number of pharmacies across Barnsley have agreed to keep in stock. When medication is required urgently prescribers should therefore try to prescribe from within this list when possible at the set vial doses or tablet sizes.
Clonazepam tablets 500microgram Cyclizine injection 50mg/mL Dexamethasone injection 4mg/mL Dexamethasone tablets 2mg Domperidone suppositories 30mg Haloperidol injection 5mg/mL Hyoscine butylbromide injection 20mg/mL Hyoscine hydrobromide patches 1mg Levomepromazine tablets 25mg Levomepromazine injection 25mg/mL Metoclopramide 10mg/2mL Midazolam injection 10mg/2mL Morphine injection 10mg/mL, 30mg/mL Oxycodone/OxyNorm® liquid 5mg/5mL OxyNorm® injection 10mg/mL Water for injection 10mL three times daily four times daily stat - immediately SC - subcutaneous Community Macmillan Specialist Palliative Care Team:
Monday - Friday, 9.00am - 5.00pm 01226 433580 or 01226 730000 Ext 3580 Saturday/Sunday/Bank Holidays, 9.00 am - 5.00 pm Hospital Specialist Palliative Care Team:
Monday - Friday, 8.30am - 4.30pm 01226 434921 or 01226 730000 Ext 4921 Palcall:
Call to be made by senior practitioner 01226 244244 (nights, weekends and bank holidays) Drug Information Centre:
Monday - Friday, 9.00 am - 5.00 pm 01226 432857 or 01226 730000 Ext 2857 Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust Palliative Care Information Websites:
This formulary was produced by a multidisciplinary working party with representatives from primary and secondary care. The formulary will be reviewed and updated on a regular basis.
Back, I N 2001 – Palliative Medicine Handbook 3rd Edition – BPM Books, Cardiff BNF 66 September 2013 - BMA RPSGB Dickman A, Schneider J, Varga J 2005 – The Syringe Driver 2nd Edition – Oxford University Press Oxford Handbook of Palliative Care 2nd Edition Oxford Handbook of Palliative Drugs 3rd Edition Twycross R, et al (2011) - Palliative Care Formulary 4th Edition Radcliffe Twycross R, Wilcock A (2001) – Symptom Management in Advanced Cancer 4th Edition - Radcliffe Press, Oxon


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How Does Psychotherapy Influence Personality?A Theoretical Integration John D. MayerUniversity of New Hampshire A given type of psychotherapy (e.g., psychodynamic) is associated with aset of specific change techniques (e.g., interpreting defenses, identifyingrelationship themes). Different change techniques can be conceived of asinfluencing different parts of personality (e.g., interpreting defense increasesconscious awareness). An integrated model of personality is presented.Then, change techniques from different theoretical perspectives are assignedby judges to areas of personality the techniques are believed to influence.The results suggest that specific change techniques can be reliably sortedinto the areas of personality. Thinking across theoretical perspectives leadsto important new opportunities for assessment, therapy outcome research,and communication with patients concerning personality change. ©2004Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 60: 1291–1315, 2004.


LIECHTENSTEINER VATERLAND DONNERSTAG, 3. MAI 2012 29 Ein aktiver Wanderer kommt zurück erwartetNew York. – Eines der berühmtes- Sie sind zurück – die pelzigen ten Gemälde der modernen Kunst und fleissigen Nager. Am Mitt- kam in der zurückliegenden Nacht wochabend führte Holger Frick,