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The Chicago Council
on Global Affairs, founded in 1922
as The Chicago Council on Foreign Relations,
is a leading independent, nonpartisan organization
committed to influencing the discourse on global
issues through contributions to opinion and policy

formation, leadership dialogue, and public learning.
task force series
conomic Eng
A Shared Future:
The Economic Engagement
of Greater Chicago and Its
t of Gr
ea
ter Chicag

o and Its Me
report of an independent task force
Douglas Doetsch, Clare Muñana and Alejandro Silva, Co-chairs sponsored by
332 South Michigan Avenue Suite 1100 Chicago, Illinois 60604 thechicagocouncil.org A Shared Future:
The Economic Engagement
of Greater Chicago and Its
r e p o r T o F a n I n d e p e n d e n T Ta s k F o r c e
Douglas Doetsch, Clare Muñana,
and Alejandro Silva, Co-chairs
The Chicago Council on Global Affairs, founded in 1922 as The Chicago Council on Table of contents
Foreign Relations, is a leading independent, nonpartisan organization committed to influencing the discourse on global issues through contributions to opinion and policy formation, leadership dialogue, and public learning.
THE CHICAGO COUNCIL TAKES NO INSTITUTIONAL POSITION ON POLICY ISSUES AND HAS NO AFFILIATION WITH THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. ALL STATEMENTS OF FACT AND EXPRESSIONS OF OPINION CONTAINED IN ALL ITS PUBLICATIONS ARE THE SOLE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE AUTHOR OR AUTHORS.
The Chicago Council will sponsor an independent task force when (1) an issue of cur- rent and critical international importance arises, and (2) it seems that a group diverse in backgrounds and perspectives may be able to reach a meaningful consensus on a policy through private and nonpartisan deliberations. Typically, a task force meets five times over a brief period to ensure the relevance of its work.
II. Economic Opportunity and Asset Development . . . . 28 Upon reaching a conclusion, a task force issues a report, and The Chicago Council III. Education of Tomorrow's Workforce . . . . . . . . . 48 publishes its text and posts it on The Chicago Council Web site.
IV. Civic Engagement and Political Participation . . . . . 66 All Task Force reports "benchmark" their findings against current policy in order to make explicit areas of agreement and disagreement. The Task Force is solely respon- sible for this report. The Chicago Council takes no institutional position.
For further information about The Chicago Council or this Task Force, please write to The Chicago Council on Global Affairs, 332 South Michigan Avenue, Suite 1100, Chicago, Illinois, 60604, or call the main line at 312-726-3860. Visit The Chicago Council's Web site at www.thechicagocouncil.org.
Project Director – Juliana Kerr Viohl
Principal Author – Beatriz Ponce de León

Copyright 2006 by The Chicago Council on Global Affairs.
All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.
This report may not be reproduced in whole or in part, in any form (beyond that copying permitted by sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law and excerpts by reviews for the public press), without written permission from the publisher. For in-formation, write The Chicago Council on Global Affairs, 332 South Michigan Avenue, Suite 1100, Chicago, Illinois, 60604.
Front cover photograph by Juliana Kerr Viohl. Mural, painted by Jeff Zimmermann, in the Pilsen neighborhood of Chicago. Nations and cities around the world are experiencing the greatest movement of people across borders in a hundred years. This largely economic migration is bringing both benefits and challenges. In search of jobs and opportunity, migrants are fueling economic growth, revitalizing neighborhoods, enhancing global connections, and transferring resources to the societies they have left. The recent wave of migration is also seen increasingly as prob- lematic in many societies. The new migrants come from more diverse ethnic, linguistic, and religious backgrounds than their nineteenth- and early twentieth-century predecessors. They have arrived in greater numbers in a shorter time span than in the past, and are set-tling in locations not accustomed to migrants, such as suburbs and small towns. Questions are increasingly hotly debated as to whether these newest migrants can and should be integrated and whether the doors to migration should continue to be open.
The issues of migration and migrant integration, most often asso- ciated with coastal U.S. cities and states, are vital to Chicago and the Midwest. Like other leading U.S. cities, Chicago has been a migrant destination since its founding. Today more than 18 percent of the Chicago metropolitan population is foreign born. Mexicans, U.S.- and foreign-born, now account for 16 percent of the total metropoli-tan population. Recent migrants have, in fact, dispersed throughout the upper Midwest and become meatpackers in Iowa, factory work-ers in Michigan, and construction crews in Indiana. Of the total U.S. foreign-born population, 11 percent is found in the Midwest.
Recognizing the importance of immigration to the Midwest, The Chicago Council sponsored a task force on U.S. immigration policy beginning in 2003. Its June 2004 report, Keeping The Promise: Immigration Proposals from the Heartland, was an effort to influence national opinion and policymaking on many aspects of immigration. The Task Force supported strongly comprehensive U.S. immigration policy reform similar to approaches offered by the Bush administra-tion and by Senators McCain and Kennedy in their legislative pro-posals now under consideration by Congress. In that task force's deliberations, it became equally clear that integrating immigrants who are already here is at least as important as regulating future flows of immigrants to the well-being of our com-munities. The Chicago Council now decided to focus its attention on Task Force Report - 3 A Shared Future the economic integration of Mexican immigrants and their children The Task Force findings drew heavily also on the highly infor- in the Chicago metropolitan area. The examination began in 2004 mative and thoughtful presentations by the session speakers on the with a series of six roundtable conversations between Mexican and issues addressed in the report. We thank Armando Almendarez, Jose non-Mexican leaders and experts on a wide range of issues. The open Aybar, Xochitl Bada, Frank Beal, Allert Brown-Gort, Amparo Castillo, and positive nature of those meetings led to the creation of a full task Christina Gomez, Michael Frias, Joshua Hoyt, Juanita Irizarry, John Koval, Rob Paral, Salvador Pedroza, Sylvia Puente, Jesse Ruiz, Carlos Sada, Juan Salgado, William Testa, Maria de los Angeles Torres, Eric The Task Force
Whitaker, and Martha Zurita for taking time out of their busy sched-ules to meet with our group. The Task Force on the economic engagement of greater Chicago A very special acknowledgment is due to Beatriz Ponce de León, and its Mexican community was convened in October 2005 by The the principal project consultant, who was charged not only to be the Chicago Council on Global Affairs (founded as The Chicago Council lead drafter of this report, but also played a key role in shaping the on Foreign Relations). Chaired by three prominent Chicagoans, agenda, recruiting speakers, and identifying issues and resources Douglas Doetsch, partner of Mayer Brown Rowe & Maw LLP; Clare throughout the Task Force process. Her ability to condense months Muñana, president of Ancora Associates; and Alejandro Silva, chair- of deliberations and working group recommendations into a coher- man of Evans Food Group, the Task Force included 45 representatives ent, comprehensive, and readable report is laudable. She brought of business, government, media, nongovernmental organizations, throughout the work of the Task Force a steady spirit, unfailing cour- education, health, and religious groups from both the Mexican and tesy, and deep conviction about the importance of the effort. The non-Mexican communities in roughly equal numbers. Chicago Council and the co-chairs are deeply appreciative of her The Task Force pursued its agenda through eight monthly meet- ings. Each meeting included presentations by experts to stimulate The Chicago Council is also grateful to Ellen Hunt, who joined discussion on the key issues related to the integration of the Mexican the Task Force team months after work had begun, to serve as our community, including economic opportunity, education, civic editor. In addition to editing the substance of the report and assist- engagement, political participation, and health, social, and cultural ing in the preparation of the manuscript, Ellen spent long days work- issues. The Task Force created smaller working groups, each focused ing closely with Beatriz in rewriting chapters to ensure the clarity of on one of these areas, which met two or three times to examine key issues in greater depth and propose recommendations to the Task The Task Force collaborated with a number of local and regional Force as a whole. organizations, most notably the Institute for Latino Studies at the University of Notre Dame, the Midwest's most prominent institution devoted to policy-relevant research on Latinos, including Mexicans. We are especially grateful to Allert Brown-Gort and Sylvia Puente, The Chicago Council wishes first to thank the three Task Force co- who served as consultants on this project and provided invaluable chairs, Douglas Doetsch, Clare Muñana, and Alejandro Silva, for expertise, counsel, and connections to the work of the Task Force. their exemplary leadership. We are deeply grateful for their extraor- In fact, the entire project would not have been possible without the dinary commitment of ideas, energy, and time to this project. Their extraordinarily generous commitment of personal and institutional passion for the subject and dedication to the project has been crucial resources made by Sylvia Puente and Allert Brown-Gort. Magda to the outcome.
Banda, Patricia Santoyo, Yojana Vasquez, and Martha Zurita of the The Chicago Council also extends its sincere appreciation to all Institute for Latino Studies also worked hard to ensure that our find- the Task Force members who contributed their personal experience, ings were supported with current data. The Task Force collaborated professional advice, and thoughtful insight to the deliberations that closely with the Consulate General of Mexico and is grateful for the formed the foundation of our findings and recommendations. support of Consul General Carlos Sada and his team.
4 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 5 A Shared Future A number of The Chicago Council's staff played key roles in developing and implementing the project. Richard Longworth, the former executive director of the Global Chicago Center, and Daniela Chicago has discovered the benefits of community acceptance the Abuzatoaie, former assistant director of the Global Chicago Center, hard way, with successive generations of immigrants overcoming shaped the project and obtained the necessary funding to implement disrespect and worse to win a seat at the table of opportunity. This the Roundtables and the Task Force. Juliana Kerr Viohl, the assistant generation of Chicagoans intends to honor those hard-learned les- director of the Global Chicago Center, stepped in after the project sons by acknowledging the current wave of Mexican immigrants as began and prepared session briefings, oversaw the logistics, and their neighbors and their fellow builders of a shared future. managed the assembly and production of the final report. Sharon We have all come to this quintessential American city for the Houtkamp, senior program officer, and interns Graham Webster and same reasons, to pursue happiness and prosperity as individuals and Nicole Summers provided key assistance in editing, fact-checking, families. We have come as descendants of American slaves, of the and research.
world's disenfranchised and its poor—once hyphenated Americans Finally, The Chicago Council extends its deepest gratitude to The all. Since its first settling by an African-French businessman and Chicago Community Trust, the lead sponsor of this project, and to the his Potawatomi wife, Chicago has always been a city of immigrants. Boeing Company, the Exelon Corporation, the McCormick Tribune Where we have come from—no easy road—informs our way forward Foundation, Anonymous, Mayer Brown Rowe & Maw LLP, Evans in good conscience.
Food Group, Clare Muñana, Ernest Mahaffey, MacNeal Hospital, Of the 1.6 million Latinos residing in the region, about 1.3 mil- and the Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum. The generosity of these lion, or 80 percent, are Mexicans, most of them Mexican immigrants donors and of all those who generally support The Chicago Council and their children. Already the largest ethnic group in the Chicago made this project and report possible. metropolitan area, in the next three decades the Mexican population Marshall M. Bouton
in the region is expected to more than double.
It is urgent to analyze the impact of this demographic trend on The Chicago Council on Global Affairs the city, both in terms of what Chicago and the suburbs can do to foster the integration of Mexicans and what Mexicans themselves can do to integrate. Continuing impediments to integration for all Mexicans are threats to Chicago's ability to remain prosperous and globally competitive. The members of this Mexican American Task Force call on met- ropolitan Chicago to help advance the social, civic, and commercial integration of these new immigrants. We propose not just specific recommendations for doing so but well-documented reasons for doing so. And we do so in an effort to keep the American dream alive, to build Chicago's prosperity, and to do the right thing.
We do so mindful that peoples are in movement across borders to big cities throughout the world, and that their isolation and margin-alization in adopted communities is increasingly resulting in social strife. In this global context, the Mexican American Task Force hopes to offer an alternative model of forming harmonious collaboration for the benefit of all. Douglas Doetsch, Clare Muñana, Alejandro Silva
Task Force Co-chairs
6 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 7 A Shared Future Terms and data Used in This report
Throughout Chicago's history, immigrants from all corners of the This report focuses on Mexican immigrants and their children, world have played critical roles in shaping its character and eco- who comprise almost 80 percent of Latinos in the Chicago met- nomic life. While it was mostly European immigrants who helped ropolitan area, but Mexican-specific data is not always available. transform Chicago from a trading post to an industrial city, Mexican When information refers to Latinos, it is for purposes of accu- immigrants and their children have become a part of Chicago's racy, but the reader should keep in mind that Mexicans are the regional economy and are helping to shape its future.
vast majority of Latinos in the region. In cases where charts are The Mexican population, at 1.3 million already the largest ethnic taken from published material that used the word Hispanic, that group in the Chicago metropolitan area, is expected to more than term has been kept. It is a synonym for Latino. double by 2030. Chicago's future workforce will be composed to a When the report uses the term "Mexican," it includes all those significant degree of the children of today's Mexican immigrants.
in the Mexican community and of Mexican descent, regardless of their country of birth or current citizenship, including Mexican It is urgent, therefore, that we enhance the economic potential this Americans. The term Mexican immigrant applies to any person young population offers the region by ensuring that they are prepared born in Mexico, whether a naturalized U.S. citizen, permanent to participate fully in Chicago's future as a global, knowledge-based resident, or undocumented. The terms Chicago region, metropolitan Chicago, Chicago area, or greater Chicago are interchangeable and refer to the six The Mexican American Task Force, comprised of 45 business and counties that comprise Chicago and its suburbs: Cook, DuPage, civic leaders from both the Mexican and non-Mexican communities, Kane, Lake, McHenry, and Will counties.
was formed to identify the challenges and opportunities of integra- The statistics in this report come from a variety of available tion affecting Mexican immigrants and their children in the Chicago sources. A detailed list of these sources can be found on page region, regardless of citizenship or country of birth, and to make rec- ommendations on how these might be addressed. The Task Force The data used was the most current at the time of the report's has focused on the issue most crucial both to the Mexican commu- development. New U.S. Census figures released in August 2006 nity and to the region's long-term growth and success—the economic estimate the total Latino population in the six-county area at integration of Mexican immigrants and their children. 1.65 million in 2005, up from 1.6 million in 2004.
Mexicans matter to the economy. • In the 1990s, as the total U.S. population grew by 13 percent, the national Mexican population rose by 53 percent, and the Chicago region's Mexican population increased by 83 percent. • By 2004, Mexicans accounted for 41 percent of all immigrants in Chicago and more than 16 percent of the region's population. More than half of them live in suburban communities, including the far reaches of the six-county metropolitan area.
The growth of the Mexican population has an impact on local and regional economies, education systems, governments, and public health institutions in ways that must be anticipated and addressed 8 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 9 A Shared Future Executive Summary by policymakers. And the Mexican community brings new assets for • Between 1990 and 2003, the growth in number of Latino work- the development of the region.
ers nearly equaled the total number of new jobs created in the region.
Successful integration of Mexican immigrants and their children into Chicago's economic and social spheres will require a partnership between • Between 2000 and 2003, Latinos accounted for nearly half of the Mexican and non-Mexican Chicagoans—a partnership vital to the re- total growth in owner-occupied homes in the region.
• Latinos are a young population with a median age of 26.2 and The integration of the Mexican community has some marked differ- are expected to increasingly fill labor gaps and contribute to the region's tax base.
ences from that of other immigrant groups who have come to this region in the past: • Mexico is Illinois' second-largest trading partner.
• Chicago has never before faced the task of incorporating such • Mexicans' bilingual and bicultural capabilities represent oppor- a large proportion of its population from a single foreign coun- tunities for business and cultural exchange with the $2.4 trillion try, all sharing a common language and culture, in such a short market of the world's 21 Spanish-speaking countries.
period of time.
Yet, the full integration of Mexican immigrants into the economic • The task of integrating large numbers of immigrants is com- and civic life of the region is hampered by many problems, such as a plicated by a postindustrial economy that demands increasing lack of English proficiency, adjustment to American cultural norms, levels of education and limits traditional avenues of immigrant limited connections to the wider community, and low levels of economic and social mobility.
• The pace of today's global economic change demands that This report focuses on ways that Chicago's civic leaders can bolster the Chicago take immediate action to ensure that its workforce has region's economic power by harnessing the full capacity of the Mexican the training necessary to compete in a knowledge-based econ- community. The report makes recommendations for ways in which omy, and build on the linguistic and cultural assets that many Mexicans and the wider community can partner at all levels of govern- immigrants possess.
ment, business, education, and civic life. Mexican immigrants are a highly motivated and entrepreneurial work- The Task Force believes that by adopting the recommendations in force already making an enormous contribution to the economy of the this report our region will expand opportunities for employment, entrepreneurship, and asset-building; provide quality education and health care; and increase political and civic participation for the benefit of the Mexican community and for all of greater Chicago's Consider these facts: Illinois and Chicago have been leaders in developing immi- • Mexicans are 80 percent of the Chicago Latino community.
grant-friendly policies and programs that enable immigrants to lead productive and stable lives, regardless of national legislation on • Nearly 10 percent of the region's total household income is immigration policy. Our recommendations build on this leadership. accounted for by the Latino community.
The Task Force recognizes that some of the new initiatives recom- mended will require greater resources and expenditures from public • Almost 15 percent of the Illinois labor force in 2004 was Latino.
sector budgets. But the Task Force strongly believes that investment 10 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 11 A Shared Future Executive Summary in the full integration of the Mexican community is an investment Economic Recommendation 1:
in the social and economic future of the city and region, and will be richly repaid in the years to come.
Widen and deepen employment opportunities for Mexicans in the
To achieve these goals, the Task Force makes the following rec- region by promoting job advancement and creating employment
ommendations, grouped into four areas. in new job sectors.
I. economic opportunity and asset development
• The Task Force urges business, labor unions, workforce devel- opment boards, community colleges, and community based-organizations to partner in providing customized training for Mexicans are buying homes, opening businesses, and sending funds Mexicans and other immigrants. This training would integrate back to family in Mexico. They fill labor gaps and contribute to robust on-site work skills training with English classes; develop new industries. But although some Mexicans have moved into the build- career pathways into areas of job growth such as health, edu- ing trades and into professions requiring a college education, the cation, transportation, and financial services; and assist in majority of workers are still concentrated in low-wage jobs. And job placement with targeted employers, industries, and trade while Mexican entrepreneurship is thriving, business owners will require access to capital, broader networking, and business manage-ment training to expand. • The Task Force urges state and professional accreditation orga- nizations to establish licensing and accreditation procedures Illinois' projected high-growth industries in health, education, trucking for international credentials that open opportunities for immi- and transportation, and skilled jobs in manufacturing present opportuni- grants to gain employment in their fields of expertise, without ties for Mexicans with bilingual capabilities, higher levels of education, compromising quality or safety. and improved technical skills. Economic Recommendation 2:
Many Mexicans, both U.S. and foreign-born, face obstacles to gain-ing better employment and financial prosperity, including cultural enhance economic growth in local communities in the city and
suburbs by supporting Mexican entrepreneurship.
differences and: • The Task Force urges local mayors to recruit and work with • low education levels and inadequate English skills Mexican business owners for revitalization of commercial dis-tricts and depressed residential areas, by informing them of • limited contacts beyond their circle of friends and family municipal business opportunities and resources and linking them to local business networks. • problems with validating degrees and other work credentials • The Task Force urges Mexican business owners to expand their networking and skill-building opportunities by participating • underutilization of banking and other financial services in local chambers of commerce, community development and labor organizations, and other entrepreneurial networks.
Mexicans will be able to contribute more fruitfully to Chicago's econ-omy as workers, business owners, and consumers if these obstacles • The Task Force urges Mexican entrepreneurs to partner with pri- vate investors, banks, and government agencies to expand their businesses through venture capital and shared equity. 12 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 13 A Shared Future Executive Summary Economic Recommendation 3:
Improving academic achievement among students from greater Chicago's Mexican community and building upon their bilingual assets will require promote financial literacy and asset development, including
more equitable funding of schools and investment in the people and pro- banking and home ownership, among Mexican households.
grams to make them work. • The Task Force urges financial institutions, employers, schools, Education Recommendation 1:
and community-based organizations to expand existing efforts to increase financial literacy through bilingual programs.
Understand the needs of the growing Mexican population in
suburban and city schools, and develop plans that increase the
• The Task Force urges financial institutions to continue accepting education assets available to support their academic achievement
alternative forms of identification, such as individual taxpayer and educational attainment.
identification numbers and the matricula consular, and to find other ways to overcome barriers posed by the USA PATRIOT Act. • The Task Force urges city and suburban school districts in the six- county area to review, improve, or replace their bilingual educa- • The Task Force urges city and suburban governments to preserve tion programs to ensure that students achieve fluency in reading and expand the number of affordable housing units to meet the and writing in English, and to expand dual-language programs needs of Mexican families.
that develop second-language capability for all students from kindergarten through high school. II. education of Tomorrow's Workforce
• The Task Force urges Chicago Public Schools, suburban school Like other immigrants before them, Mexicans come to Chicago in districts, and the Illinois State Board of Education to continue search of a better life for themselves and their families. They work to fund efforts to build and staff schools in neighborhoods with hard so that their children can obtain a good education, pursue suc- growing populations. cessful careers, and enjoy better lives than they did.
Education Recommendation 2:
As employment in the Chicago area continues shifting from manufactur- ing to service and technology, the increasing need for a highly trained, ed- expand the pool of trained and qualified bilingual and bicultural
ucated, multilingual workforce requires that the region offer high-quality teachers and administrators for early childhood education, and
education from preschool through college for all its residents, including elementary and high schools.
Mexicans. • The Task Force urges schools and university departments of Mexican immigrants come to the U.S. with low levels of education, education to partner with community-based organizations to and Mexican children have among the lowest levels of high school recruit and support local Mexican teacher and principal candi- and college completion of all ethnic and racial groups in the region. dates from traditional and nontraditional backgrounds. The Consortium of Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago reports that almost half of Latino students drop out of pub- • The Task Force urges departments of education in local col- lic high schools in Chicago, and those who do finish are less likely leges and universities and the Illinois State Board of Education than other high school graduates in Illinois and the country to attend to partner with Mexican educational institutions to implement college. Further, school districts with high percentages of low-income a teacher training and certification program enabling teachers and students of color are more likely to have teachers who are inex- from Mexico to work in Chicago and suburban school districts. perienced and have lower basic academic skills. 14 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 15 A Shared Future Executive Summary Education Recommendation 3:
development, and mentorship and internship activities for stu-dents, and to fund innovative academic and after-school pro- raise expectations for high academic achievement among
grams, low or no-interest loans, and scholarships at colleges and Mexican students, their parents, teachers, guidance counselors,
and principals, and provide resources to assist in meeting these
I I. civic engagement and political participation
• The Task Force urges Latino leaders, foundations, business lead- The Mexican community is engaged in important civic and leader- ers, and educators to support programs from middle school ship activities through churches, cultural institutions, Local School through high school that prepare Mexican students to complete Councils, and community groups such as Mexican hometown asso- college. Programs should focus on educating parents and stu- ciations. But achieving and maintaining their full economic integra- dents on the importance of a college education and provide tion requires that greater numbers of Mexican immigrants become assistance with navigating the college application process.
American citizens and voters. Obstacles to civic engagement and political participation by the • The Task Force urges Chicago Public Schools to partner with Mexican community include: business, foundations, and other philanthropic organizations to implement a longer school day and longer school year, allow- • high percentages of non-U.S. citizens among adults ing for more academically rigorous curriculum and enrichment programs, including sports and the arts, with priority given to • a large population under age 18 among the U.S.-born schools with high Mexican populations. • low voter registration Education Recommendation 4:
• limited English skills strengthen parent and community participation and leadership
in city and suburban schools to improve educational outcomes for
• racial discrimination and possible anti-immigrant sentiment Mexican students.
• political networks limited to their own ethnic group • The Task Force urges school districts to partner with Mexican and other Latino community organizations to develop a Latino Expanding access to community-based English classes and citizenship in- leadership school action network, beginning with members of struction, and increasing voter registration are central to enhancing civic Local School Councils and suburban school boards, to help cre- and political participation. Cultural institutions and the media play im- ate leaders in schools by training parents, teachers, administra- portant roles in promoting cross-cultural understanding. tors, and guidance counselors.
Civic and Political Recommendation 1:
• The Task Force urges Mexican hometown associations, Spanish- language media, and Mexican-owned businesses and commu- Foster participation of Mexicans and other Latinos in civic
nity-based organizations to strengthen the active participation leadership through collaboration among business and
of parents in the schools, and to support Mexican students from philanthropic communities, state and local governments, and
preschool to college.
• The Task Force urges local business leaders, including retirees, • The Task Force urges the Mexican community to partner with to partner with schools to provide expertise in organizational Chicago's business and professional communities and philan- 16 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 17 A Shared Future Executive Summary thropic institutions to build the capacity of organizations that the Metropolitan Mayors Caucus to prepare a similar proclama- work with immigrants, such as hometown associations.
tion to be passed by local municipalities, and to partner with Mexican and other immigrant leaders to implement an educa- • The Task Force urges Mexican and other Latino organizations to tion campaign for mayors on immigrants' rights and issues. establish relationships with corporate, civic, cultural, and com-munity organizations to encourage the participation of Mexican • The Task Force urges Spanish and English radio, television, and leaders on their boards, and urges Chicago's business and pro- print media to expand programming that educates and informs fessional leaders to examine the makeup of boards, and to make the Mexican community about issues such as financial literacy, an active effort to identify Mexican leaders to join them. voting, education, and jobs, and to produce programming that demonstrates ways in which Mexicans and other immigrants • The Task Force urges Mexican and other leaders to identify and contribute to life in metropolitan Chicago.
support Mexican candidates for Local School Councils, subur-ban school boards, and zoning and planning boards. IV. Health and social services
Civic and Political Recommendation 2:
Because they are a young population, Mexican immigrants and their children are also generally a healthy population. However, they have Increase political participation of the Mexican community by
unmet health needs that must be addressed: promoting citizenship, voter registration, and voting, as well as by
building coalitions.
Insurance: Mexicans are the ethnic group most likely to be uninsured or underinsured, leading to health problems that go • The Task Force urges civic Chicago to partner with the Mexican untreated and high medical bills that put a financial burden on community to promote youth participation in the political pro- the entire family. Poverty, language, cultural norms, racism, and cess by educating young people in schools, through government immigration status have been found to influence the quality and agencies, community programs, internships and mentorship effectiveness of health care that Mexicans and other immigrants opportunities, and involvement in political campaigns.
• The Task Force urges the Mexican community to partner with • Disease Prevention: Rising rates of obesity and diabetes among corporations, foundations, government agencies, and com- adults and children are of concern because of the serious long- munity-based immigrant organizations to increase programs term health problems they bring. Increased access to health edu- teaching English as a second language, citizenship classes, and cation, screenings, and other preventive care is critical for the naturalization and voter registration campaigns. Mexican community, especially for children and adolescents.
Civic and Political Recommendation 3:
Social Services: Social services provide necessary support for Mexican individuals and families. Yet, obtaining social services, promote knowledge and understanding of the Mexican
especially in suburbs unprepared for the influx of Mexicans and community through cultural institutions, media, community
other immigrants, is often difficult due to language and cultural initiatives, and adoption of policies that protect human and civil
barriers, and a lack of adequate resources. The full economic integration of the Mexican community will require that • The Task Force encourages Mayor Richard M. Daley to consider their basic health and human service needs are met, enabling parents to issuing a memorandum to all city departments reaffirming work and provide for their families, their children to succeed in school, Chicago's commitment to being a multicultural city, and urges and families to participate in all aspects of community life. 18 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 19 A Shared Future Executive Summary Health and Social Recommendation 1:
work with city and suburban social services organizations to increase availability of services in suburban communities with Increase access to affordable, accessible, culturally competent care
large or growing Mexican populations.
for the Mexican population in the chicago metropolitan region.
• The Task Force urges suburban mayors to partner with immi- • The Task Force urges state legislators to make public health grant and other community leaders to establish Community insurance and access to services available to all Illinois residents Welcoming Centers in suburbs that have growing Mexican and regardless of immigration status through programs such All Kids, other immigrant populations.
Family Care, and universal healthcare initiatives. a call to action
• The Task Force urges corporate, private, and hospital founda- tions to partner with high schools, local community colleges, As we have demonstrated throughout this report, the Mexican com- four-year colleges, and healthcare institutions to develop pro- munity plays a vital role in Chicago today and will do so even more in grams that recruit and train bicultural and bilingual health the future. While there has been a Mexican presence in the area since the late nineteenth century, the latest wave of Mexican immigrants has brought new challenges and rich opportunities to city neighbor- Health and Social Recommendation 2:
hoods and suburban communities. Building on their talents, skills, and economic potential will require vision and commitment from expand programs and resources that encourage disease prevention
our leaders, investment of resources, cross-cultural dialogue, col- and wellness in Mexican communities in the city and suburbs.
laboration across sectoral and political lines, and creativity from Chicagoans of all backgrounds. • The Task Force urges local and state departments of public health, research universities, and foundations to provide resources for City dwellers and suburbanites, lifelong residents and recent immigrants, programs that promote preventive care in the Mexican com- Mexicans and non-Mexicans alike, ours is a shared future. munity through schools, churches, community-based orga-nizations, community health promotion programs, and other As members of the Mexican American Task Force, we call upon civic, grassroots initiatives. business, and philanthropic leaders; Mexican community and busi-ness leaders; educators; state and local government officials and • The Task Force urges local and state departments of public health other policymakers; and all of greater Chicago to consider these find- and human services to partner with schools, community-based ings and implement these recommendations. We, the Task Force, organizations, media, and Mexican youth to implement pro- offer this report for the economic engagement of greater Chicago grams promoting nutrition, exercise, and other wellness efforts, and its Mexican community, in the spirit of a mutual responsibility and to establish more green space in Mexican communities.
for a global city providing opportunities for all. Health and Social Recommendation 3:
provide financial and professional expertise to create a stronger
social services infrastructure in the suburbs able to meet the needs
of the growing Mexican community.
• The Task Force urges regional organizations, such as the Metropolitan Mayors Caucus and the Suburban United Way, to 20 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 21 A Shared Future Task Force report
addressed by policymakers. They also present new assets to be inte-grated into the life of the region.
The integration of the Mexican community has some marked differ-ences from other immigrant groups who have come to this region in Strong hands, vibrant cultures, and creative minds have built Chicago, forging a great city of opportunity, a resilient metropolis able to take advantage of the economic, political, and social changes • Chicago has never before faced the task of incorporating such a that have come its way. Throughout its history, immigrants from all large proportion of its population from a single foreign country, corners of the world have played critical roles in shaping the charac- all sharing a common language and culture.
ter and economic life of the Chicago region. In 1870, Chicago boasted the highest proportion of immigrants • The task of integrating large numbers of immigrants is compli- of any North American city, with half of its residents born outside cated by the evolution of a postindustrial economy that demands the United States. Metropolitan Chicago continues to have one of increasing levels of education, credentials, and formal training— the largest immigrant populations in the nation, ranking seventh in factors that limit traditional avenues of immigrant economic and number of foreign-born residents. Like much of the United States, social mobility.
Chicago drew its immigrants first from Northern, then Southern and Eastern Europe, as Germans, Swedes, and Irish were followed by • Since Latinos are expected to comprise one-third of the region's Italians, Poles, and Bohemians, among others. population by 2030, and their median age is almost six years Most of these immigrants assimilated into what has been called younger than that of the general population, Chicago's future the "melting pot" of American culture within a generation or so, aided workforce will be composed to a significant degree of the chil- by jobs requiring little education, immigrant settlement houses, and dren of this population. ethnic churches and neighborhoods. These mostly European immi-grants helped to transform Chicago from a trading post to an indus- • The pace of change in today's economic competition demands that Chicago take immediate action to remain an economic In the postindustrial age, immigrants from Mexico and other leader by ensuring that its workforce has the training necessary Latin American countries and Asia have halted population declines, to perform the jobs required, and doing so in a way that builds altered the cultural landscape, and are contributing to economic upon the linguistic and cultural assets that many immigrants growth throughout greater Chicago. They play a vital role in Chicago's transformation into a first-tier global city. Today, with more ease of travel to native lands and greater recog- Successful integration of Mexican immigrants and their children into nition of the rich culture that immigrants have always brought with Chicago's economic and social spheres will require a partnership them, immigrants do not so much assimilate as take part in a two- between Mexican and non-Mexican Chicagoans. This partnership is way integration with their adopted country, adapting to its customs vital to the region's prosperity. and values while sharing their own traditions and enriching the lan-guage and culture of the United States. Mexicans have been in the region since the late nineteenth century when they came to work in the steel mills and railroads, and have become a part of Chicago's In the 1990s, as the total U.S. population grew by 13 percent, its multiethnic character. In the last 20 years, however, the increasing Mexican population rose by 53 percent, and the Chicago region's numbers of Mexicans in Chicago have had a great impact on the increase was even greater at 83 percent. The 1.3 million Mexicans in local and regional economies, education systems, governments, the Chicago area are by far the single largest ethnic group. By 2004, and public health institutions in ways that must be anticipated and Mexicans accounted for 41 percent of all immigrants living in the 22 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 23 A Shared Future region and comprised more than 16 percent of the region's popula- Mexican immigrants are a highly motivated and entrepreneurial tion (see figures 1 and 2). More than half of them live in suburban workforce already making an enormous contribution to the econ- communities, from towns adjacent to the city to the far reaches of omy of the region. Consider these facts: the six-county metropolitan area.
• Mexicans are 80 percent of the Latino community.
Fig. 1 Chicago Metropolitan* Region Foreign-Born Population, 2004 (Total: 1,504,514)
• Nearly 10 percent of the region's total household income is Other World Areas 3% accounted for by the Latino community.
• Almost 15 percent of the Illinois labor force in 2004 was Latino.
• Between 1990 and 2003, the growth in number of Latino work- ers nearly equaled the total number of new jobs created in the region.
• Between 2000 and 2003, Latinos accounted for nearly half of the total growth in owner-occupied homes in the region.
Other Latin America 8% • Latinos are a young population with a median age of 26.2 and are expected to increasingly fill labor gaps and contribute to the region's tax base.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2004 American Community Survey. Analyzed by the University of Notre Dame, Institute for Latino Studies.
* Includes Cook County, DuPage County, Kane County, Lake County, and Will County. • Mexicans' bilingual and bicultural capabilities represent oppor- tunity for business and cultural exchange with the world's 21 Spanish-speaking countries.
Fig. 2 Metropolitan Chicago Population by Race and Ethnicity, 2004 (Total: 8,185,028)
Mexican immigrants are an essential economic force in Chicago, but their full integration into the economic and civic life of the region is hampered by the traditional problems confronted by all immigrants, such as a lack of English proficiency, adjustment to American cultural All Other Hispanic norms, limited networks to the wider community, and low education. In addition, Mexican immigrants face discrimination not only because of their foreign status but because of the color of their skin, especially as some reports indicate that an anti-immigrant and pos- sibly anti-Mexican sentiment may be on the rise. The economic integration of Mexicans is made difficult as well by their concentra-tions in low-wage work and their lower rates of education as Chicago Black or African evolves into a technology- and knowledge-driven economy. Although no one knows for sure, best estimates are that about 25 percent of Mexican immigrants in Illinois are undocumented, Source: American Community Survey 2004, Timothy Ready and Allert Brown-Gort, "The State of Latino Chicago: This is Home Now," which restricts their opportunities to integrate and endangers their University of Notre Dame, Institute for Latino Studies, 2005. American-born children's chances to succeed.
24 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 25 A Shared Future The Chicago region has successfully overcome issues like these aggressively promote the economic integration of these new neigh- among previous waves of Mexican and other immigrants. Its lead- bors, hungry for advancement and eager for a better future for their ers can use this past as a guide to the future, studying what worked and what failed, using those successful approaches that still apply in Immigrant integration is a communitywide process of cross-cul- tural learning and sharing of resources. This report focuses on ways that Mexicans and the wider community can partner at all levels of seizing the Moment
government, business, education, and community to expand oppor-tunities for employment, entrepreneurship, and asset-building; pro- The difficulty facing us now is the speed with which integration must vide quality education and health care; and increase political and be achieved, especially for the children of immigrants. Fully 84 per- civic participation for the benefit of the Mexican community and for cent of Latino children are born in the United States. They will soon all of greater Chicago's residents.
be a significant proportion of Chicago's regional workforce and must In making recommendations for the economic integration of be adequately educated and prepared to compete in a global, knowl- Mexican immigrants and their children, the Task Force has looked edge-based economy. for successful existing programs that can be replicated or expanded Chicago and Illinois have been leaders in reforms of local immi- to reach a larger number of people. The Task Force recognizes that grant policies, such as the state's acceptance of the matricula con- some of the new initiatives recommended will require greater sular, an alternative form of identification issued by the Consulate resources and expenditure from public sector budgets, both city and General of Mexico. Other efforts are under way to tackle immigrant state, a difficult undertaking in this time of budgetary constraints. policies, through projects such as Illinois' New Americans Initiative, However, investment in the full integration of the Mexican commu- a public-private partnership to increase U.S. citizenship in Illinois. nity is an investment in the social and economic future of the city and region and will be richly repaid in the years to come.
The Mexican American Task Force has focused on the aspect of integra- tion of the region's largest immigrant group that is most crucial both to the immigrants' and to the region's long-term growth and prosperity, the economic engagement of Mexican immigrants and their children. This strategic focus has many facets, including education, civic and political engagement, and health care and social services, but all are linked to economics. Mexicans cannot contribute fully to Chicago's economic prosperity without sensible policies that enable them to lead stable, healthy, productive lives, and develop their human potential.
As Mexicans' incomes rise, many of the problems they now face will decline proportionately. The economics of education is a well-established, push-pull dynamic: As education levels rise, so do earning power, buying power, quality of life, and upward mobility. On the other hand, continued low education leads to unfulfilled lives, social disorder, and high public costs. The sooner we can develop this potential economic power, the sooner and greater will be the wealth creation for the society at large as well as for the Mexican community. The economics here are those of mutual benefit: It is in Chicago's enlightened self-interest to 26 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 27 A Shared Future Economic Opportunity and Asset Development II. economic opportunity and asset development
foreign-born Mexican men in the Chicago region earning from $6 to $12.49 per hour, the lowest wage category, than those in all other The economic integration of Mexican immigrants and their children wage categories combined, with less than 1 percent earning at the has already begun. From the recently arrived day laborer putting up highest rates of $35 or above (see figure 3). Similarly, median annual drywall in condo conversions to the young Chicago-born principal earnings of Latinos are approximately $21,500 compared to $36,600 opening a dual-language charter school to the suburban couple for white non-Latinos, according to a recent survey of the region. launching a new restaurant, Mexican immigrants and their children have become a part of Chicago's regional economy and are helping to shape its future. They work, shop, and invest every day in city Fig. 3 Chicago Metropolitan Area
neighborhoods as diverse as Bridgeport, Lincoln Park, and Little Foreign-Born Mexican Male, 2004: Median Wage Estimates
Village, as well as in suburban communities such as Blue Island, Oak Brook, and Round Lake.
Though it is generally acknowledged that immigrant popula- tions cause temporary dislocations in labor and housing markets, the main effect of increased population through immigration is to enlarge the size of the economy within U.S. borders. Mexican immi- gration has done just that, revitalizing many city and suburban neighborhoods in metropolitan Chicago and enabling the growth of thriving construction, restaurant, home maintenance, manufac- turing, and hospitality industries. And while more than a million Illinois residents have left the state in the past 20 years, their places have been taken by the million or more immigrants who have made Illinois their new home. In fact, some observers argue that it is the Mexican immigrants and other arrivals who have prevented the loss of congressional representation and population-based allocations of federal dollars. Today, because of their rapidly growing numbers, bilingual abili- ties, and close ties to their home country, Mexicans are playing an increasingly significant role in Chicago's bid for a top spot in the Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, as quoted in John P. Koval, "In Search of Economic Parity: The Mexican global economy—making the economic security and prosperity of Labor Force in Chicago," University of Notre Dame, Institute for Latino Studies, 2004, p.33.
Mexican immigrants and their families important not only for them, but for the entire region. Bilingual, bicultural Mexicans represent a potential link to the $2.4 trillion market of 21 countries in which Spanish is the primary language and where economic cooperation Many Mexicans, both U.S.- and foreign-born, face obstacles to with the United States is being pursued. Already, Mexico is Illinois' gaining better employment and financial prosperity, including low second largest trading partner. Illinois exported $2.8 billion in prod- education levels and inadequate English skills; limited contacts be- ucts to Mexico in 2005 with items ranging from machinery to chemi- yond their circle of friends and family; problems with validating de- cals to plastics.
grees and other work credentials earned in Mexico; underutilization Mexicans are a vibrant and promising economic force in Chicago, of banking and other financial services; and cultural differences. For but the majority of workers are concentrated in low-wage, low-skilled undocumented immigrants, the obstacles are even greater. Removing jobs while employment growth is in high-wage, high-skilled indus- these obstacles will enable Mexicans to contribute more fruitfully to tries. In 2000, median wage estimates showed that there were more Chicago's economy as workers, business owners, and consumers. 28 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 29 A Shared Future Economic Opportunity and Asset Development This chapter reviews the economic participation of Mexicans in metropolitan Chicago, and presents recommendations for expand- Fig. 4 Median Earnings by Race and Ethnicity in Metroplitan Chicago, 2003
ing economic opportunities through better jobs, entrepreneurship, and asset-building strategies. Findings and recommendations
Mexicans are buying homes, opening businesses, and sending funds back to family in Mexico, but they need to close the gap in earnings and Annual Salary 15,000 household income to provide expanded economic opportunities for their Between 1990 and 2000, median household income for Latinos increased more rapidly in metropolitan Chicago than in other parts of the country, rising from $30,200 to more than $44,300. And by 2003, nearly one-third of Latino households had an income of $60,000 or more and 20 percent earned $75,000 or more. These fig- ures show tremendous progress and reflect the robust economy of Source: 2003 American Community Survey quoted in Timothy Ready and Allert Brown-Gort, "The State of Latino Chicago: This is Home Now," University of Notre Dame, Institute for Latino Studies 2005.
With $20 billion in combined household income, Latinos in met- ropolitan Chicago have significant buying power. Businesses and Numbers are even more impressive for the greater Chicago's marketing firms recognize this, targeting Latinos with advertising Mexican population alone. Between 1990 and 2000, home ownership for products ranging from mortgages to cars to soft drinks and cell rates rose for U.S.-born Mexicans from 52.4 percent to 57.5 percent phones in both the Spanish language and mainstream media.
and rose even more dramatically for Mexican immigrants, jumping Yet, $20 billion is nearly 10 percent of the region's total house- from 43.1 percent to 55.2 percent. Mexicans and other Latinos are hold income, while Latinos are 20 percent of the population. This now a desirable client in the mortgage industry, as evidenced by local discrepancy can be accounted for primarily by the concentration banks' increasing emphasis on the Latino consumer. But higher pay- of Mexicans in mostly low-wage jobs. On average, Latino workers ing jobs, increased access to mortgages, and more affordable hous- earned just 60 percent of what non-Latino white workers earned in ing are needed to enable more Mexican immigrants to own their own metropolitan Chicago in 2003 (see figure 4). Closing the gap depends on Mexican workers being able to obtain the skills and education to enlarge the field of jobs available to them. Labor Force participation
A similar pattern is evident in home ownership rates. Home ownership rates for Latinos are just above 50 percent, consider- Mexicans fill labor gaps and contribute to robust industries, but they are ably under the 79 percent rate for whites in metropolitan Chicago. concentrated in low-wage jobs. Between 2000 and 2003, however, Latinos accounted for 46 percent of the increase in owner-occupied housing in greater Chicago, a sig- To successfully expand their job opportunities, Mexicans need to nificant figure given that Latinos are just under 20 percent of the become a skilled, well-trained workforce able to advance in existing region's population. jobs and break into new fields that require new knowledge, abilities, 30 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 31 A Shared Future Economic Opportunity and Asset Development and credentials. Finding practical and effective ways of connecting workers to employers will require collaboration between the Mexican Fig. 6 Top Four Industrial Concentrations of Metropolitan Chicago
and non-Mexican communities.
Native-Born and Foreign-Born Mexican Men and Women
In 2004, almost 15 percent of the Illinois labor force was Latino. "The State of Latino Chicago," from the University of Notre Dame's Foreign-Born Men Manufacturing
Native-Born Men Manufacturing
Institute for Latino Studies, reports that from 1990 to 2003, the growth in Latino workers, with Mexicans the vast majority, was 295,000, almost the same as the number of new jobs created in the region. The most recent data available for the Mexican labor force in the region shows that the number of Mexican workers tripled between 1980 and 2000 (see figure 5). Although the Latino labor force has grown, across the country the group remains concentrated in nonprofessional (10%)Construction (13%) service occupations—occupations that rank low in earnings, educa- tion requirements, and socioeconomic status, according to the Pew Construction (13%) Hispanic Center. This is also the case for Mexicans in Chicago. Fig. 5 Chicago Area Growth of Ethnic Labor Force, Selected Groups,1980 and 2000
Retail Trade (10%) Manufacturing (12%) Retail Trade (10%) Manufacturing (12%) Retail Trade (16%) Number of Workers 200,000 173,090 *Management, as designated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and Retail Trade (16%) the Census Bureau, is a very broad category, ranging from Fortune 500 CEOs to managers of one or two employees in an effectively blue-collar environment. In the case of Mexican immigrants as manag- ers we are talking about small business owners in the main, many of whom are providing a service to coethnics in the Mexican **Finance, insurance, real estate.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census, 1% PUMS. Provided by John P. Koval, PhD, DePaul University.
Mexicans have tended to work in specific "occupational niches," men primarily in manufacturing, food service, construction, and Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census, 1% Public Use Micro-Sample (PUMS) quoted in John P. Koval, "In Search of Economic home maintenance, and Mexican women in light manufactur- Parity: The Mexican Labor Force in Chicago." University of Notre Dame, Institute for Latino Studies, 2004. P.8.
ing, hospitality, food service, and retail. In fact, half of all immi-grant Mexican men in the labor force in metropolitan Chicago are For example, foreign-born Mexican men and women are more employed in only 13 different job categories and half of immigrant likely to be in manufacturing than their U.S.-born counterparts, and Mexican women are in 11 different job categories, compared to 38 U.S.-born Mexican women are the only workers with significant rep- for white men and 24 for white women.
resentation in education, health care, social services, financial ser-vices, and real estate (see figure 6). 32 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 33 A Shared Future Economic Opportunity and Asset Development Mexicans have moved into building trades, but are concentrated in lower icant impact to business and to the ability of the United States to paying jobs. compete in a global economy." These include shortages in frontline workers such as machinists, operators, craft workers, distributors, There is a similar dynamic taking place in the building trades. While and technicians as well as engineers and scientists. This sector has Mexicans and other Latinos in Chicago are entering the trades in room for both upward mobility and new employment for Mexican increasing numbers, they are concentrated in the lower-skilled, workers, but will require innovative partnerships with adult educa- lower-paying trades. A report for the City Colleges of Chicago says tion and job training organizations. that from 2001 to 2005, Latinos became 86 percent of union drywall finishers, and 36 percent of cement masons, roofers, and bricklayers, Fostering Upward Mobility in Manufacturing Jobs
but represented less than 20 percent of those in higher paying union jobs, such as carpentry, plumbing, and electrical work. The manufacturing sector in metropolitan Chicago continues to be crucial to the While in some Chicago-area unions there are many Mexican regional economy. To stay competitive, manufacturers must attract and retain highly members, there are other unions where Mexicans are underrep- skilled workers. resented. Given the increase in the area's Mexican population, the Instituto del Progreso Latino has led the way in moving Mexicans into higher skilled, inherent opportunity to grow the Illinois labor movement that this higher paying manufacturing jobs. During the past 12 years, in partnership with the City presents, and organized labor's ability to improve wages, benefits, Colleges of Chicago, Instituto has developed a nationally recognized Manufacturing and working conditions for Mexican workers, both groups would Technology Bridge program to assist English-language learners in developing the benefit from expanding their existing contact to foster their respec- competence and technical capacity to compete for higher skilled jobs. Instituto provides students with a strong foundation in computer skills, math, reading, writing, and tive development. blueprint reading and "bridges" students into the City Colleges of Chicago's technical training in machining, industrial maintenance, or computer numerical controls.
Manufacturing presents opportunities for Mexican workers if they im- In July 2005, Chicago's Mayor's Office for Workforce Development chose Instituto prove their language and technical skills. to lead a city-wide effort, "Manufacturing Works: Chicago's Workforce Center for Manufacturing." This initiative is dedicated to closing the gap between manufacturers The number one sector for employment of Mexican immigrants in who need workers and workers who need jobs. Beyond filling job openings with qualified the region is manufacturing. This is not the case in any other U.S. city workers, Manufacturing Works identifies job openings that remain unfilled due to a lack with a large Mexican population. Despite the decline in manufactur- of qualified workers and encourages the public workforce system and private training ing jobs regionally and worldwide, Chicago is still the manufacturing institutions to create a pipeline of skilled workers. capital of the United States, presenting an opportunity for Mexicans to build the technical, language, and other skills needed to advance High-growth industries present opportunities for Mexicans with bilin- within this sector.
gual skills. The manufacturing sector is crucial to the regional economy. The Workforce Board of Metropolitan Chicago reports that the The State of Illinois Industry Employment Projections for 2002 to manufacturing sector contributes $0.48 in purchases within the state 2012 show that Latinos are concentrated in only one of the top six for every dollar spent on manufacturing output, putting $34 billion projected growth industries—accommodation and food services— back into the Illinois economy. And for every manufacturing job and many are at the low-wage end of these jobs, painting a bleak pic- created in Illinois, another 2.7 jobs are created in other sectors, which ture for future employment in better paying occupations unless in 2000 equaled 1.4 million jobs that relied on the manufacturing serious investments are made in education and training. Among the top six growth industries in Illinois, there are a variety To remain competitive, manufacturers need highly skilled work- of jobs in education, health, and social services where bilingual and ers. A 2005 Skills Gap report by Deloitte Consulting found that "the bicultural skills are an asset (see figure 7). Mexican immigrants with vast majority of American manufacturers are experiencing a serious credentials from Mexico can work in these occupations by validat- shortage of qualified employees, which in turn is causing a signif- ing their credentials and updating their training to practice here, and 34 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 35 A Shared Future Economic Opportunity and Asset Development do not speak English to job training or education. Further, many Fig. 7 State of Illinois Industry Employment Projections: 2002-2012
training and educational opportunities are restricted to legal perma- Largest Growth Industries
Number of New Jobs
nent residents.
A tightly integrated model of job training, English instruction, Health Care and Social Assistance and basic skills enhancement has been well documented by the U.S. Administrative and Waste Management Services Department of Labor as effective with populations like the Mexican Professional, Scientific and Technical Services immigrant population, yet very few training organizations use the model. Accommodation and Food Services* Educational Services The number of Mexican professionals is growing, but is still small com- pared to the general population. *Industries with high Latino concentrations.
Source: Illinois Department of Employment Security, Economic Information & Analysis Division. Analyzed by the University of Notre In Chicago, the growing number of Latino professional associations Dame, Institute for Latino Studies.
and business networks, such as the Hispanic Bankers Association, National Society of Hispanic MBAs, the Chicago Latino Network, young Mexican Americans can be guided into these careers while Hispanic Lawyers Association of Illinois, the Hispanic Alliance for they are still in school.
Career Enhancement (HACE), and the Illinois Hispanic Chamber of Low educational attainment, limited English, underdeveloped job skills, and undocumented immigration status hold Mexican immigrants back. A Career Pipeline for Latino Professionals
"The Latino Good Jobs Challenge," a survey analysis by the Institute Founded in Chicago in 1982, the Hispanic Alliance for Career Enhancement (HACE) is for Latino Studies, found that Latino workers who do not speak a national nonprofit organization dedicated to helping increase the numbers of Latino English well or are undocumented are likely to experience "lower professionals and leaders through leadership and career development, beginning in high school and through college and on to the professional years. HACE works with pay, fewer benefits, shorter terms of employment, and less employer leading corporations, the government, and other institutional employers to develop a investment in training." They are also more isolated from informa- career pipeline for Latino students and professionals. tion about good jobs, with a greater chance that they will be unem- The organization offers comprehensive year-round conferences, monthly open houses ployed or working in temporary or day labor positions.
that provide access to executives at blue-chip American companies, career development This poses several challenges for Mexican immigrants, espe- workshops, training, mentoring, scholarships, and networking opportunities for Latino cially the undocumented. In addition to having fewer job opportu- professionals at a regional and national level. HACE currently works with over 25,000 nities, immigrant workers are paid less and are at far greater risk of Latino professionals through its operations in five major regions of the country: Chicago, being killed or injured on the job than native-born workers. If they New York, Miami, Houston, and Southern California. And HACE has programming at over 25 of the leading universities in the country, where their systematic and methodical series are hurt on the job, foreign-born workers are less likely to get appro- of programs builds Latino leaders and communicators with a strong career orientation priate health care because they lack health insurance and are often and high academic achievement. All HACE services are free to Latinos. From its early unaware of available health services, according to the U.S. Bureau of years when HACE worked with approximately 500 Latinos per year, the organization has Labor Statistics. expanded to serve an estimated 12,000 individuals, providing thousands of Latinos with Task Force members report that there are fewer English and job professional opportunities at leading employers.
training classes available for Mexicans immigrants than are needed HACE's mission is to incubate and nurture Latinos so that the community generates in the area, as evidenced by long waiting lists at community organi- an increasing number of Latino professionals in all employment sectors and these individuals take increasing leadership and civic roles in their workplace and the zations and colleges that provide these services. Studies have found community. HACE aims to develop more Latino professionals in the U.S. and is committed that immigrants seeking assistance at job centers often receive inap- to ensuring that the image of Latinos reflects the great contributions they make.
propriate assessments and that staff are reluctant to refer adults who 36 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 37 A Shared Future Economic Opportunity and Asset Development Commerce, attest to the rise in Mexican professionals in the area. These groups promote networking and mentoring and have become Fig. 8 Metropolitan Chicago Latino and Non-Latino Labor Force
a reliable source of highly qualified Latino professionals for recruit- for Selected Occupations, 2000
ers, marketers, and political candidates. Many Mexican profession-als also participate in non-Latino professional organizations and clubs, which provide them with valuable opportunities for building Administrative Support Workers relationships with non-Latinos in their professions.
Who are these Latino professionals? While figures are not avail- Science, Engineering and able for the Chicago area, a 2006 national survey conducted by the Computer Professionals Chicago-based HACE found that more than 86 percent of the Latino professionals who responded are U.S. citizens, almost all speak English fluently, and 89 percent are fully bilingual or have some Service Workers, except Protective Spanish speaking and writing skills. Practically all have completed some college and 80 percent have obtained a bachelor's degree or more. Respondents to the survey work in a broad range of profes- Production Operative Workers sions ranging from Fortune 1000 and privately held companies to nonprofit organizations. Yet, Latinos are still greatly underrepre-sented in professional fields, making up only 1.6 percent of science, Management, Business and Financial Workers engineering, and computer professionals in metropolitan Chicago, for example (see figure 8). Difficulty with validation of international education and work credentials limits opportunity for Mexican professionals to pursue their careers. Source: 2000 Special EEO Tabulation File, U.S. Census Bureau quoted in Illinois Department of Employment Security "Workforce Availability Information, 2004." Analyzed by the University of Notre Dame, Institute for Latino Studies.
Each year, Mexican-trained teachers, nurses, lawyers, accountants, and other professionals come to Chicago with skills and expertise that could benefit the economic development of the region. But they Caribbean, more than three-fourths ended up in lower-skilled jobs cannot work in their fields because their credentials are not recog- than they had abroad. nized and they are not licensed by local accrediting bodies. The fail- Currently, foreign-trained workers largely bear the burden of ure to recognize credentials and training that immigrants bring to obtaining third-party validation of their credentials by organizations the region results in significant underutilization of human capital.
such as World Education Services, but there is no guarantee that the A report on "Integrating Immigrants in the Workplace," by the credentials will be accepted by a prospective employer. In addition, Institute for Work and the Economy at Northern Illinois University, each state has separate laws and regulations governing entry into reports that the United States lacks a formal system for recognizing a broad range of licensed professions. Although Illinois has begun the credentials of foreign-educated workers. Although statistics are to address this issue through an initiative aimed at encouraging difficult to obtain, a Canadian study showed that individuals stand employment of foreign-educated nurses, the subject has received to gain from $8,000 to $12,000 Canadian annually if their previous little focused attention in the United States. learning were "recognized, credentialed, and accepted." An article in The Institute for Work and Economy has just begun a study International Migration Review said that in the first year after becom- to establish the scope of the problem, and plans to examine state ing legal permanent residents, 50 percent of immigrants entered regulatory barriers and other structural issues in seven Midwestern lower skilled jobs than the jobs they left in their country of origin. states, including Illinois.
Among the highest skilled immigrants from Latin America and the 38 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 39 A Shared Future Economic Opportunity and Asset Development Economic Recommendation 1:
Carreras En Salud: Closing the Skills Gap in Health Care
Widen and deepen employment opportunities for Mexicans in the
region by promoting job advancement and creating employment
The need for bilingual healthcare professionals is acute in metropolitan Chicago. Latinos comprise less than 2 percent of all licensed practical nurses (LPN) and registered nurses. in new job sectors.
While many Latinos work as certified nurses' assistants (CNA), very few complete LPN programs largely due to limited language and math skills.
Action Items: The Carreras en Salud (Careers in Health) program is a partnership between Instituto del Progreso Latino and Wright College's Humboldt Park Vocational Educational Center. • The Task Force urges business, local workforce development The program, available to Spanish-speaking job seekers and healthcare workers, boards, community colleges, and community-based organiza- addresses the skills development gaps for Latinos and the healthcare industry's demand tions to partner in providing customized training for Mexicans for bilingual healthcare professionals. Employer partners include Mercy Hospital and Medical Center, Erie Family Health Center, the Metropolitan Chicago Healthcare Council, and other immigrants that integrates on-site, hands-on work and the Hispanic Nurses Association.
skills training with English classes; to develop new career path- The program offers English classes and a 16-week preparation course in language ways into areas of job growth such as health, education, trans- and math for the medical field that prepares students for admission to Wright's LPN portation, and financial services; and to assist in job placement program. For the last five years, Wright College has been ranked the number one LPN with targeted employers, industries, and trade unions.
program in Illinois with a 100 percent pass rate on the licensure exam, and a waiting list of 500 students for the rigorous program. In three years, a student can advance from • The Task Force urges Latino professional organizations to part- a sixth-grade English capability to become a licensed practical nurse earning $18 to ner with retired professionals and other leaders in the corporate, $24 an hour.
Since its launch in the spring of 2005, the partnership has enrolled more than 200 government, medical, and legal professions to create networking students who are at various points in preparing for demanding health careers, and has and mentoring opportunities that foster advancement of Mexican achieved greater than 85 percent retention and advancement of students.
professionals into upper management positions and boards. • The Task Force urges state and professional accreditation orga- nizations to establish licensing and accreditation procedures for international credentials that open opportunities for immigrants Mexican entrepreneurship is thriving, but will require access to capital, to gain employment in their field of expertise, without compro- broader networking, and business management training to grow. mising quality or safety. Despite the massive structural changes in the economy over the past • The Task Force urges organized labor, led by the Illinois AFL- 35 years, as the gap between education of the native-born and the CIO through its regional organizations, to partner with Mexican majority of immigrants has grown, entrepreneurship has provided community leaders, colleges and universities, and potential an avenue through which immigrants can prosper. employers to create regular forums for dialogue on training and In Chicago and the suburbs, entrepreneurship is at the heart of employment, increase access to meaningful job training, and thriving Mexican communities. Twenty-sixth Street in Chicago's Little increase opportunities for entry of Mexican workers into the Village neighborhood is visited by Latinos from across the Midwest building trades and related areas.
for a diverse array of Mexican products ranging from handsewn wed-ding and christening gowns to tamales and herbal medicines. This • The Task Force urges employers, workforce development boards, strip is among the highest-grossing commercial districts in the city. and other publicly funded job placement organizations to Similar successful commercial areas with Mexican grocers, restau- actively work with Mexican hometown associations and immi- rants, insurance agents, beauty shops, paleterías, cell phone shops, grant service organizations to post job announcements and and bakeries have sprung up in suburbs with large Mexican popula- other employment opportunities.
tions, such as Aurora, Cicero, and Stone Park. 40 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 41 A Shared Future Economic Opportunity and Asset Development In 2002, sales from Latino-owned businesses in Illinois totaled Mexican business owners face obstacles to growth due to limited knowl- $7.4 billion, an impressive jump from $4.8 billion in 1997 (see fig- edge of business systems, limited networking, low English skills, and lack ure 9). Ninety percent of these almost 40,000 Latino-owned, mostly of capital. Mexican businesses in Illinois were in the six-county Chicago area. This is a 28 percent increase since 1997 and evidence of the entrepre- Though entrepreneurship is thriving in the Mexican community, few neurial spirit of the Mexican community. Almost 33,000 of these busi- business owners participate in entrepreneurial networks or have nesses are family operated and one of a kind with no paid employees, access to non-Mexican business leaders. Many Mexican entrepre- but they generate almost $1 billion in sales. neurs are limited by a lack of English skills and limited knowledge of Studies on ethnic entrepreneurship suggest that immigrants, business systems in Chicago. risk-takers who have chosen to leave their homes for a better life, Further, many small- to medium-sized Mexican-owned busi- bring the appropriate attitude to start a business, which may partly nesses cannot expand because they are unable take on more debt, explain the robust numbers of Mexican entrepreneurs. A known fac- do not have access to venture capital or other private equity, or are tor in the success of entrepreneurs is their participation in entre- wary of sharing equity with private investors. In some cases, access preneurial networks, such as chambers of commerce and trade to capital is also limited by poor financial recordkeeping. Like many associations. Entrepreneurial networks give business owners a vehi- businesses that are family owned and operated, they are reluctant cle for collectively voicing their needs, identify a supportive commu- to hire staff from outside the family, limiting their management nity for them, and benefit society at large by nurturing civic leaders. The networks also help to promote new business and strengthen existing businesses, which in turn creates new jobs and wealth in a community. Blue Island, Illinois: Diversity Aids Revitalization
Blue Island, Illinois, has always been a diverse community, but this diversity is more relevant today than ever before. An old railroad and industrial town that borders Fig. 9 Receipts of Hispanic-Owned Businesses-Illinois 1997 and 2002 (in billions)
Chicago, Blue Island was dominated in the early twentieth century by German and Irish immigrants. Today, however, more than half of the 23,500 people in Blue Island are In the last few decades, Blue Island suffered a significant loss in jobs, partly because a vast majority of its industrial plants closed, and the number of local businesses declined due to the development of shopping malls in nearby towns. Under the leadership of Mayor Don Peloquin, a community-led economic development plan has been proposed that aims to revitalize Blue Island and make it a model community for the future. Blue Island has tried to break down traditional barriers of language and culture by reaching out to the Latino community at the local level, such as appointing Latinos to local planning, zoning, library, and civil service boards. To maximize the number of city residents employed in Blue Island businesses, a new service will be created to establish partnerships with high schools and community colleges with referral agencies to link employers with qualified residents looking for jobs. When completed, an intracity public transportation system and new bicycle paths will offer residents cost-effective choices in commuting. Senior citizens of all ethnic backgrounds tutor young children, giving the seniors new purpose and the children new relationships with the older generations. The mayor has found that the work ethic and family values Latinos bring to Blue Source: 2002 Survey of Business Owners, 1997 Survey of Minority-Owned Business Enterprises. Analyzed by the University of Notre Dame, Institute for Latino Studies. Island are the building blocks of a diverse community with a vibrant citizenry.
42 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 43 A Shared Future Economic Opportunity and Asset Development Economic Recommendation 2:
Students Are Bankers at Curie High School
enhance economic growth in local communities in the city and
suburbs by supporting Mexican entrepreneurship.
In an effort to provide students with work-oriented, hands-on experience at the high school level, Curie Metropolitan High School on Chicago's Southwest side participates in the "Education-to-Careers" program of the Chicago Public Schools, serving Action Items: approximately 3,100 students, of whom more than 50 percent are Latino. Curie is a Chicago Public School Career Academy that connects students with educators and • The Task Force urges local mayors to recruit and work with other professionals as they prepare for their lives after high school.
Mexican business owners for revitalization of commercial dis- As part of its program, in January 2005, the academy opened a full-service branch tricts and depressed residential areas by informing them of of Park Federal Savings Bank at the school, the only student-operated bank in the municipal business opportunities and resources and linking school district. Students not only learn about opening checking and savings accounts, but also have access to affordable mainstream financial products such as IRAs, CDs, them to local business networks. mortgage loans, and other loans. These student bankers then share their financial knowledge and skills with classmates, family, and friends. • The Task Force urges Mexican business owners to expand their Curie High School promotes a culture of success. Student attendance in 2005 was at networking and skill-building opportunities by participating 90 percent, and almost half of 11th graders met or exceeded standards on the Prairie in local chambers of commerce, community development and State Achievement Exam in reading. Curie High School is committed to ensuring that all labor organizations, and other entrepreneurial networks, and students graduate prepared to meet the challenges and civic responsibilities of urges these organizations to reach out to the Mexican busi- participation in society. ness community using bilingual materials and other targeted approaches.
There are marked differences in the use of banking services between immigrants and the U.S.-born population. While 76 percent of U.S.- • The Task Force urges Mexican entrepreneurs to partner with pri- born households nationally have checking accounts, only 63 percent vate investors, banks, and government agencies to expand their of immigrant households have them. Twenty-seven percent of the businesses through venture capital and shared equity. U.S.-born own stock outside of retirement accounts, and only 13 percent of the foreign-born do. This is evident in immigrant reliance on the remittance and check-cashing business. Immigrants without bank accounts use A lack of financial literacy, poor experience with banks in their home currency exchanges and money-wiring businesses to cash checks countries, and identification requirements hinder the ability of Mexican and send money home. In check-cashing fees alone, immigrants pay and other immigrants to use mainstream financial institutions and to a total of about $2 billion each year in the U.S. In 2004, Mexicans save, invest, and build assets. throughout the United States sent $20 billion in remittances to their families in Mexico, with Chicago accounting for $450 million of this Having financial access is fundamentally linked to economic pros- amount. Estimates show that cutting fees for remittances and check perity, according to a 2006 report by the Federal Reserve Bank of cashing in half could result in a savings of $155 per immigrant family Chicago and the Brookings Institution. The report defines financial access as "knowing what one's financial options are and having prod- Though banks have been hesitant in the past to open branches ucts and services to choose." Researchers found that while immi- in low-income or minority communities, this has changed signifi- grants are becoming more knowledgeable about financial services, cantly in recent years. Task Force members report a surge in the their opportunities for learning such things as how to open a bank number of bank branches, many staffed by bilingual personnel, account, purchase insurance, save for retirement, obtain a mortgage, opening in Latino neighborhoods in the city and suburbs. Banks are or invest in the stock market are still limited, especially for those who also creating new products for immigrants, especially in the area of do not speak English. 44 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 45 A Shared Future Economic Opportunity and Asset Development remittances, including debit cards and in-house wire transfers, mak- Economic Recommendation 3:
ing it easier and less expensive to send money to family back home. Despite these efforts, many immigrants remain "unbanked." promote financial literacy and asset development, including
An analysis by the Institute for Latino Studies found that undoc- banking and home ownership, among Mexican households.
umented status is one of the main barriers in the Chicago area to immigrant use of financial institutions, accessing credit, and pur- Action Items: chasing a home or car.
Chicago banks are leaders nationally in reducing this barrier by • The Task Force urges financial institutions, employers, schools, accepting the matricula consular—an identification card issued by and community-based organizations to expand existing efforts Mexican consulates—as an alternative form of identification, using to increase financial literacy through bilingual programs tar- individual taxpayer identification numbers (ITIN) instead of social security numbers, and in looking beyond traditional credit reports to assess financial responsibility. Some banks have begun to consider • The Task Force urges Spanish-language media to partner with payment history for utilities, cell phones, cars, and local store credit the Illinois Bankers Association to conduct a public education purchases when reviewing loans and mortgages. campaign targeted to increasing the use of financial institutions Unfortunately, these innovative strategies have been significantly limited by the USA PATRIOT (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct • The Task Force urges financial institutions to continue accepting Terrorism) Act passed after September 11, 2001, and in effect since alternative forms of identification such as individual taxpayer October 2003. It includes regulations that require financial institu- identification numbers and the matricula consular, and to find tions to keep clients' identification information such as passport other ways to overcome barriers posed by the USA PATRIOT numbers, alien identification card numbers, and birth dates, and to report any suspicious transactions to the authorities. This demand for more forms of identification has resulted in new barriers to open- • The Task Force urges banks, credit unions, and other main- ing bank accounts, obtaining a mortgage, or securing small business stream financial institutions to lower the cost of sending remit- loans for immigrants, especially for those who are undocumented.
tances and check-cashing fees, and use these services to attract Finally, even if they are permanent residents or citizens, Mexican new account holders. immigrants cannot buy homes if affordable housing is not available. A report, "Homes for a Changing Region," published by Chicago • The Task Force urges city and suburban governments to preserve Metropolis 2020 and the Metropolitan Mayors Caucus in 2005, indi- and expand the number of affordable housing units to meet the cates that there is a severe mismatch between the type of housing needs of Mexican families, developers to build more small-lot, developers are building and the type of housing Mexican families single-family homes, and federal and state legislators to increase need. This report indicates that the region will need about 185,000 the amount of low-income housing tax credits available for devel- new single-family, small-lot units, townhouses, and apartments. But opers, especially in areas of rapid Mexican population growth. current projections are that developers will only build about 24,000 such units, and will build excessive numbers of expensive large-lot • The Task Force urges community-based organizations serving the Mexican community to partner with banks and foundations to offer Individual Development Account programs that enable Mexicans to save for a home, car, business, education, retire-ment, and other investments.
46 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 47 A Shared Future Education of Tomorrow's Workforce I I. education of Tomorrow's Workforce
Fig. 10 Percent Change of Latino School-Age Children in Metropolitan Chicago,
1990 to 2004
Like other immigrants before them, Mexicans come to Chicago in search of a better life for themselves and their families. They work hard so that their children can obtain a good education, pursue suc-cessful careers, and enjoy better lives than they did. Education has led the way out of poverty and tough, physical work for many first- and second-generation immigrants—it is an essential part of the American dream. For many children of Mexican descent, however, a solid education that prepares them for a successful future seems out of reach. Yet as employment in the Chicago area continues shifting from manufacturing to service and technology, the increasing need for a highly trained, educated, multilingual workforce requires that the region offer high quality education from preschool through college for all its residents. Chicago needs to assure that the education of all its residents is sufficient to enable them to compete in the global marketplace. This long-term investment in human capital will pay off for everyone, but is of particular importance to greater Chicago's Mexican community.
Latino children under 18, primarily U.S.-born Mexicans, make Sources: 1990 U.S. Census Bureau, STF-1 Table QT-P1E. 2004 American Community Survey, Tables B01001 and B01001I.
up 35 percent of the total Latino population in the Chicago region. Analyzed by University of Notre Dame, Institute for Latino Studies. Between 1990 and 2004, their numbers grew by more than 80 per-cent, with every county except Cook experiencing more than 150 hinder the economic health of the Chicago metropolitan region. The percent growth (see figure 10). Task Force recognizes that improving the academic achievement These children will soon be needed as the front-line workers, and educational attainment of the Mexican community will require managers, inventors, problem-solvers, communicators, and deci- broad changes in Illinois' school programs, culture, and funding sys- sion makers who make our city work. Yet Mexicans and other Latinos tem, as well as interventions that specifically address Mexican stu- are disproportionately unprepared for jobs that require higher edu- dents' needs. This chapter explores the educational challenges and cation. In metropolitan Chicago, only about 30 percent of Latinos 25 opportunities faced by Mexican immigrants and their children, and and older have some college or a degree, compared to 68 percent of proposes key recommendations to help improve their education whites and 50 percent of blacks. and enable them to play a vital role in strengthening our regional To Mexicans, like many other immigrants, the school is not only a place to which they entrust the education of their children, but a port of entry to life in their new community. Unfortunately, the major-ity of Mexicans in the Chicago area live in low-income communities Findings and recommendations
with overcrowded, underfunded schools often staffed by less quali-fied teachers and principals. While they respect and value education, many Mexican immigrant families face language, cultural, and social challenges that some schools are unable to address. Improving academic achievement among greater Chicago's Mexican Failure to repair this rocky road to academic success will be det- community will require more equitable funding of schools and invest- rimental to the future of Chicago's Mexican communities, and will ment in the people and programs to make them work. 48 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 49 A Shared Future Education of Tomorrow's Workforce Illinois' overreliance on local property taxes to fund education cre- experiences. Elementary schools operate without much interaction ates enormous funding disparities between local school districts, with high schools and colleges, yet students and parents are expected and state revenues are not keeping up with the cost of existing ser- to move smoothly from one system to the next. For example, high vices that children and families need. Illinois' current guaranteed schools design curricula without consulting with colleges and uni- annual funding level per student falls $1,000 short of the amount versities to learn what they expect incoming students to know. recommended by the A+ Illinois campaign, a statewide education Research indicates that in these transition years many students fall reform group. The state also has the widest gap between the highest through the cracks and drop out. and lowest income districts of any state in the country in per-pupil Institutions across the region need to work together to share spending, and pays less than the national average of schools' data and best practices and hold one another accountable for stu- expenses, 36 percent compared to 50 percent nationwide. Although dent academic achievement. To ensure the alignment of curriculum it is outside the particular focus of this report, clearly education standards from preschool through senior year of high school, a data funding reform is essential to the economic future of the region.
collection and reporting system to track student progress is needed. Since Mexican children tend to be concentrated in underresourced Individual initiatives could address the students who fail to progress urban and suburban school districts, they are vulnerable to problems at various points in their education. caused by inequitable school funding, such as overcrowding, lack of Although there is some coordination among the state's educa- resources, and underqualified teachers. Figures for the 2005-2006 tional "governing boards"—the Illinois State Board of Education, school year show that of 139 largely Latino traditional public elemen- Illinois Board of Higher Education, and the Illinois Community tary schools in the city of Chicago, 54 are overcrowded. And popula- College Board—Task Force members believe that they lack a com- tion shifts due to gentrification have resulted in a mismatch of schools mon mandate to address issues such as poor academic achievement, with students, resulting in overcrowded schools in Mexican commu- dropout rates, and inadequate preparation for college. nities and underenrolled schools in gentrifying neighborhoods.
Oversight for the whole education continuum could be provided Mexican families are moving to the West and Southwest sides of by a Preschool through College, or "P-16" Education Governance the city and to nearby suburbs, and rapid population growth has out- Council in Illinois, consisting of representatives from early childhood paced school construction. For example, in suburban Cicero, Wilson education, the Illinois State Board of Education, the Illinois Board Elementary School averages 36 students in a kindergarten class, well of Higher Education, and the Illinois Community College Board. above the statewide average of 21. Several other states in the U.S. have P-16 efforts. With authority and Some relief is in sight. In June 2006, Chicago Public Schools funding from the state, the P-16 council would promote collabora- announced a plan to invest $1 billion to build nine new high schools tion between preschools, K-12 schools, and colleges to help these and 15 new elementary schools, and to renovate three high schools, institutions address the overlapping issues of preparing students for most in Latino communities. Funds will come from a combination transition from one level of education to the next. It would hold edu- of school bonds and revenue raised through the city's Tax Increment cational institutions accountable for student achievement and could Finance Districts. Illinois enacted legislation for the 2007 fiscal year address issues concerning preparedness, retention, and graduation authorizing $10 million toward teachers' salaries in an attempt to rates of Mexican students at all levels of education. ensure that elementary schools throughout the state have class sizes The Task Force supports other efforts under way in metropolitan of no more than 15 students. But more will be needed to achieve Chicago that will improve the system as a whole and increase aca- these ambitious goals.
demic achievement among Mexican students. They include univer-sal preschool and full-day kindergarten, new small schools, charter Lack of coordination along the educational continuum can lead to and community schools. They also address expanded opportunities Mexican children being left behind. for professional development of superintendents, principals, teach-ers, suburban school board and Chicago Local School Council (LSC) The way the education system functions means that students move members, and reforming school funding in ways that alleviate fund- from one institution to the next without continuity in their learning ing disparities among school districts. 50 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 51 A Shared Future Education of Tomorrow's Workforce Educating Mexican children as early as possible pays big returns. than half of eligible children statewide, according to the Ounce of Prevention Fund. And many public schools charge tuition for prekin- Every dollar invested in high-quality early learning saves $17 in dergarten, which low-income parents often cannot afford. According future public and private spending. University of Chicago Nobel to parents, barriers to preschool include lack of affordable programs, Laureate in economics James Heckman and others have produced long waiting lists, and lack of information about resources, such as solid evidence that investing in early learning has high economic the child care subsidy. returns. Studies demonstrate that early learning saves the state mil-lions of dollars in costs associated with school improvement, reme- Effective bilingual education and more dual-language programs in area dial education, social services, and criminal justice. Early childhood schools can help prepare students for the global economy. education helps school systems because children arrive with the social and academic skills that prepare them to be ready to learn in While many Mexican children start school knowing how to speak Spanish, they often do not learn either English or Spanish well in Biggest gains in achievement are seen among Latino children school because the quality of bilingual education varies widely from completing prekindergarten and among all low-income children. school to school, between school districts and across the region. The A child's enrollment in preschool is an opportunity to promote a inadequate number of properly trained and certified bilingual edu- love of learning in the family that can encourage the child's and par- cation teachers, insufficient funding for programs, and lack of sys- ents' engagement with the school and community and with lifelong temwide consensus on implementing best practices contribute to the irregular results. In metropolitan Chicago, the need for preschool programs out- At their best, bilingual education programs, which ultimately strips available resources. Slightly more than a third of eligible Latino transition students into English-only classes, teach English while children are in state prekindergarten programs, compared to more maintaining fluency in the native language, thereby producing truly bilingual students. At their worst, they produce children who can- Erie Elementary Charter School Promotes a Culture of Literacy
not read and write in either English or Spanish. The Illinois State Board of Education 2005 evaluation of Illinois bilingual education At Erie Neighborhood House and the Erie Elementary Charter School, a "culture of programs found that of the more than 13,617 Illinois students tran- literacy" is promoted daily through a focus on reading among children, parents, school sitioned out of bilingual education into mainstream classes, only 25 staff and faculty, and the community. percent demonstrated proficiency in reading, writing, and speaking This commitment is clear in the school's adoption of "Drop Everything and Read" in English. The report shows that 65 percent of transitioned students (DEAR). Once every few weeks, a bell sounds and everyone at Erie Elementary Charter were proficient in one or more of these areas. Further, 10 percent of School in Chicago's Humboldt Park must "drop everything and read." During this time, all transitioned students were not proficient in any area. These stu- students, teachers, and school staff, including maintenance workers, stop whatever they are doing, move to the hallway, and read a book of their choice. Because Erie dents were exited after being in a language support program for five Charter School is a bilingual learning environment, children read both English and years or longer. The report shows that 25 percent of students were Spanish-language books during DEAR time. transitioned without language proficiency data reported to support Kindergarteners and first-graders look forward to this treat, reading as many books transition decisions. as they can during the 10 to 12 minutes of quiet reading time.
With increasing numbers of immigrants who do not speak "At our school, students get excited about DEAR day because they know that the English arriving in schools, there is an urgent need for bilingual pro- whole school will be reading," said parent Sonia Rodriguez. "It also allows students who grams that at minimum enable students to transition successfully are not proficient in the English language to bring any book of their choice." into mainstream classes.
Erie Neighborhood House and Erie Elementary Charter School also provide thousands Further, while enrollment by all ethnic groups in bilingual educa- of free books to families, sponsor book fairs and book readings, and hire literacy specialists. Erie's Partners for Reading program for kids and its community literacy tion programs in schools across the state rose by 60 percent between tutoring program for adults foster a lifelong culture of literacy. 1995 and 2004, program funding has not risen proportionately. This is occurring even as the projected need for bilingual teachers and 52 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 53 A Shared Future Education of Tomorrow's Workforce teachers certified in teaching English as a second language (ESL) schools. Students in the Chicago area are connected culturally and increases. School districts project needing 150 to 200 additional cer- linguistically to other parts of the world and Chicago can build on tified bilingual or ESL teachers every year from 2005 to 2009.
that by ensuring that all students in the public schools speak, read, and write well in English and a second language.
The growing number of Mexican students throughout metropolitan There are already several schools in the area that offer second-lan- Chicago also presents an opportunity for elementary and high schools to guage learning. For example, LaSalle Language Academy, a Chicago offer second-language instruction to all their students, preparing a bilin- public magnet school, offers classes in four languages in addition gual workforce ready to make Chicago a more friendly city for non-English to English, and Inter-American school, another magnet school, has speakers and a more effective participant in the world marketplace. offered a successful dual-language program in Spanish and English instruction for 30 years. A dual-language Spanish-English program An attractive adjunct to current bilingual education programs is a in Evanston School District 65, begun as a pilot in 2000 with 48 stu- dual-language model of instruction in which all students learn to dents, now enrolls almost 700 students in kindergarten through fifth read and write fluently in English and in a second language. This grade. Schaumburg School District 54, North Shore School District model builds upon a child's native language and is more effective 112, Elgin U-46, and Woodstock School District 200 also have dual- when started at around age five or six. For Spanish-speaking children language programs. These and other successful programs provide a entering kindergarten, the dual-language model presents an oppor- variety of models that could be replicated by other schools in the city tunity to instill pride in their culture and strengthen their Spanish and suburbs.
while adding English. Chicago has a unique opportunity to capitalize on the lan- Education Recommendation 1:
guage diversity of its immigrant population and the innovation of its Understand the needs of the growing Mexican population in
suburban and city schools and develop plans that increase the
Dual-Language Programs Improve Academic Achievement
education assets available to support their academic achievement
and educational attainment.
As the numbers of children who speak a second language grow, dual-language programs have become increasingly popular. Educators find that they can begin to close the academic achievement gap that exists between English-speaking and Action Items: Spanish-only students and at the same time encourage monolingual, English-only students to become bilingual. The key to successful dual-language programs, however, • The Task Force urges city and suburban school districts in the six- is identifying an effective model to implement and maintaining it throughout the early county area to review, improve, or replace their bilingual educa- education of the child. tion programs to ensure that students achieve fluency in reading The Inter-American Magnet School is a Chicago public school that has achieved and writing in English, and to enhance them by expanding dual- success in its dual-language program. Inter-American offers kindergarten through language programs that develop second-language capability for eighth grade and served more than 650 students in 2005, more than 70 percent of all students from kindergarten through high school. them Latino. From preschool through the third grade, classes are taught in Spanish for 80 percent of the time and in English for 20 percent of the time. By the fourth and fifth • The Task Force urges the governor of Illinois to strengthen col- grade, a 50-50 ratio of English to Spanish is introduced. The model is based on research that shows that the exposure to English outside of school combined with more intensive laboration across all levels of school by considering a Preschool Spanish learning at an earlier age provides students with greater proficiency in both through College (P-16) Council with responsibility and author- languages by the time they reach the fourth grade, and complete bilingual fluency and ity for funding and oversight of all school districts in the state; literacy by the time they start high school. The 2005 test averages for the school show to hold the Council accountable for student achievement at all that 71 percent of the students met or exceeded state standards in reading, mathematics, levels—preschool, elementary, and secondary—and promote and science scores compared to only 45 percent in the district and 65 percent in the collaboration with colleges and universities. 54 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 55 A Shared Future Education of Tomorrow's Workforce • The Task Force urges Chicago Public Schools, suburban school In 2004, the United States Department of Education, Office of districts, and the Illinois State Board of Education to continue Innovation and Improvement awarded the Illinois State Board of to fund efforts to build and staff schools in neighborhoods with Education (ISBE) a grant to fund bilingual teacher training. The growing populations. Bilingual Transition to Teaching Project, administered by the ISBE in partnership with Northern Illinois University and the Chicago Public Schools, recruits and trains individuals who wish to change careers and become bilingual teachers. Participants who successfully com- Better teachers and principals foster higher academic achievement. plete the program earn a master of science in education degree and meet the requirements for Type 03 Elementary Certification with A 2006 study by the Education Trust, a national nonprofit dedicated Bilingual and ESL Approvals. to academic achievement, found that schools in states and dis-tricts with high percentages of low-income and minority students Education Recommendation 2:
are more likely to have teachers who are inexperienced and have lower basic academic skills. Yet high-quality teachers improve stu- expand the pool of trained and qualified bilingual and bicultural
dents' ability to meet state standards and be ready for college regard- teachers and administrators for early childhood education,
less of their economic status, according to studies.
elementary, and high schools.
Research shows that the leadership of a good principal is essen- tial to creating and sustaining effective schools. Good principals find Action Items: and hire good teachers, develop them through training and on-the-job coaching, and create an atmosphere that leads to keeping good • The Task Force urges university departments of education to teachers in their schools. They identify good parent leaders for Local partner with community-based organizations to recruit and School Councils and train and encourage them. In turn the teachers support local Mexican teacher and principal candidates from and LSCs support good principals. traditional and nontraditional backgrounds. The need for well-qualified Latino bilingual and bicultural teach- ers and principals presents an opportunity for recruiting and train- • The Task Force urges schools and departments of education in local ing teachers from greater Chicago's Mexican communities and for colleges and universities and the Illinois State Board of Education fast-track certification for Mexican and other foreign-trained teach- to partner with Mexican educational institutions to implement a ers. However, streamlining certification of Mexican and other for- teacher training and certification program enabling teachers from eign-trained teachers to reduce bureaucratic hurdles must be done Mexico to work in Chicago and suburban school districts. without sacrificing rigorous quality standards.
There are several initiatives under way that involve alternative • The Task Force urges foundations, businesses, and schools to certification programs, recruiting teachers with special skills, and create a Latino Future Educators Fund to encourage Latino men training teachers from local communities through programs such as and women to become bilingual, bicultural teachers and princi- "Grow Your Own." The Illinois Grow Your Own Teachers Initiative was pals through targeted scholarships and other financial and aca- begun in 2003 by the Association of Community Organizations for demic support.
Reform (ACORN), a low- and moderate-income community group. Grow Your Own is a coalition of community, economic development, raising expectations and resources
and school reform groups. With funding from the state, the initiative builds collaboration among universities, school groups, and teach- According to the Consortium of Chicago School Research at the University ers' unions to support parents, school employees, and other com- of Chicago, almost half of Latino students drop out of public high schools munity members in obtaining the education to become teachers in in Chicago, and those who do finish are less likely than other high school their local schools. graduates in Illinois and the U.S. to attend college. 56 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 57 A Shared Future Education of Tomorrow's Workforce Since economic growth in cities is directly linked to the proportion undocumented immigrants who are not eligible for financial aid. of their residents with college degrees, it is important to the region's Illinois is among a handful of states to pass legislation that charges future to address this deficiency. A 2000 Hispanic Scholarship Fund its undocumented immigrant students in-state tuition rates at state study found that the gap between the percentage of Latinos who institutions and there are some private scholarships available to complete college with a bachelor's degree and the percentage of oth- them, but for the majority, college is not a viable option. er minority groups is expected to grow, putting Latinos at a greater The National Hispanic Scholarship Fund has identified three disadvantage in the workplace. strategies for promoting college completion among Latinos. The first Compared to students in other industrialized countries, focuses on improving the academic achievement and educational American students spend less time in school and take less rigorous attainment of at-risk students in middle and high school by reduc- coursework. A shorter school day limits the academic and cultural ing class size, assessing students' achievement every year, opening enrichment opportunities that build the social and intellectual capi- alternative schools, and instituting dropout prevention programs. tal needed by Mexican and low-income students.
Many public schools in the Chicago region use private grants and Mexican students, many the first in their families to attend a col- state Chapter 1 monies to implement some of these strategies. They lege or university, are also the least likely among their peers to gradu- also partner with community-based organizations for additional ate. Only 31 percent of Latino graduates of Chicago public schools will complete college within six years, compared to more than 45 A second strategy assists students with the college admission percent of whites. process to encourage students' transition from high school to col-lege. Efforts include support services such as test-taking preparation, Mexican students drop out for a variety of reasons, including cost, cultural remedial courses, summer school classes, tutoring, counseling, col- adjustment, and poor high school preparation. lege visits, and scholarships, and are provided primarily by nonprofit organizations with funding for after-school programming.
Studies find that Mexican college students generally need better writing skills, stronger study skills, and competency in reading, sci- Helping Students Make the Transition from High School to College
ence, and math. A study by the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute found that Latino students are least likely to take advanced placement and In partnership with Chicago Public Schools (CPS), DePaul University offers a college other more rigorous courses in high school—partly for lack of bridge program for high-achieving Chicago public high school juniors and seniors, enabling them to experience college and prepare for the academic rigors of higher Metropolitan Chicago's community colleges can play a signifi- education. Students with a minimum 3.0 (B) grade point average and 90 percent cant role in enabling Mexican students to attend college: They are attendance rate can take classes at DePaul and earn college credit while still in high low cost, located in the community, and have flexible course offer- school. Chicago Public Schools covers the costs of the classes and textbooks so they are free to students who qualify.
ings. But many students are unprepared for post-secondary educa- The students select from a wide array of liberal arts classes at DePaul, including tion. Those who do complete work for an associate's degree often mathematics, science, foreign languages, literature, social science, and art. Classes get lost in the transfer to four-year colleges. Because many students meet weekly in the late afternoon or evening, and are offered every quarter at either applying to City Colleges of Chicago and other two-year institutions DePaul's Loop or Lincoln Park campus. Current DePaul students serve as college bridge in the metropolitan region are not academically ready for college, mentors and are the students' primary point of contact while in the program.
these institutions often must provide extensive remedial coursework Of the 12 colleges and universities in Chicago offering classes through the CPS that should have been learned in high school. Ninety-five percent Bridge Program, DePaul has one of the highest enrollments. Nearly 1,000 juniors and fail the City Colleges' college-ready exam; 72 percent fail English; seniors from Chicago Public Schools have taken more than 1,600 classes at DePaul since the program began in 1998. About 28 percent of the students are Latino, 26 74.2 percent fail reading. Students pay college tuition and use state percent African American, 23 percent Caucasian, 18 percent Asian/Pacific Islander, and and federal financial aid for what is actually high school-level work.
5 percent other. As of 2006, more than 923 students from the program have been Finances are among the most significant barriers to obtaining admitted to college, 233 of them at DePaul. DePaul has awarded degrees to 36 so far.
a four-year college degree for Mexican students, particularly for 58 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 59 A Shared Future Education of Tomorrow's Workforce A third strategy focuses on college retention and successful trans- ing for more academically rigorous curriculum and enrichment fer from two- to four-year colleges. A larger proportion of Mexicans programs, including sports and the arts, with priority given to attend two-year colleges than young people from other racial or schools with high Mexican populations. ethnic groups. Virtually all colleges and universities in the area have implemented programs to help Mexicans and other students of color • The Task Force urges the Illinois State Board of Education to adapt to college life, and many offer remedial and study skill courses. require that all students who graduate from high school or pass But these programs are limited and most have not been evaluated to tests for a general equivalency diploma (GED) are "college ready" see if they work in improving retention.
as measured by ACT scores and standardized tests in reading, Education experts in Chicago and across the country know what mathematics, and writing.
is needed to improve schools in urban and Mexican communi-ties. The experience in a number of schools shows that the largest improvements in student achievement are possible with even mod-est increases in funding. These schools have focused on the profes- Research demonstrates that schools with good leaders get better results. sional development of teachers, engaging the parents in helping their children learn at home, and sharing leadership among the teachers, Strong leadership in schools is critical, and involves principals, parent leaders—including Local School Council members—and teachers, and parents. Parents who are informed and involved will administrators. Other solutions call for more equitable funding for raise the quality of education by holding administrators and teach- schools in Illinois and school reform measures that will benefit all ers accountable and by being better prepared to help their children children, including Mexican children.
learn at home. Immigrant parents, in particular, are challenged to do so because of limited English skills and unfamiliarity with school Education Recommendation 3:
systems and policies. Giving their children a good education is important to Mexican raise expectations for high academic achievement among
immigrants, but their ability to fully participate in their children's Mexican students, their parents, teachers, guidance counselors,
education is limited because the majority of them arrive with little and principals, and provide resources to assist in meeting these
formal schooling and low English skills. Often, English classes, job training, and other adult education programs are not easily accessi-ble for immigrants, especially working parents, and many programs Action Items: do not take into account low literacy levels and cultural differences. Schools, especially in suburban communities where the Mexican • The Task Force urges Latino leaders, foundations, business leaders, community has grown rapidly in recent years, generally do not have and educators to expand programs from middle school through the staff or experience to engage Mexican parents. high school that motivate and prepare Mexican students to com- Consequently, schools with significant bilingual and bicultural plete college. Programs should focus on educating parents and student populations, such as those in greater Chicago's Mexican com- students on the importance of a college education and provide munities, must invest additional resources to develop parent leaders assistance with navigating the college application process. Other capable of bridging the divide between the neighborhood and the efforts should include advanced placement classes and other aca- school. The Strategic Learning Initiatives network in Little Village is demically rigorous programs; tutors and mentors to strengthen one program that has demonstrated the value of this investment in basic skills, such as writing and study skills; and scholarships. improved student learning.
Local School Councils and suburban school boards present • The Task Force urges Chicago Public Schools to partner with opportunities for cultivating parent leadership. In 2002, 700 Latino business, foundations, and other philanthropic organizations parents served on Chicago's Local School Councils. Numbers of to implement a longer school day and longer school year allow- Latinos on suburban school boards are not known.
60 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 61 A Shared Future Education of Tomorrow's Workforce Local School Councils, which were established in Chicago in the Little Village: Accelerate Student Learning
late 1980s as part of school reform measures, consist of the principal, teachers, parents, and community members. They play a critical role In 2003, five Chicago public elementary schools in the city's Little Village neighborhood agreed to work together to try to accelerate student learning. The reading scores for in hiring a good principal, creating a thriving learning environment, the average Chicago public elementary school in low-income neighborhoods had been and approving the school's budget. improving at the rate of less than 2 percent per year since 1995. The schools thought But the councils need training, support, and resources to do their that they could do better.
jobs effectively. According to a 2002 study by Designs for Change, a Two years later, the reading and math scores had improved twice as fast as a Chicago-based education reform group, elementary schools that comparison group of 224 Chicago public schools with similar family incomes. showed major improvements in student achievement were admin-istered at the school level by the principal, teachers, and the Local Fig. 11a Two Years of ISAT Results
School Council, rather than by the central school administration.
for the Little Village Network
Little Village Parent Engagement
The Rate of Improvement for 2004-05 Percentage of School Families Compared to Baseline Years Full-service community schools serve as anchors for Mexican parents and their children as they navigate their new communities. Community schools—schools that are open into the evening for pro- grams that benefit local residents as well as students—are another model from which Mexican students and their families can benefit. There are currently 102 community schools in Chicago Public Percentage of Change Schools, which received an award for excellence in 2006 from the National Coalition for Community Schools for its community school initiative. The initiative aims to make schools "anchors of their com-munities, providing educational resources for the entire family." The Five Little Village Community schools bring additional services and support by linking schools to community-based organizations with the exper- Comparison Group of 224 CPS tise to provide services to local communities. They also strengthen schools with similar family incomes neighborhood infrastructure by enabling nonprofit organizations to Note: The baseline is the average score of the four years before Source: Workshop sign-in sheets, Strategic Learning serve an expanding client base without investing in new facilities. In the Network started.
Initiatives, 2003-2005. Citywide: Chicago Panel on Source: Chicago Public Schools, 2005; Plan-Act 2006.
School Reform, 2001.
communities like the city's South Chicago neighborhood, for exam-ple, Sullivan elementary school, in partnership with Metropolitan Family Services, provides a safe space for youth and adults with pro- One of the reasons for these results was that the principals, with their Local School grams ranging from drama workshops to basketball to English and Councils, selected a nationally recognized model developed by Strategic Learning Initiatives, a nonprofit educational organization in Chicago. The model program focuses on improving the quality of professional development of teachers, sharing the leadership Although there are individual community schools throughout for improvement among the parent, teacher, and administrative leaders, and providing Illinois, there is currently no systematic effort to create them through- fun and effective activities for parents to help their children learn at home. out the state. In 2003, the state of Illinois provided funds through Not only have students' reading scores improved, the average number of students the Regional Office of Education to develop training for Full Service meeting or exceeding state standards improved from 34 to 47 percent, for the four Community Schools throughout Illinois. Although funding was not schools that took the Illinois State Achievement Tests. More than 70 percent of the renewed, the two-year grant resulted in the development of a train- teachers in the program have volunteered for professional development workshops. ing model and training materials. These resources could be tapped Almost 40 percent of the families have participated in workshops, five times the 7 by suburban school districts that wish to replicate these models in percent average for the city.
their communities.
62 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 63 A Shared Future Education of Tomorrow's Workforce Corporate partners play a role, too. Across the Chicago region, • The Task Force urges Mexican organizations, business leaders, the corporate community contributes significantly to schools and foundations to provide scholarships that include money for through numerous adopt-a-school programs, "principal for a day," living and incidental expenses, and to support low- or no-inter- special grants, scholarships, mentoring activities, and ambitious est loans at colleges and universities for Mexican students.
initiatives such as Chicago's Renaissance 2010, an effort to open 100 new schools in Chicago by 2010. Education Recommendation 4:
strengthen parent and community participation and leadership
in city and suburban schools to improve educational outcomes for
Mexican students.
Action Items: • The Task Force urges school districts to partner with Mexican and other Latino community organizations to develop a Latino leadership school action network, beginning with members of Local School Councils and suburban school boards, to help cre-ate leaders in schools by training parents, teachers, administra-tors, and guidance counselors.
• The Task Force urges foundations, the Illinois State Board of Education, and local school districts to provide funding for the community school model that keeps schools open into the eve-ning with educational programs and activities for community members of all ages. • The Task Force urges Mexican hometown associations, Spanish- language media, and Mexican-owned businesses and commu-nity-based organizations to encourage and strengthen the active participation of parents in the schools, and to support Mexican students from preschool through college. This support should include assistance for parents and other community members to elect candidates who will address the concerns of the Mexican com-munity to Local School Councils and suburban school boards. • The Task Force urges local business leaders, including retirees, to partner with schools to provide expertise in management and organizational development, mentorship and internship activi-ties for students, and to fund innovative academic and after-school programs.
64 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 65 A Shared Future Civic Engagement and Political Participation IV. civic engagement and political participation
nance that codified the executive order, making compliance manda-tory and subject to sanctions.
It is the nature of our democracy that government is driven by com- With its Refugee and Immigrant Citizenship Initiative, begun in munity concerns, community voices, and votes. While Mexican 1995 by Governor Jim Edgar, Illinois became the first state to fund immigrants and Mexican Americans are involved in many aspects of a program to foster citizenship. This program inspired the New civic and political life, more must become engaged in neighborhood Americans Initiative, launched in January 2005, a public-private institutions, civic organizations, and local and state government. partnership sponsored by the State of Illinois and administered by They must play a role in decision making on budgets and policies the Illinois Coalition for Immigrant and Refugee Rights (ICIRR). The that affect their ability to lead productive lives and contribute to New Americans Initiative, unique in the U.S., is designed to increase the vitality of the Chicago metropolitan region. And more Mexican Americans must vote. Unless greater numbers of Mexican immigrants become Illinois Citizenship Initiatives Lead the Way
American citizens and voters, achieving and maintaining the full economic integration of the Mexican community will be difficult. Illinois has been a leader among state governments in taking a thoughtful, active The Task Force recognizes that perhaps the greatest impact on civic approach to immigrant integration. and political participation of the Mexican community will come from passage of comprehensive immigration reform with a clear The Refugee and Immigrant Citizenship Initiative (RICI) began in 1995 and was
path to U.S. citizenship for immigrants. Until such reform occurs, the first state-funded program of its kind in the nation. More than 130,000 people, 25 we urge state and local leaders to publicly support comprehensive percent of them Mexican, from 106 nations have received English language, civics, and immigration reform and to strengthen and expand current immi- U.S. history instruction, as well as citizenship application assistance from a network of 36 grant-friendly policies and initiatives locally and statewide. community-based organizations. The network is supported by legal services and liaison to U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, as well as by research conducted under Chicago and Illinois are leaders in establishing policies and the Illinois Immigrant Policy Project showing the political and economic importance of passing legislation that support immigrant integration. The impact immigrant integration. Currently RICI receives $2.5 million of the annual $5.15 million of these laws is felt every day by the Mexican worker with a matric- Illinois Department of Human Services Immigrant Services appropriation, and serves an ula consular who can now deposit his check in a bank account; the average of 13,000 people per year. undocumented college student brought to Chicago as a child, who RICI was established upon the recommendation of the Jewish Federation of can now pay resident tuition at the University of Illinois; and the Metropolitan Chicago, which was also the main contractor for the Illinois State elderly woman who after 20 years as a permanent resident applies Legalization Impact Assistance Grant. The program resulted in about 160,000 immigrants for citizenship with help from the New Americans Initiative.
in Illinois becoming legal permanent residents, of whom 85 percent were Mexican. The city of Chicago and Mayor Richard M. Daley were early advo- The New Americans Initiative (NAI), a partnership of the Illinois Coalition for Immigrant
cates for the rights of Chicago's immigrants. In April 1989, Mayor and Refugee Rights with the State of Illinois, is another coordinated multiyear campaign Daley issued an executive order providing that no city agency "shall for citizenship. It links permanent residents directly to the information and services condition the provision of city of Chicago benefits, opportunities or they need to pursue citizenship. The NAI works with a network of community agencies services on matters related to citizenship or residency status." The and uses an advertising and public relations campaign to encourage citizenship. A order further states: variety of methods are used to reach out to potential new citizens, including phone "The policy is declared to encourage equal access by all persons calls, mailings, and online assistance. Workshops are conducted at community events residing in the City of Chicago, regardless of nation of birth or current and classes are offered statewide. In the year following the NAI launch in February citizenship to the full benefits, opportunities and services, includ- 2005, 12,041 naturalization applications were prepared and screened.
ing employment and the issuance of licenses, which are provided or Since 1995, the number of people becoming citizens in the Chicago area has more than administered by the City of Chicago." doubled, from an average of 17,000 per year to more than 35,000. Today, there are In response to recent waves of anti-immigrant sentiment in the more than 600,000 foreign-born voters in Illinois. U.S., on March 29, 2006, the Chicago City Council passed an ordi- 66 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 67 A Shared Future Civic Engagement and Political Participation for undocumented youth who have spent most of their lives in the Illinois Legislative Initiatives Protect Immigrants' Rights and Foster Integration
United States, who graduated from high school, who demonstrate good moral character, and who either pursue higher education or HB0060/PA93-0007 Higher Education In-State Tuition—Effective May 20, 2003 join the armed forces. For tuition purposes, requires an individual who is not a citizen or permanent resident of Despite these laws, the Mexican community in the Chicago the United States to be classified as an Illinois resident if the individual graduated from region still faces discrimination in housing, in the workplace, and in a high school in the state and has lived in the state for at least three years. The law provides that certain aliens must be given the same privilege of qualifying for resident everyday life. And because many are not citizens, they cannot vote, status for tuition and fee purposes as a citizen of the United States.
limiting their ability to elect leaders and policymakers who under-stand and champion their specific needs as workers, students, par- SB0680/PA93-0464 Attorney General-Immigrant Assistance—Effective August 8, 2003 ents, homeowners, and taxpayers. Creates the Office of Immigrant Assistance within the Office of the Attorney General to provide education and outreach services to the resident immigrant community of the What keeps the Mexican community from greater civic engagement and political participation? SB0679/PA93-0217 Human Rights-Language Workplace—Effective January 1, 2004Makes it a civil rights violation for any employer to adopt or enforce a policy that limits There are differences in civic engagement and political participation or prohibits the use of any foreign language in any workplace, unless the language between Mexican immigrants—who have stronger ties to Mexico restriction is justified by a business necessity. and limited English skills—and Mexicans who were born here or SB0600/PA93-0581 Minimum Wage $6.50—Effective January 1, 2004 have lived here since they were young children. For new immigrants, After January 1, 2005 every employer shall pay to each of his or her employees who research suggests that basic economic needs, such as work, support- are 18 years of age or older in every occupation wages of not less than $6.50 per hour. ing a family, and sending money back to Mexico, come before civic The law provides that, beginning in 2005, the minimum wage shall be annually adjusted and political participation. Once their economic needs are met, by the Illinois Department of Labor. This is higher than the federal minimum wage of many first become involved in groups such as Mexican hometown $5.15 an hour.
associations (HTAs), church groups and block clubs, and commu- SB1623/PA94-0389 Consular Identification Document Act—Effective January 1, 2006 nity-based leadership development training programs.
Each state agency and officer and unit of local government shall accept a consular For U.S.-born Mexicans, economic security is also a priority, and identification document as a valid identification of a person. A consular identification their civic efforts are focused on civil rights issues such as voter reg- document does not convey an independent right to receive benefits of any type and may istration, affordable housing, access to better jobs, political power, not be accepted as identification for obtaining a driver's license or registering to vote. and equitable schools—issues that are increasingly bringing foreign- and native-born Mexicans, as well as Mexicans and non-Mexicans, together. the number of people who become citizens from 30,000 a year to 60,000 a year by 2008. The Task Force has identified several barriers to civic engagement In the spring of 2006, Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich estab- and political participation: lished a New Immigrants Policy Council to work with the New Americans Initiative and present recommendations to the state • high percentages of non-U.S. citizens among adults, and of pop- for immigrant integration. The governor also instituted an internal ulation under age 18 among the U.S.-born review of state agencies to respond to concerns voiced by ICIRR.
At the federal levels, Senator Dick Durbin and Congressman • a distrust of politics and of formal institutions in their home Luis Gutierrez have been strong voices in the recent fight for com- prehensive immigration reform, and for years have advocated for passage of the DREAM (Development, Relief, and Education for • lack of knowledge about U.S. government institutions Alien Minors) Act. This legislation creates a path toward citizenship 68 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 69 A Shared Future Civic Engagement and Political Participation • limited English skills and low levels of education Hometown Associations Turn Toward Their New Home
• racial discrimination and anti-immigrant sentiment In the last decade, the activities of Mexican hometown associations (HTAs) and state federations in the Chicago area have diversified. While they continue to address • political networks and coalitions that often do not extend beyond development in Mexico, they are also increasingly participating in domestic issues. their ethnic group Their leaders have played key roles in local institutions such as labor unions, block clubs, PTAs, and the Illinois Office of New Americans Policy and Advocacy. Probably the Reducing these barriers will depend on both the actions of the most significant factor in this change is new leadership more attuned to interests in the Mexican community and of leaders and all residents of the Chicago United States, which has promoted more active binational civic engagement.
region. As previously discussed, Chicago and Illinois are already In Chicago, there are approximately 275 hometown associations and federations leaders nationally and internationally in creating policies and pro- representing Mexicans from a particular hometown or state. In 2003, several HTAs grams that enable immigrants from all over the world to work and formed the Confederation of Mexican Federations in the Midwest (CONFEMEX), an umbrella organization representing nine federations and dozens of hometown lead stable lives here by safeguarding their human and civil rights, associations. During the 2006 campaign to register Mexican voters to exercise their and supporting their integration. This chapter makes recommenda- newly acquired right to participate in Mexican elections through absentee ballots, tions for building upon these accomplishments.
CONFEMEX registered 1,400 people in three days with support from the Massachusetts-based Solidago Foundation. Findings and recommendations
In May 2006, CONFEMEX began providing leadership to the Chicago Immigrant Leadership Empowerment Project, an initiative launched with the support of the Chicago Community Trust. During the spring 2006 protests against the Sensenbrenner immigration bill, Mexican HTAs displayed their newly acquired strength in mobilizing Immigrants participate in important civic activities that affect commu- their constituents for domestic issues. For the first time, they flexed their political organizational skills and were key organizers of the March 10 Committee along with nity life even if they cannot vote. labor unions, radio personalities, the Illinois Coalition of Immigrant and Refugee Rights, Catholic Campaign for Social Justice, religious congregations, and traditional Latino Mexican immigrants participate in a variety of civic activities as vol- organizations. More than 100,000 people attended the historic march in Chicago, which unteers, leaders, and activists in schools, churches, neighborhood was the first and largest demonstration during the wave of protests.
institutions, and other community groups. They are heavily involved in Mexican hometown associations (HTAs) and Mexican state feder- have become more diverse. Today, these groups are increasingly ations, which have a long history in the United States and in Chicago. addressing domestic issues such as civil rights, housing, health care, They are similar to the mutual aid societies and self-help groups of workers' rights, and U.S. citizenship. An increasing number have the 1920s, which helped immigrants to adjust to their new environ- begun to register as nonprofit, 501(c)3 organizations, which enables ment, combat discrimination, and find comfort and friendship with them to receive grants and other funds for their local development people from their homelands. The HTAs, often called civic clubs, projects. The Chicago region's HTAs have also made alliances with social clubs, and committees, are one of the most common forms of the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund to estab- voluntary-sector activity among first-generation Mexican immi- lish leadership programs for their members, and with the Catholic grants in the United States. In Chicago, the number of HTAs for only Church to defend migrant rights. five of the 31 Mexican states jumped from 20 to 100 between 1994 and 2000 while across the United States more than 600 HTAs are reg- Community-based leadership programs cultivate civic engagement. istered in 30 cities. These organizations have been a powerful force for social sup- A study by the Institute for Latino Studies at the University of Notre port for their members in the United States, as well as an impor- Dame measured the effectiveness of grants by the Chicago tant mechanism for philanthropic work in Mexico, but in the last Community Trust to community-based organizations, the majority 10 years, the activities of Mexican HTAs and federations in Chicago of which were Latino, to develop the capacity of ordinary residents to 70 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 71 A Shared Future Civic Engagement and Political Participation become leaders in their communities and bring about positive In 2002, 700 Latinos, most of them Mexican, served on Local School Councils for the Chicago Public Schools, accounting for the majority of Findings show that participation in leadership development had elected Latino officials in Illinois and half of all Latinos on school a significant benefit to leaders' lives including an increase in self-con- boards nationwide. According to the Consortium on Chicago School fidence, development of social and professional skills, and increased Research, serving on the LSCs has helped the members acquire skills in knowledge of U.S. culture and systems. More than 750 leaders were organization, budgeting, and working in groups, valuable civics skills developed through the organizations studied and 90 percent of lead- that can be translated into other civic and political activities. In com- ers interviewed had contacted legislators or policymakers. These munities where the number of Mexican children has increased, partic- efforts contributed to policy and community changes including pas- ipation by their parents on school boards is critical to ensuring that the sage of several state bills that affect education, environment, health needs of their children and other immigrant children are addressed.
care, housing, safety, and transportation.
Mexican representation on corporate, cultural, and civic boards is limited. Local School Councils in Chicago and school boards in the suburbs rep- resent avenues for Mexicans to become involved in the civic life of the The Task Force found that while there is a strong interest on the part community. of corporate, cultural, and civic institutions to increase representa-tion from the Mexican community on their boards, they have diffi-culty identifying Mexican and other Latino leaders. Some suburban mayors interested in filling zoning and planning board positions Elgin Students Walk in for Civics Education
report a similar problem. For their part, Latino leaders report not knowing about board openings or having the relationships neces- On May 1, 2006, Latino immigrants and their supporters walked out of work and schools sary to solicit appointments. around the country in support of immigration reform legislation. In Elgin, Illinois, where more than a third of the population is Latino, student leaders said they wanted to show their support for immigration reform in another way. Although Civic and Political Recommendation 1:
many of the school's students had attended a rally in Chicago on March 10, they chose to stay in school on May 1. Instead of demonstrating by walking out of classes, the Foster participation of Mexicans and other Latinos in civic lead-
students "walked in" to attend classes, calling it a "Walk-in for Education." ership through collaboration among business and philanthropic
The Students for Immigration Justice Committee was organized so Elgin students communities, state and local governments, and Latino leaders.
could make their voices heard and to ensure that students participating in immigration reform demonstrations understood the issues. Organizers say the committee believes Action Items: in peaceful resolution of the immigration reform debate, based on the principle "justice for all" from the Pledge of Allegiance, which students recite every day.
The school invited 11 panelists for a discussion on immigration reform on May 1, • The Task Force urges the Mexican community to partner with including city council members, a representative from the lieutenant governor's office, Chicago's business and professional communities and philan- immigration attorneys, and three recent immigrants. Regional Director Joe Galvan of the thropic institutions to build the capacity of organizations that U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development also spoke. work with immigrants, such as hometown associations, immi- Organizers expected 300 students, but 1,200 attended. "The kids were so polite to grants' rights groups, social service agencies, and other interme- the panelists, even if they did not agree with their statements. The students who diary organizations through mentoring, relationship-building, organized the event demonstrated their resolve during the panel discussion and in front funding, and leadership development.
of the press that covered the event. They were clear, direct, honest, and knowledgeable," said teacher Deb Perryman, who helped to organize the event.
• The Task Force urges Mexican and Latino organizations to estab- Excerpted from Líderes, a National Council of La Raza online newsletter. Full article can lish relationships with corporate, civic, cultural, and community be found at http://lideres.nclr.org. organizations to encourage the participation of Mexican leaders on their boards. 72 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 73 A Shared Future Civic Engagement and Political Participation • The Task Force urges Chicago's business and professional leaders to examine the makeup of boards of cultural institutions, uni- Fig. 12 Illinois Latino Voter Eligibility and Turnout November, 2004 (in thousands)
versities, newspapers, and corporations, and to make an active effort to identify Mexican leaders to join them. • The Task Force urges Mexican and other leaders to identify and support Mexican candidates for Local School Councils, subur- ban school boards, and appointments to zoning and planning boards. Registered to vote Latino political power is hampered by a low number of voters and low voter registration rates among eligible voters. Slightly more than a quarter of the total Latino population voted in Illinois in 2004. This is due in part to the large number of Latinos who are not U.S. citizens as well as the number of citizens who are not registered to vote. In 2004, almost 60 percent of Latinos 18 years and Registered to vote Eligible, but not registered older were U.S. citizens, but only a third were registered to vote and more than a quarter were eligible but not registered. Voter registra- Registered but didn't vote tion efforts are needed to increase the number of registered Latino Numbers may not add up to 100% due to rounding. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, November 2004. Internet Release date: May 25, 2005.
However, those who voted represent almost 86 percent of all Analyzed by the University of Notre Dame, Institute for Latino Studies.
Latino registered voters, up from 83 percent in the November 2000 election. These voter turnout rates are promising, as they are close to the 87 percent voter turnout rates for registered whites in Illinois, Legal permanent residents represent massive voting potential among though lower than the 93 percent of registered African Americans who vote (see figure 12). The U.S.-born children of Mexicans present a unique opportu- Across the country, Mexicans and other immigrants are working hard nity to teach young people at an early age about the political process to increase the number of new citizens since the anti-immigrant leg- and create a culture of voting. Because many of their parents cannot islation passed in the U.S. House of Representatives in December model voting habits, community leaders and institutions must step 2005. According to the Illinois Coalition for Immigrant and Refugee in. Younger Mexican Americans have thus far been the group least Rights (ICIRR), the U.S. Department of Homeland Security received likely to vote of all Mexicans. more than 185,000 applications for naturalization between January The immigration rallies and marches launched in Chicago in and March 2006, a 19 percent increase over the same period a year March 2006, however, have inspired Mexican and other youth, and set the stage for other types of civic and political participation. In a new analysis from ICIRR, approximately 60 percent of the Mexican and other community leaders must take advantage of the 1.6 million immigrants in Illinois are not U.S. citizens. About 350,000 enthusiasm and interest in this issue and use it to develop Mexican immigrants are currently eligible to become citizens. Of those, about teens and young adults into community leaders and voters. 177,000 are Mexican, most of whom live in Chicago and its suburbs. 74 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 75 A Shared Future Civic Engagement and Political Participation and difficulty of the test, lack of information about the process, and New Americans Democracy Project
its length were also cited. Many immigrants said they had difficulty attending both English and citizenship classes while working. Yesenia Sanchez didn't expect to be a political activist. The 23-year-old is an active volunteer in her Melrose Park Catholic parish and recently graduated from the University of Illinois.
Expanded access to community-based English language classes and Sanchez has joined the New Americans Democracy Project of the Illinois Coalition for citizenship instruction are central to enhancing civic and political Immigrant and Refugee Rights for summer and fall training as one of 21 young participation. "Democracy Fellows." These full-time political organizers will work to help legal immigrants become citizens, register, and turn out to vote.
The Task Force found that community-based groups, churches, set- The project has ambitious goals: recruiting 1,000 election volunteers, assisting tlement houses, immigrants' rights groups, hometown associations, 10,000 legal permanent residents to begin the citizenship process, registering 15,000 and a host of other organizations provide English and citizenship new voters, and turning 50,000 immigrant voters out to vote. Activists are working in services in ways that are accessible and convenient to immigrants, the city as well as suburbs such as Bolingbrook, Elgin, Melrose Park, Waukegan, and that instill trust and pride, and serve as a bridge to the comprehen- Organizers of the Democracy Project understand that all politicians can count. While sive range of human services that immigrants need to sustain their many Mexican immigrants in Illinois are undocumented, almost 350,000 legal families. Community colleges are also an important provider of immigrants live in the state who are currently eligible to become U.S. citizens. And English classes. 186,000 U.S.-born children of immigrants between the ages of 16 and 24 will be eligible Nevertheless, demand far outstrips the available services, with to vote in the 2008 elections.
long waiting lists the norm. Other problems reported include the This spring Sanchez was not in the mega-marches in Chicago, but she organized a times the classes are offered, taking into account that many people march of 1,000 Latinos and their supporters in Champaign-Urbana. And they chanted, work two jobs, as well as a lack of child care.
"Today We March, Tomorrow We Vote," down there just as marchers in Chicago did. Now Sanchez is one of thousands across the United States making that chant a political reality.
Coalition building and increases in Latino voter turnout have resulted in a steady increase in Latino elected officials in Illinois, but not in numbers representative of the population. They represent a tremendous opportunity for increasing the num-bers of new voters but must become citizens first.
In 1985, only 26 Latinos served in a public office at any level in Illinois, only two Latinos served in the Illinois State House of Representatives, U.S. citizenship has become much more difficult to obtain for legal immi- and none served in the Illinois State Senate or U.S. House of grants with lower incomes and less education. Representatives. Today, 103 Latinos hold public office in Illinois, a significant increase (see figure 13). However, while Latinos are 14 The cost of applying for naturalization has risen from $95 in 1998 to percent of all residents in the state, the 11 state Latino legislators in the current cost of $400, with automatic fee increases scheduled Illinois represent only 5 to 6 percent of state legislators, and Illinois each year. The Illinois Coalition for Immigrant and Refugee Rights has only one Latino in the U.S. Congress.
(ICIRR) reports that the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services has proposed several policy initiatives that could create Coalition politics is not new to Mexicans in Chicago, but it has evolved other obstacles to citizenship for many immigrants, including over the last 30 years. changes that could make the citizenship test harder for less-edu-cated immigrants, and a new "electronic filing" system that would In the 1970s, Mexicans came together with Puerto Ricans under the add further costs and paperwork burdens on applicants.
"Latino" umbrella to form one of the first pan-Latino organizations. In a 2005 survey conducted for the ICIRR, almost 80 percent In the 1980s they were able to elect candidates who addressed their of those interviewed said that applying for citizenship was difficult needs. They built coalitions with African Americans to help elect and one of the major barriers cited was their low English skills. Cost Harold Washington and several Latino candidates. Since that time, 76 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 77 A Shared Future Civic Engagement and Political Participation • The Task Force urges civic Chicago to partner with the Mexican Fig. 13 Latinos in Elected Office: Illinois, 1996, 2000, 2006
community to promote youth participation in the political pro-cess by educating young people in schools, through government agencies, community programs, internships and mentorship Members of Congress opportunities, and involvement in political campaigns.
Statewide Officials State Legislators The Task Force urges the Mexican community to partner with corporations, foundations, and government agencies, and other immigrant community-based organizations to increase pro- grams teaching English as a second language, citizenship classes, and naturalization and voter registration campaigns. *Local School Councils from Chicago are not included in this table.
Source: NALEO Educational Fund, National Directory of Latino Elected Officials 1996–2003 and National Directory of Latino Elected Officials 2006. Analyzed by the University of Notre Dame, Institute for Latino Studies.
Latinos have organized several formal and informal coalitions and Cultural exchange helps to break down barriers and reduce discrimination. have successfully elected their chosen candidates for city and state office. Today, Latinos have formed political action committees to Mexican culture has steadily become a vibrant and integral part of fund candidates of choice, and Latino professional organizations the character and economy of the United States and the Chicago often invite elected officials to speak at conferences and other net- region. Across the country salsa has outpaced ketchup as the num- working events.
ber one condiment consumed, English songs peppered with Spanish In 2003, Latino legislators organized the first Latino Caucus lyrics top the music charts, and Univision is the number one Spanish- in Springfield, Illinois. By 2006 it was strong enough to influence language television station in several markets, including Chicago. approval of the budget and pass critical education legislation impor- Mexican-owned restaurants from taquerias to high-end restaurants, tant to Latinos. The caucus has held three annual statewide confer- travel agencies, music stores, and dress shops have become familiar ences, drawing more than 2,000 participants in 2005.
sights in many Chicago neighborhoods and suburbs. These busi- As the Mexican political scene matures in the city and suburbs, nesses, and arts institutions such as the Mexican Fine Arts Center politicians and their supporters are not just concerned with electing Museum, contribute to the cultural exchange taking place here another Latino, but about electing candidates who represent their between Mexicans and Americans of all ethnic backgrounds. The needs and interests. media, both Spanish and English, play an important role in this exchange as well. Civic and Political Recommendation 2:
As Mexicans in the region participate in their communities through work, church, school, and other neighborhood institutions, Increase political participation of the Mexican community by
they share their customs, values, language, and culture with broader promoting citizenship, voter registration, and voting, as well as by
Chicago at the same time that they are adapting them to get along in building coalitions.
American society. At its best, this cultural exchange leads to appre-ciation and understanding. But cultural differences can result in rac- Action Items: ism and discrimination that keep Mexicans and other immigrants from full civic engagement and successful integration. • The Task Force urges Mexican leaders and community orga- nizations to train and certify deputy registrars and conduct In spite of Illinois' progressive immigrant policies and programs, Mexicans registration campaigns by partnering with African American and other immigrants still face racial and cultural discrimination, and organizations, unions, and other groups successful in this area. challenges that limit their ability to participate fully in civic life. 78 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 79 A Shared Future Civic Engagement and Political Participation The Chicago Area Survey by the Institute for Latinos Studies at the University of Notre Dame reported that 25 percent of Mexicans Providing Exposure to Mexican Arts and Culture
in the region said they had been victims of racial or ethnic In 1982 with a $900 budget, Carlos Tortolero, a former Chicago Public School bilingual discrimination in relation to jobs, education, housing, or other history teacher, convened five teachers and founded the Mexican Fine Arts Center areas of life.
Museum. In 1987, the museum opened its doors in the working class neighborhood Since the Chicago Hate Crime Ordinance was passed in 1990, of Pilsen, located just southwest of downtown Chicago. The teachers, determined to the Chicago Commission on Human Relations assists victims of hate provide Chicago with a community-based institution that offered Mexican education, crimes, and tabulates hate crime incidents reported to the Chicago cultural celebration, and preservation of history and culture, created the museum as a Police Department. Given the size of the city, the numbers of hate model for others. The museum's mission is to make the arts accessible to everyone. One crimes reported by the Commission on Human Relations in Chicago of the main ways it succeeds in doing so is by offering free admission to the public. are small: 682 reported over the past five years. This may be accounted As the largest Latino arts organization in the United States and the only Latino museum accredited by the American Association of Museums, the museum provides all for by the reluctance of some individuals to report or to interact with of Chicago with exposure to Mexican arts and culture. Through the museum's creative the police department, and a lack of community awareness of the programming, people of all backgrounds come together to celebrate Mexican art. The ordinance. The categories of hate crime include racial, religious, museum's exhibits and performances attract nearly 200,000 visitors a year, of whom 50 sexual orientation, gender, disability, and national origin. One-fifth percent are Mexican. The museum boasts a collection of approximately 10,000 pieces. of hate crimes in the past five years were based on national origin. Its annual Día de los Muertos (Day of the Dead) exhibition is the nation's largest Thirty-five cases were assaults against Latinos. Although there is no celebration of the tradition and has become one of Chicago's best-known arts events. evidence that this is due to the current immigration debate, hate With 25 percent of its budget devoted to educational and youth programs, the museum crimes against Latinos in Chicago have increased from 13 percent of is a national leader. More than 1,600 school tours are conducted each year by youth all hate crimes in 2001 to 60 percent of all hate crimes in 2005.
docents in English and Spanish. A study by Williams College and another by the University of Chicago, completed in Two new studies by the Anti-Defamation League and the Southern 2005, determined that the museum has a $9 to $10 million economic impact on the Poverty Law Center reveal that hate crimes against Latinos are on the Pilsen neighborhood. Representatives from 61 countries around the world have visited rise, and the number of hate groups has risen 30 percent since 2000. the Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum to learn firsthand how a major cultural institution They report that white supremacists, skinheads, and other extremist can thrive in a neighborhood setting and how a museum can showcase a culture that is groups are using the immigration debate to provoke violence against not the dominant culture of that society.
Latinos, regardless of immigration status, around the country. Cultural institutions and the media play important roles in promoting sory board that has provided insights and relationships for the orga- nization to launch a comprehensive Latino marketing effort. Through several marketing studies, Hoy, the Spanish-language The Chicago area boasts a number of Mexican arts and cultural orga- newspaper published by Tribune Company, found that Latinos nizations, from the well-established Mexican Fine Arts Center spend more time on the weekend engaged in family activities and Museum in Pilsen, to nightclubs and concert venues, to Mexican outings than the general population, with about a third of Latino folkloric music and dance schools. While their audiences are mostly respondents having attended area museums, zoos, festivals, and Latino, they draw people from all backgrounds and enhance tourists' other family entertainment in the past year. Because Latino house- experience of Chicago. holds are large, they look for more affordable and convenient activi- For their part, cultural institutions such as Chicago's Field ties and are willing to drive out of the city to find them. Museum of Natural History, the Ravinia Festival, and the Chicago Univision, Chicago's top Spanish-language television station, Children's Museum have reached out to Mexicans and other Latinos, is currently the number one local five o'clock evening television offering exhibits and programs that incorporate Latino culture, newscast in any language in Chicago. In recognition of its respon- and using targeted media and marketing materials and strategies. sibility to the Latino community, Univision produces programming Ravinia, in north suburban Highland Park, established a Latino advi- that informs the Latino community about education, voting, immi- 80 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 81 A Shared Future Civic Engagement and Political Participation • The Task Force urges the Metropolitan Mayors Caucus to prepare "Avanzando con La Educacion" or "Advancing Through Education"
a similar proclamation to be passed by local municipalities and to partner with Mexican and other immigrant leaders to imple- In January 2006, in partnership with the Illinois State Board of Education, Chicago Public Schools, and the U.S. Hispanic Leadership Institute, Univision Chicago, the ment an education campaign for mayors on immigrants' rights number one Spanish-language television station in the area, introduced a segment in the Sunday 5 p.m. newscast to affirm to every Latino family that every Latino youth can go to college. Called "Avanzando con La Educacion" or "Advancing Through • The Task Force urges local chambers of commerce to adopt the Education," the program features educators and child development experts who offer U.S. Chamber of Commerce statement, issued in October 2005, tips on how parents and their children can partner with the school system to help their that urged Congress "to pass a comprehensive immigration children achieve academic success. Subjects include a variety of topics, such as proper reform package that allows current undocumented workers to nutrition, prenatal care, and reading to children. The yearlong program is divided into earn legal status and that will address potential worker shortfalls four quarters, each focusing on different issues.
by providing a structured mechanism for employers to fill jobs In addition to the weekly segments, the station incorporated station-produced public service announcement campaigns, and launched a series of Education Town Halls when American workers are unavailable." The Chamber also hosted by on-air hosts and held in Chicago and the suburbs, from Aurora to Waukegan. urged lawmakers "to adopt measures that work seamlessly to The programs provided a forum for Latino families to speak directly with education ensure U.S. national and economic security." experts, including the president of the Illinois State Board of Education and the CEO of Chicago Public Schools. Topics included Chicago Public Schools funding, Summer • The Task Force urges Spanish and English radio, television, and Learning Opportunities, Preparing for the New School Year, and Preparing to Apply for print media to expand programming that educates and informs College. Recaps of the Town Hall meetings are aired on Univision's public affairs the Mexican community about issues such as financial literacy, program, "Advancing with the Community." voting, education, and jobs, and to produce programming that demonstrates ways in which Mexicans and other immigrants gration, and other relevant issues through an "Avanzando Contigo" contribute to life in metropolitan Chicago.
(Advancing with You) campaign. One of the major components of the campaign is "Avanzando con La Educacion," or "Advancing through • The Task Force urges Mexican and other arts and cultural institu- tions to partner in reaching out to different audiences and pro-moting cross-cultural learning.
Civic and Political Recommendation 3:
promote knowledge and understanding of the Mexican
community through cultural institutions, media, community
initiatives, and adoption of policies that protect human and civil
Action Items: • The Task Force urges Mayor Richard M. Daley to consider issu- ing a memorandum to all city departments reaffirming Chicago's commitment to being a muliticultural city and to underline the importance of the new ordinance, identified in Title II of the City Code as Chapter 2-173 (010-070), which provides equal access to city services for all Chicago residents. 82 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 83 A Shared Future Health and Social Services V. Health and social services
Findings and recommendations
The full economic and social integration of the Mexican community Health care
will require that their basic health and human service needs are met, enabling parents to work and provide for their families, their chil- Despite high rates of employment, Latinos are the demographic group dren to succeed in school, and families to participate in all aspects of most likely to be uninsured. Because they are a young population, Mexican immigrants and In 2002, Latinos comprised 14 percent of the total U.S. population their children are generally a healthy population. The U.S. Health but were 29 percent of the uninsured. The Kaiser Family Foundation Resources and Services Administration reports, however, that com- reports that in Illinois a third of Latinos under age 65 were uninsured, pared to whites, people of color have higher incidence of chronic almost twice as many as in the general population. Not surprisingly, diseases, higher mortality, and poorer health outcomes. In its 2005 Latinos are more likely to use public health centers and emergency annual National Healthcare Quality and Healthcare Disparities rooms for health care.
reports, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services found Uninsured Latinos are less likely to use preventive health ser- that the overall quality of U.S. health care had improved over pre- vices. For example, less than 40 percent of uninsured Latino adults vious years and that disparities affecting people of color had been with diabetes had annual foot exams, compared to almost 70 percent reduced. But this was not true for Latinos. Disparities in quality and of Latinos with insurance. And only about 16 percent of uninsured access to care grew wider in a majority of areas for Latinos, including declines in the quality of diabetes care, a major health problem in the Latino community.
Alivio Medical Center: A Model Community Health Center
Poverty, language, cultural norms, racism, and immigration sta- Since 1989, Alivio Medical Center has been providing bilingual, bicultural primary tus have been found to influence the quality and effectiveness of healthcare services to the largely Mexican neighborhoods of Pilsen, Little Village, Back health care that Mexicans and other immigrants receive. Providers of the Yards, and Heart of Chicago. Created to serve the health needs of the uninsured often do not speak the patient's language or understand the cul- and underinsured residents of these communities, Alivio partners with its patients, tural and socioeconomic factors that can affect a patient's health. community groups, hospitals, and universities to create effective methods of engaging Even when they are employed, many Mexicans simply cannot afford the Mexican community in prevention and wellness. Staff at the center are advocates health care. They are the group most likely to be uninsured or under- for resources and programs such as expanded public health insurance and health care insured, leading to health problems that go untreated and high med- for the undocumented, and conduct innovative health outreach initiatives such as those ical bills that put a financial burden on the entire family.
targeting children and men. With a commitment to respectful, compassionate, culturally Rising rates of obesity and diabetes among adults and children competent quality care, Alivio has become a leader in serving the Mexican community.
Today, Alivio serves more than 17,000 patients each year through two health centers are of concern because of the long-term health problems they bring, in Pilsen and a school-based health center at Gladstone Elementary School, a Chicago especially when they begin in childhood. Increased access to health public school. Alivio's patients are mostly Spanish-speaking, "working poor" families education, screenings, and other preventive care is critical for the and individuals, predominantly Mexican and undocumented, many without insurance. Mexican community, particularly since it is a young community.
Alivio offers a comprehensive array of services, including nutrition classes, individual Social services provide necessary support for Mexican individu- and family counseling, a nutrition program for women and children, pediatrics, family als and families. Yet, obtaining social services, especially in suburbs and adult medicine, obstetrics, gynecology and midwifery, and an on-site laboratory. unprepared for the influx of Mexicans and other immigrants, is often The center enrolls families in the All Kids Program, Illinois' state health insurance difficult due to language and cultural barriers, and a lack of adequate Alivio is a national model for successful community health centers and has received numerous local and national awards. It has been recognized both for its overall success This chapter explores some of the key health disparities and as a community health center and for individual projects such as the Alivio Midwifery social service needs that affect the economic stability and prosperity of the Mexican immigrants and their children in greater Chicago. 84 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 85 A Shared Future Health and Social Services Latino men aged 40 to 64 received prostate exams, compared with 40 The Illinois Hispanic Nurses Association indicates that less than percent of insured Latino men in that same age group, according to 2 percent of the nursing workforce in Illinois consists of Latinos, and analysis by the Commonwealth Fund.
a much smaller number are bilingual. In fact, the shortage of bilin- Lack of insurance and unstable coverage are most likely to affect gual health professionals in Cook County is so severe that recently a Latino children in low-income families. Nearly half of Latino chil- Cook County commissioner proposed establishing a pilot program dren were uninsured during all or part of the year, compared with to increase the number of healthcare professionals in the county. If one-third of U.S. children in low-income families. approved, the program will sponsor 20 bilingual Latino immigrants While state health insurance programs in Illinois like All Kids in identified areas of shortages, including nursing, pharmacy, and and Family Care have expanded access to public health insurance X-ray technology.
for Mexican children and families, undocumented adults are still The Chicago Bilingual Nurse Consortium, a nonprofit organiza- excluded from public health insurance and must rely on public tion dedicated to increasing the pool of bilingual and bicultural nurses health centers or private doctors for care. in the Chicago metropolitan area, has been successful in making the There are a number of community healthcare providers in Illinois Nurse Practice Act more immigrant-friendly. Legislation was Chicago, including Chicago Department of Public Health clinics, the signed last year to amend the Nurse Practice Act allowing it to add a Cook County Bureau of Health Services clinics and hospitals, and nurse externship program that would assist nurses from Puerto Rico numerous community health centers. But the demand still exceeds in becoming licensed as registered nurses in Illinois.
the resources. Healthcare providers and patients share stories of MacNeal Hospital in Berwyn has implemented several initiatives hours spent in overcrowded emergency rooms and public clinics and to better serve the Mexican community and is a lead sponsor of the hospitals, patients sometimes having to wait weeks for an appoint- Spanish Coalition for Jobs, Inc.'s Bilingual Medical Assisting pro- ment or test when they are sick. Further, many face language barriers gram. This ten-month program provides individuals with the clinical with their providers. A handful of hospitals offer on-site interpreter and administrative skills to work in a physician office or a hospital services staffed with trained medical interpreters, but most hospi- tals and clinics rely on Spanish-speaking staff and on the friends or relatives of their Spanish-speaking patients to help with communi- Health and Social Recommendation 1:
cation. While this strategy helps with immediate language barriers, patients are better served by bilingual and bicultural medical staff.
Increase access to affordable, accessible, culturally competent care
for the Mexican population in the chicago metropolitan region.
There is a dearth of bilingual and bicultural healthcare professionals, cre- ating multiple obstacles to providing quality care for Mexicans and other Action Items: • The Task Force urges state legislators to make public health The shortage of nurses continues as a major problem in the delivery insurance available to all Illinois residents regardless of immi- of quality health care to Latino patients in Illinois and other regions gration status through programs such All Kids, Family Care, and of the United States. Illinois is currently suffering from a nursing universal healthcare initiatives.
shortage, with projections of about 8,000 additional registered nurses and 1,200 licensed practical nurses needed every year through 2010. • The Task Force urges local and state policymakers and healthcare According to the Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic providers to ensure access to safety-net healthcare providers for Opportunity, the number of potential caregivers, including nurses, is the undocumented population by opposing federal legislation projected to decrease by more than 4 percent while the number of that criminalizes immigrants and the health and social service those who need care is projected to increase by 31 percent between providers who assist them.
2000 and 2020. Several local initiatives are under way to address this issue. 86 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 87 A Shared Future Health and Social Services • The Task Force urges corporate, private, and hospital founda- prevention
tions to partner with high schools, local community colleges, four-year colleges, and healthcare institutions to develop pro- Research indicates that cultivating a culture of prevention and well- grams that recruit and train bicultural and bilingual health ness in Mexican communities can be difficult because of socioeco- nomic and cultural issues. Among Latino groups, Mexicans are the least likely to seek preventive care such as dental exams, mammo-grams, and Pap tests. Having insurance makes a difference, but it Encouraging Latino Students in Healthcare Careers
does not eliminate the gap. In a 2005 article in the American Journal of Health Promotion, Internships at Children's Memorial Hospital researchers report that the degree to which city people walk or ride Spanish-speaking Chicago public high school students considering healthcare careers bicycles depends largely on how much green space is available. can participate in a six-week paid summer internship that provides on-site educational Since moderate exercise can improve health outcomes, green space hospital experience, including the opportunity to: is important, especially in other areas. In general, Mexican commu- • rotate through several hospital departments; nities and other low-income neighborhoods have less green space, • observe surgeries and help medical imaging staff examine X-rays; and limiting opportunities for outdoor recreational activity and exercise. • hear presentations from pediatric care specialists from a broad range of medical For example, Chicago's mainly Latino Logan Square and Little Village are the two neighborhoods with the least amount of green space in the entire city. As one of the nation's top pediatric hospitals, Children's Memorial is able to expose Because the Mexican community is young, establishing healthy students to Chicago's leaders in the healthcare field and to provide opportunities for habits at an early age needs to be encouraged through a variety of long-term mentoring relationships with hospital staff. health promotion initiatives at the school and community level. The program has graduated 47 students since its inception in 2002, and 16 more are enrolled for the summer 2006. As an early indicator of the program's success, 32 former participants are currently working toward college degrees in health care, and The Mexican community has disproportionately high rates of heart dis- four have also found part-time employment at Children's Memorial while enrolled in ease, diabetes, and obesity. The American Heart Association reports that heart disease and stroke Arthur Foundation and Loyola University Partner to Train Bilingual Nurses account for almost 30 percent of deaths among Latino males and 35 In 2000, the Berwyn-Cicero Hispanic Registered Nurse Initiative was formed as a percent of deaths among Latinas in the U.S. Risk factors of coronary collaborative effort between the Arthur Foundation, a Berwyn-based philanthropic heart disease include high blood pressure, elevated blood choles- organization, and Loyola University's Marcella Niehoff School of Nursing. The program terol, tobacco use, and insufficient physical activity, much of which provides major scholarships to Latino students interested in the program leading to may be prevented through behavioral changes. However, low literacy a bachelor of science in nursing degree at the nursing school. For two years after skills, limited English, and lack of access to health promotion and graduation, nurses are required to work in suburban Cicero, Berwyn, Riverside, North Riverside, Lyons, Forest View, or Stickney. They can also choose to work in Chicago's prevention materials keep many Latinos unaware of these factors.
Little Village and Pilsen neighborhoods. Cancer ranks third as a cause of death in the United States, but The partnership will continue under the present grant to the year 2013. During that it is the leading cause of death for Latinas ages 25 to 64 and among time, more than 90 bilingual and bicultural nurses are expected to graduate from Latino men over age 45. While Latinos have a lower overall cancer Loyola's nursing school and contribute to the health and welfare of the communities in rate than non-Latinos, they have disproportionately high mortality which they work.
rates, largely due to late diagnosis. The Intercultural Cancer Council reports that uninsured Latinos are two to three times more likely to have cancer diagnosed at a later stage, resulting in poorer health out-comes and higher rates of mortality. 88 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 89 A Shared Future Health and Social Services A 2002 report from the Centers for Disease Control said almost A Chicago Reporter analysis of Chicago Department of Public three-fourths of people in the Mexican community were overweight Health data from 2002 shows that in Chicago neighborhoods where and more than a third were obese. The Mexican community has the the majority of residents are Latino, an average of 153 babies were highest rates of overweight and obesity of all ethnic and racial groups. born to teen mothers, compared to 109 in mostly black areas and 28 Obesity increases the risk of developing coronary heart disease, high in areas that are mostly white. blood pressure, osteoarthritis, and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is one of the most serious health issues affecting Latinos Obesity is a serious health problem for Mexican children. in the United States. It is the fifth-leading cause of death among Latinos. According to the National Diabetes Education Program, the Childhood obesity has tripled in the United States in the last 30 years. prevalence of type 2 diabetes is twice as high among Latinos than Nearly one-third of all children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 years among non-Latino whites. Approximately a quarter of Mexicans in are overweight or at the high end of normal weight. For children of the United States have type 2 diabetes. People with diabetes are at Mexican descent the numbers are much higher—37 percent of girls high risk for heart disease, kidney failure, and circulatory problems and 43 percent of boys.
that can lead to amputations, serious complications that have high According to the Consortium to Lower Obesity in Chicago's medical costs, and can lead to major disability and early death. Children, in Chicago's overwhelmingly Mexican South Lawndale In 2001, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and neighborhood, more than 40 percent of children are obese. This Kidney Diseases reported that one-third of diabetes cases among compares to just over 20 percent in Chicago and 10 percent in the Latinos go unreported and untreated, making diagnosis and treat- United States. Obesity can lead to problems such as type 2 diabetes, ment an urgent matter for Latinos. previously a disease of middle age, in children and young adults.
Research demonstrates that childhood obesity is more common Most health problems encountered by Mexican youth are preventable. in children who are poor and whose mothers have low education, pointing to the need for prevention and intervention in low-income Studies show that as Mexican American youth become more accul- Mexican communities. turated to life in the United States, they lose their extended family network and become engaged in more high-risk behaviors that affect Health and Social Recommendation 2:
their current health and future productivity.
According to the 2005 Youth Risk Behavioral Survey of nearly expand programs and resources that encourage disease prevention
14,000 high school students, Latino and black students are more and wellness in Mexican communities in the city and suburbs.
likely than whites to say they are overweight, and engage in physical fighting and risky sexual behaviors. Latino students are more likely Action Items: than black or white students to report attempted suicide and the use of drugs like cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamines. • The Task Force urges local and state departments of public health, research universities, and foundations to provide resources for Latino teens have the highest teen birth rates, reducing their opportuni- programs that promote preventive care and prevention edu- ties for a successful future. cation in the Mexican community through schools, churches, community-based organizations, community health promotion Giving birth as a teen greatly reduces the education and career options programs, and other grassroots initiatives. for young people, and affects the health and well-being of the child as well. About a third of teen mothers in the United States will complete • The Task Force urges city and suburban governments to assess high school, but only 1.5 percent will complete college by the time and address the need for parks and other green space in pre- they are 30 years old. Of all Latina teen mothers aged 15 to 19 in 2002, dominantly Mexican communities. only 4 percent completed high school and went on to college. 90 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 91 A Shared Future Health and Social Services • The Task Force urges local and state departments of public health and human services to partner with schools, community-based Corazon Community Services
organizations, media, and Mexican youth to implement programs Corazon Community Services is a start-up social service organization in Cicero, Illinois, promoting nutrition, exercise, and other prevention efforts.
a community with the largest Mexican population of any suburb. Corazon focuses on serving youth in a town that has more than 30,000 children under age 18 and a dearth of organized venues for positive social engagement for young people. When Corazon was established, there were no other Latino-led bilingual and bicultural organizations A broad range of social services is needed to support immigrants as they strive for economic security and social integration. For immi- "Clearly the need exists, and we are attempting to respond comprehensively to the grants, social service agencies, such as Chicago's settlement houses, needs of the community. It feels as if we are building brick by brick," said Adam Alonso, state agencies, and churches are often a connection into broader founder of Corazon. "We started out by recruiting volunteers to provide youth community life, especially in suburban areas where the Mexican Now, three years after Alonso launched Corazon, the agency has two full- and two population has expanded and where most other residents do not part-time staff and an intern. It began serving 80 young people from 14 to 21 years old speak Spanish. They provide services such as childcare, mental and this year expects to reach 200 through programs that run after school and all day health services, youth programs, senior services, and emergency during the summer. Services include tutoring and homework help, sports, games, life food and shelter.
skills workshops, arts and drop-in, and an after-school program begun in late spring of Due to lack of bilingual staff and inadequate resources, some suburban communities are unable to help their new residents to The agency has recently added a computer technology center offering computer become integrated into their community. In addition, Mexicans are training to children, adults, and seniors during the day, evenings, and weekends, and is often unfamiliar with these organizations. in discussions with the Chicago Police Department to do gang intervention and outreach. Latinos tend to live in extended families with care responsibilities among Corazon receives state and private funding and recently was awarded its first different generations. foundation grant, from Hispanics in Philanthropy. Alonso credits his success so far to building on the relationships of his previous experience in youth services to get the door open. But he still holds another full-time job, because as yet he is unable to pay himself a salary. Alonso's experience in getting his agency off the ground is an example of Lake County Community Foundation
emerging nonprofits trying to meet the needs of immigrant communities. The Lake County Community Foundation was created in collaboration with The Chicago Community Trust in June 2003 as a response to the growth in Lake County's population and an increased demand for social and health services, education, and affordable The American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) found that housing. Lake County is diverse with a multiethnic population and households at various economic levels. In particular, Lake County towns such as Highwood, Mundelein, Round Latinos were twice as likely as the general population to have had an Lake, and Waukegan have witnessed a significant population growth in recent years, aunt or uncle living in their household when they were children. mostly due to immigrants. Waukegan, for example, was 44.8 percent Latino in 2000, and Latinos are also more likely to care for other people's children. increased to 54.2 percent Latino according to 2004 data. Overall, the Latino population Nineteen percent of Latino parents aged 45 to 55 also care for other in Lake County increased by 140 percent from 1990 to 2000, and continues to grow. people's children, compared to 11 percent of the overall population, The Lake County Community Foundation operates through partnerships with and Latinos are more involved in directly caring for elders. Some 21 charitable donors, professional advisors, The Chicago Community Trust, the Chicago area's largest community foundation, and other nonprofit organizations. It was percent of Latinos surveyed help their elder family members with established by a group of key business and government officials who wanted to help personal care such as bathing and dressing, compared to 12 percent their community meet its growing needs, particularly for human services. In May 2006, of the general population. the foundation awarded over $80,000 in grants to support after-school programs, These findings have implications for the types of support that expand outpatient medical services, and support mentoring and wellness programs.
Latino families may need in addressing issues pertaining to the caregiv-er's burden, especially as it affects his or her ability to maintain a job. 92 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 93 A Shared Future Health and Social Recommendation 3:
VI. a call to action
provide financial and professional expertise to create a stronger
The Mexican American Task Force was convened to address the eco- social services infrastructure in the suburbs able to meet the needs
nomic and social integration of the Chicago metropolitan region's of the growing Mexican community.
largest immigrant community, to help ensure Chicago's future pros-perity, and to offer a model for cities around the nation and the world. Action Items: As Chicago continues to take its place as a first-tier global city, it must invest in the human capital of its residents, especially its immigrants • The Task Force urges regional organizations, such as the and their children. Metropolitan Mayors Caucus and the Suburban United Way, to As we have demonstrated throughout this report, the Mexican work with city and suburban social services organizations to community plays a vital role in Chicago today and will do so even increase availability of services in suburban communities with more in the future. While there has been a Mexican presence in the large or growing Mexican populations.
area since the late 19th century, the latest wave of Mexican immi-grants has brought new challenges and rich opportunities to city • The Task Force urges corporations, foundations, and state and neighborhoods and suburban communities. Building on their tal- local governments to provide resources for the expansion of exist- ents, skills, and economic potential will require vision and com- ing suburban social services organizations and the development mitment from our leaders, investment of resources, cross-cultural of new organizations in communities where they are needed.
dialogue, collaboration across sectoral and political lines, and cre-ativity from Chicagoans of all backgrounds. • The Task Force urges suburban and city social service agencies to partner with Mexican community organizations to identify and City dwellers and suburbanites, lifelong residents and recent immigrants, address the needs of people caring for their young and elderly relatives. Mexicans and non-Mexicans alike, ours is a shared future. • The Task Force urges suburban mayors to partner with immi- as members of the Mexican american Task Force, we call
grant and other community leaders to establish Community Welcoming Centers in suburbs that have growing Mexican and other immigrant populations.
Civic, business, and philanthropic leaders to reach out to Mexican
entrepreneurs, professionals, and community leaders, for expanded
access to professional development and leadership opportunities, and
Community Welcoming Centers
to invest in programs that develop the talents and skills that enable The Task Force proposes opening Community Welcoming Centers modeled in part after Mexicans to contribute more fully to the region's economic growth.
the successful Chicago settlement houses that served immigrants in Chicago. Centers would partner with Mexican hometown associations and other immigrant organizations, Mexican community leaders to hold out a vision for their commu-
and local information centers and visitors' bureaus. They would offer information on nity of full engagement in every aspect of Chicago's future, to build navigating local government offices, understanding new immigration laws, and relationships and collaborate with non-Mexican civic, business, registering for English and citizenship classes. The Community Welcoming Centers educational, governmental, and other leaders in the region, and to would provide services to Mexicans and other immigrants to foster their integration into increase Mexican participation in economic activity, schools, civic their new communities as well as provide information of use to other local residents. In organizations, and political life.
addition, the centers would promote understanding between new immigrants and their established neighbors through workshops and social activities. The range of resources available would be based on the needs of each local community. Educators to improve the design of our education system, raise the
expectations and abilities of our teachers, principals, and parents,
94 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 95 A Shared Future and to address the specific needs of Mexican students to better pre- Task Force sponsors
pare them to compete in the global economy.
State and local government officials and other policymakers to
Lead sponsor
institute policies that support improvements in workplace and entre-preneurial opportunity, education, citizenship programs, and social and health services for all, particularly the Mexican community. The Chicago Community Trust Mexican business leaders to expand their businesses, promote
entrepreneurship and job development, and reach out to city and suburban chambers of commerce and other business networks.
The Boeing Company All of greater Chicago to embrace Mexican immigrants and their
The Exelon Corporation children as fellow stakeholders in Chicago's future, to understand one another's cultures and values, and to work together so that our McCormick Tribune Foundation communities can better serve us all.
We, the Task Force, offer this report of findings and recommenda-tions for the economic engagement of greater Chicago and its Mayer Brown Rowe & Maw LLP Mexican community, in the spirit of a mutual responsibility for a global city providing opportunities for all. Task Force meeting facilities provided by:
MacNeal HospitalMayer Brown Rowe & Maw LLPMexican Fine Arts Center Museum 96 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 97 A Shared Future Task Force Co-chairs Task Force co-chairs
master of arts in international economics and politics from the Johns Hopkins University and a master of business administration degree from Northwestern University. She serves as vice president of the Chicago Board of Education and sits on several other civic boards, Mayer Brown Rowe & Maw LLP including The Chicago Council on Global Affairs.
Douglas Doetsch is a partner based in Chicago at the multinational law firm of Mayer Brown Rowe & Maw LLP. He specializes in interna- tional finance, corporate and securities matters, focusing on trans- actions in Mexico and elsewhere in Latin America. He regularly Evans Food Group represents banks and companies in the emerging markets on securi- Alejandro Silva is a Mexican national who became a U.S. citizen in ties offerings, mergers and acquisitions, and restructurings. He 1997. He is chairman of the board of Evans Food Group Ltd., Chicago, speaks and writes frequently on topics such as securitizations by Illinois—the largest Hispanic company in the Chicago area. He emerging market issuers, international joint ventures, issuances of entered the food business in Mexico in 1972 as operations manager debt securities in the Euro-markets, and issuances of American and assistant plant manager of KIR Alimentos S.A. In 1979, he began Depositary Receipts by foreign issuers. He obtained his juris doctor a joint venture in Monterrey, Mexico, called Distribudora Mezquital from Columbia University in 1986, where he was editor-in-chief of Del Oro, S.A. He received his bachelor of science degree in food tech- the Columbia Journal of Transnational Law. He is a Phi Beta Kappa nology from Instituto Tecnologico y De Estudios Superiores de graduate of Kalamazoo College, and did postgraduate study at the Monterrey in Mexico and his master of science in food engineering Université de Dakar in Senegal. He is also a member of the board of from the National College of Food Technology in Weybridge, Surrey, directors of The Chicago Council on Global Affairs and a trustee of England. He has also received diplomas from the London School of the Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum.
Foreign Trade and from the College of Distribution Trades in Advanced Meat Technology. He has served as a guest lecturer at Dartmouth College. He is a board member of The Chicago Council on Global Affairs and of the New America Alliance, a trustee of the Ancora Associates, Inc. Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum and of the Institute of International Clare Muñana is a public sector, nonprofit, and international man- Education, a director of the Private Bank, and the chairman of the agement consultant operating her own firm. She has experience in finance and budgeting committee of the Chicago Transit Authority. domestic and international business and strategic planning, having He has received many awards, including the 1998 Latino Globalist performed numerous engagements for public and private sector cli- Award and the U.S. Department of Commerce Minority Enterprises ents in the U.S., Europe, Africa, and Latin America. Recent projects Development Agency's 1999 Award. include the strategic plan for a Chicago start-up museum; develop-ment of a cultural institution for an economically and culturally underserved region; coproject manager of a mayoral economic development initiative for business attraction, retention, and expan-sion, City of Chicago; and a strategic plan for a major Chicago cul-tural institution. Her previous experience includes serving as a marketing consultant for U.S. companies establishing or expanding their ventures in Europe and working on projects for the United Nations and other international development agencies. She is a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Boston College, where she obtained a bache-lor of arts in political science and Spanish literature. She also has a The Chicag ouncil on Global A ouncil on Global A ffairs Task Force Report - 99 A Shared Future Task Force Members Task Force Members
Illinois AFL-CIO Margaret Blackshere was elected president of the Illinois AFL-CIO in Family Focus 2000 after serving as secretary-treasurer from 1993 to 2000. She Gonzalo Arroyo is the director of Family Focus in Aurora, Illinois, a serves on a variety of boards and councils, including The Chicago nonprofit organization that offers support programs to families in Council on Global Affairs, the United Way of Illinois, American Red the surrounding area. Family Focus targets its services toward immi- Cross in Illinois, Worker's Compensation Advisory Board, the gration issues, adult education, child development, after-school pro- Industrial Commission's Self Insurer's Advisory Board, and the gramming, and information to access public benefits. He is also the Chicago Metropolis 2020 Board.
co-founder and first president of the Federacion de Clubes Michoacanos en Illinois.
Allert Brown-Gort
Associate Director, Institute for Latino Studies
Jose M. Aybar
University of Notre Dame Associate Vice Chancellor for Arts & Sciences Allert Brown-Gort is responsible for day-to-day operations of the City Colleges of Chicago Institute and oversees grant proposals and research projects. A citi- Jose M. Aybar has more than six years of teaching experience in post- zen of both the United States and Mexico, he has worked at the secondary education specializing in international studies and edu- Autonomous Technological Institute of Mexico (ITAM) in Mexico cational policy issues. He has developed and directed programs in City and at Columbia University.
Latin American Studies, particularly on Latin American immigration to the U.S. Gerardo Cardenas
Chicago Press Secretary & Hispanic Community Liaison
Alberto M. Azpe
Office of the Governor Community Bank President Gerardo Cardenas, a journalist for over 20 years, has been at the Harris Bank Office of the Governor since 2004. Previously, he was assignment Alberto M. Azpe is one of the heads of the Hispanic Banking Initiative, editor for Hoy, the Spanish-language daily newspaper published by a major business commitment to address the distinctive needs of Tribune Company.
Chicagoland's Hispanic marketplace. Azpe has 15 years of experi-ence, previously with Grupo Financiero Bancomer, one of Mexico's Joel M. Carp
largest retail banks. Senior Vice PresidentJewish Federation of Metropolitan Chicago James D. Bindenagel
Joel M. Carp has been engaged in efforts to create public policies and Vice President for Community, Government, and International sustain quality, comprehensive health and human services for peo- ple, including refugees and immigrants. He has also served on a DePaul University number of governmental task forces for both the mayor and the J.D. Bindenagel is responsible for deepening connections between DePaul University's Chicago and overseas campuses and communi-ties. A former U.S. ambassador and 28-year veteran of the U.S. diplo- José Cerda III
matic corps, he most recently served as the vice president for program Chief of Policy at The Chicago Council on Foreign Relations (now The Chicago Office of the Mayor Council on Global Affairs).
José Cerda III advises Mayor Richard M. Daley on federal, state, and local policy issues, and works to develop and implement innovative 100 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 101 A Shared Future Task Force Members policies that will benefit the city of Chicago and its residents. He pre- Sarah Nava Garvey
viously served as special assistant for domestic policy to former Vice President - State & Local Government Relations President Bill Clinton, contributing to policy development in the The Boeing Company areas of crime and drug policy, urban redevelopment, race relations, Sarah Nava Garvey serves as the company liaison with government and immigration.
and community leaders as well as the international political and business community in the Midwest region. She is currently the Julie Chavez
president of the board of the U.S.-Mexico Chamber of Commerce, Senior Vice President, Chicago Market Development and sits on the boards of the Hispanic Civic Committee of Chicago Bank of America and Scholarship Chicago.
Julie Chavez is responsible for managing a variety of programs in the areas of philanthropy, community and civic engagement, volunteer- Rey Gonzalez
ism, sponsorships, communications, and business development for Vice President of Diversity the Chicago area. She sits on the board of Metropolitan Family Services and served as board chair for six years (1999-2005) for Rey Gonzalez is responsible for strengthening the diversity programs the Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum.
for Exelon Corporation. Prior to joining Exelon in 2002, he was vice president of diversity for McDonald's Corporation. He also serves on a number of community boards, including as chairperson of both the U.S. Hispanic Leadership Institute and El Valor.
Chicago Sun-TimesJohn Cruickshank, publisher of the Chicago Sun-Times, previously Susan Hayes Gordon
served as vice president, editorial, and coeditor. He was also editor- Chief Government and Community Relations Officer in-chief of The Vancouver Sun, and is a winner of the National Children's Memorial Hospital Newspaper Award and the Lisagor Award for Ethics in Journalism.
Susan Hayes Gordon has worked for 19 years to develop positive relationships for the hospital with community leaders and policy- Leticia Peralta Davis
makers at all levels of government, and to shape public policy to Chief Executive Officer enhance the health and well-being of children. She has also chaired Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority (MPEA) the State of Illinois' Medicaid Advisory Committee from 2000 to 2003 Leticia Peralta Davis was appointed CEO of MPEA by Governor and the Illinois Hospital Association's Medicaid Disproportionate Blagojevich in 2003 to oversee the operations of Navy Pier and Share Hospital Committee from 2002 to 2004. McCormick Place, including the West Building Expansion Project. She brings to the position over 25 years' experience in public finance and has implemented a variety of sound fiscal and business prac- Former Executive Director tices at the authority.
Latinos United Juanita Irizarry served as the executive director of Illinois' only regional, Latino-focused public policy and advocacy group regard- ing housing issues, where she led the organization through its 2005 Erie Neighborhood House launch of the Latino Action Research Network as the organization Ricardo Estrada has led efforts that resulted in the creation of the expanded its work into immigration, education, and other issues Erie Elementary Charter School and in the offering of adult educa- affecting the Latino community. She is a bilingual, Illinois-born tion classes and technology services to Little Village residents for the Puerto Rican with more than 15 years of experience in the nonprofit first time. Prior to joining Erie, he worked for several local organiza- sector, with an emphasis on housing and community development tions to strengthen Chicago's Latino communities.
work in Chicago's Latino community.
102 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 103 A Shared Future Task Force Members William A. O'Connor was the chief of staff and legal counsel in the Office of the Illinois House Republican Leader from 2003 to 2006. From 1998 until 2002, he was a State Representative for the 43rd Ernest Mahaffey founded DI Group, an export sales and marketing District, serving Western suburban Cook County.
company. Prior to leading DI Group, he was vice president with Chase Manhattan Bank. He has pursued leadership and philan- thropic activities with the theme of embracing the world in urban The Little Village Chamber of CommerceSalvador Pedroza emigrated from Ocampo, Guanajuato, Mexico, in Terry Mazany
1974 to the United States and is the owner and president of Economy President and CEO Roofing & Siding, Inc. He is serving his second term as president of The Chicago Community Trust the Little Village Chamber of Commerce. He is also a founder of the Terry Mazany became just the fifth president in The Chicago Social Club Ocampo and the Guanajuatense Association.
Community Trust's 90-year history in 2004. Prior to that position, he headed the Trust's Education Initiative. He has a distinguished career Donald E. Peloquin
in public school administration with a demonstrated commitment to equity and opportunity for all students.
City of Blue IslandDonald E. Peloquin has been the mayor of Blue Island since 1985. Milena K. Novy-Marx
Previously, he served as alderman of Blue Island's 4th Ward. He sees Program Officer the future of Blue Island revolving around the redevelopment of the The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation town's transportation, industrial center, and civic and recreational Milena K. Novy-Marx is a program officer in the Initiative on Global centers to stimulate new businesses and job growth.
Migration and Human Mobility in the foundation's Program on Global Security & Sustainability. Prior to joining the foundation, she Lance Pressl
spent several years as an economic and management consultant working on issues of business strategy, antitrust, and competition Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce Foundation Lance Pressl began his professional career in state government before working as director of issues management for Philip Morris Companies, Inc. In 1996, he was named president of the Civic Federation and in 2003 was appointed senior associate for govern- World Business Chicago ment and public policy for the American Council on Education. Paul O'Connor began his career as a journalist in Chicago and Seattle, served as press secretary to the governor of Washington, then as Illinois' assistant director of public health, and later chief operating Division Manager for Early Childhood and Self-Sufficiency Services officer of its Department of Commerce in charge of international The Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese of Chicago and economic development. At Mayor Richard M. Daley's request, Guadalupe Preston is a native of Chicago, of Mexican and Polish he left a career in national and international corporate marketing to descent. She is currently employed at Catholic Charities of the organize and head World Business Chicago.
Archdiocese of Chicago. She has also worked for the Illinois Department of Human Services in the employment and training William A. O'Connor
contract section.
Former Chief of Staff and Legal CounselIllinois House Republican Leader Tom Cross 104 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 105 A Shared Future Task Force Members Director, Metropolitan Chicago Initiative Institute for Latino Studies Sanchez & Daniels University of Notre Dame Manuel "Manny" Sanchez is the managing partner of Sanchez & Sylvia Puente is a leading public policy analyst on issues impacting Daniels, the largest minority-owned law firm in the United States. He Latinos. In October of 2005, she was recognized as one of the "100 was a founder of the Mexican American Lawyers Association and the Most Influential Hispanics in the U.S." by Hispanic Business maga- Latin American Bar Association. He has been honored by numerous zine. Since 2001, she directs community research, promotes com- organizations and magazines as one of the nation's most influential munity capacity-building, and speaks on issues that affect Latinos as the director of the Metropolitan Chicago Initiative for the Institute for Latino Studies at the University of Notre Dame.
Martin A. Sandoval
Illinois State Senator
Gerald Roper
12th District President and Chief Executive Officer Martin A. Sandoval is a public servant representing the Southwest Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce Side neighborhoods in the Illinois State Senate. He began his career Jerry Roper is president and CEO of the Chicagoland Chamber of working for the Environmental Protection Agency, and in 1999 was Commerce and represents the voice of the Chicagoland business appointed to the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater community. Before joining the Chamber in 1993, he served as presi- Chicago, making him the first Latino commissioner of the district. dent and CEO of the Chicago Convention and Tourism Bureau.
During his tenure, he was the only countywide Latino elected offi-cial. He is also the co-chairman of the Joint Legislative Task Force of Jesse H. Ruiz
Immigrants and Refugees.
PartnerGardner Carton & Douglas LLP Rick Segal
Jesse H. Ruiz is vice chairman of Gardner Carton & Douglas LLP's Managing Director Corporate and Securities Department. In September 2004, he was Park Hyatt North America appointed chairman of the Illinois State Board of Education by Rick Segal, a seasoned hotel executive specializing in luxury proper- Governor Blagojevich. He is also legal counsel to the 13 Illinois state ties, oversees the management of Park Hyatt Hotels North America, senators and representatives who have come together for the first as well as Park Hyatt Chicago. Before joining Park Hyatt, he most time in Illinois history to form the Illinois Legislative Latino Caucus recently served as vice president and director of operations for and the Illinois Legislative Latino Caucus Foundation.
Sheraton's Luxury Collection, as well as managing director of New York's St. Regis hotel.
Edwin B. Silverman
Instituto del Progreso Latino Chief, Bureau of Refugee & Immigrant Services Juan Salgado leads Instituto, a successful organization that contrib- Illinois Department of Human Services utes to the fullest development of Latino immigrants and their fami- Edwin Silverman has worked for the State of Illinois since 1973. From lies through education, training, and employment that fosters full 1976 until 1997, he administered the Illinois Refugee Resettlement participation in the changing U.S. society while preserving cultural Program which became a part of the Illinois Department of Human identity and dignity. He is also president of the board of directors of Services in 1997. He continues to administer it as the chief of the the Illinois Coalition for Immigrant and Refugee Rights. Bureau of Refugee & Immigrant Services. 106 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 107 A Shared Future Task Force Members Adele S. Simmons
Vice Chair and Senior Executive Founder and President Chicago Metropolis 2020 Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum Adele S. Simmons is currently vice chair of Chicago Metropolis 2020, Carlos Tortolero is the founder and president of the largest Latino a senior research associate at the University of Chicago, president of arts institution in the nation. From 1975 to 1987, he worked as a the Global Philanthropy Partnership, and a senior advisor to the teacher, counselor, and administrator in the Chicago Public School World Economic Forum. She was previously the president of the system. He is the coauthor of Mexican Chicago, a photo history book John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation for a decade. She is of the Mexican community of Chicago.
currently on the board of Marsh and McLennan Companies, and a number of nonprofit organizations, including The Chicago Council on Global Affairs.
Regional President, Illinois RegionBanco Popular North America John M. Sirek
Javier Ubarri is responsible for the branch network, commercial Citizenship Program Director lending effort, and all banking operations in the Illinois region. Under McCormick Tribune Foundation his leadership, Banco Popular has become one of the top small busi- John M. Sirek funds initiatives that engage young people in civic ness lenders and one of the leading community banks. He is cur- affairs, honor patriotism, and facilitate dialogue on important rently a member of the board of directors of Accion.
national issues. He is board president of PACE: Philanthropy for Active Civic Engagement, a board member of the TimeLine Theatre Arthur R. Velasquez
Company and City Year Chicago, and a member of the advisory com- President and Chief Executive Officer mittee of the Alfred Friendly Press Fellowships.
Azteca Foods, Inc.
Arthur R. Velasquez is a founder of Azteca Corn Products Corporation, Peter Skosey
Chicago. Azteca, founded in 1970, is one of the largest Mexican food Vice President of External Relations manufacturing companies in the Midwest. He also served as a trustee Metropolitan Planning Council of the University of Illinois from 1974 through 1980, making him the Peter Skosey started at the MPC as urban development director in first Hispanic elected to a statewide office in Illinois. He currently sits 1996, joining the leadership team to restructure the institution into a on the board of trustees of the University of Notre Dame.
strong advocate for policy change. He has worked on growth and development policies that improve communities across Northeastern Eric E. Whitaker, M.D.
DirectorIllinois Department of Public Health Eric E. Whitaker oversees an agency with responsibility for improv- Vice President and Director of Regional Programs ing the health of the 12.4 million citizens of Illinois. He previously Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago served as senior attending physician at Cook County Hospital in William Testa has written widely in the area of economic develop- Chicago. His research interests included HIV/AIDS prevention and ment programs, the Midwest economy, and state/local public minority health, particularly for black males. He is also an assistant finance. He directed a comprehensive long-term study and forecast professor at the University of Illinois-Chicago School of Public Health of the Midwest economy, Assessing the Midwest Economy: Looking and at Rush Medical College's Department of Medicine and Preventive Back for the Future, and has fashioned a series of conferences on school reform.
108 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 109 A Shared Future Task Force Observers Task Force observers
Marissa Graciosa
Illinois Coalition for Immigrant and Refugee Rights
Karla Avila
Director, New Americans Initiative
Illinois Coalition for Immigrant and Refugee Rights DePaul University Jose Luis Alvarez
Cris Pope
Town of Cicero DirectorInterfaith Leadership Project Juan Francisco Orozco
Institute for Latino Studies Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum University of Notre Dame Cesar Romero
Consulate General of Mexico Consulate General of Mexico Carlos Sada
Alberto A. Carrero, Jr.
Consul General Senior Vice President, Public Banking Division Manager Consulate General of Mexico Banco Popular John Simmons
Maria Choca Urban
Strategic Learning Initiatives Program DirectorChicago Metropolis 2020 Blanca Vargas
State Director and Regional Vice President
League of United Latin American Citizens Director, Business DevelopmentMacNeal Hospital Angel Ysaguirre
The Boeing Company
Peter Creticos
Executive Director
Institute for Work and the Economy
Northern Illinois University

Mary Kate Daly
Children's Memorial Hospital
Frank de Avila
President
Coalition of Mexican Organizations in the Midwest

110 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 111 A Shared Future Task Force Session Speakers Task Force session speakers
session III: economic development: Where Is the Mexican
* Task Force member session I: opening session/comprehensive outline of
National Coordinator, New Alliance Task Force Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Frank Beal
Chicago Metropolis 2020 Little Village Chamber of Commerce Carlos Sada
session IV: social and cultural Integration Issues
Consul General of MexicoConsulate General of Mexico session II: The economic context of the Mexican
University of Notre Dame community in chicago
Amparo Castillo
Director, Diabetes Research, Midwest Latino Health Research, Training
and Policy Center Associate Director, Institute for Latino Studies University of Illinois at Chicago University of Notre Dame John Koval
Assistant Professor of Sociology and Latino and Latin American Associate Professor of Sociology DePaul University Northeastern Illinois University Robert Paral
Research Fellow, American Law Foundation, Washington, D.C. Former Executive Director Institute for Metropolitan Affairs, Roosevelt University Latinos United Eric E. Whitaker, M.D.*
Director, Metropolitan Chicago Initiative Institute for Latino Studies Illinois Department of Public Health University of Notre Dame session V: education
William Testa*
Vice President and Director of Regional Programs
Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago

Armando Almendarez
Deputy Chief Education Officer for Curriculum Development
Chicago Public Schools

112 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 113 A Shared Future Jose M. Aybar*
Associate Vice Chancellor for Arts & SciencesCity Colleges of Chicago List of Readings, Handouts, and Briefing Materials Jesse H. Ruiz*
overview and Introduction
PartnerGardner Carton & Douglas LLP Arredondo, Gabriella F., and Derek Vaillant. "Mexicans," The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago, http://www.encyclopedia.
Instituto Del Progresso Latino Fix, Michael, Wendy Zimmerman, Jeffrey S. Passel, "Immigration session VI: civic and political participation
Studies: The Integration of Immigrant Families in the United States." Urban Institute, 2001. [Excerpt] Joshua Hoyt
Gupta, Sapna. "Immigrants in the Chicago Suburbs: A Policy Paper," Chicago Metropolis 2020, February 2004. Illinois Coalition for Immigrant and Refugee Rights "Mexico and the Migration Phenomenon," The Mexican Consulate Maria de los Angeles Torres
General in Chicago. Director, Latin American and Latino StudiesUniversity of Illinois at Chicago Padilla, Felix M. Latino Ethnic Consciousness: The Case of Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans in Chicago. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1985.
Senior Research AnalystInstitute for Latino Studies, University of Notre Dame Passel, Jeffery S. and Roberto Suro. "Rise, Peak and Decline: Trends in U.S. Immigration 1992-2004." Pew Hispanic Center, September 27, 2005.
Univision Chicago and Telefutura Chicago, "2000 & 2006 Ethnic Population Comparison." [Data sheet] Baycan-Levent, Tüzin, et. al. "Cultural Dialogue in the Economic Arena: Ethnic Entrepreneurship," Position Paper of Task Group 4.4, Diversity and Ethnic Entrepreneurship.
Bernstein, Nina. "Most Mexican Immigrants in New Study Gave Up Jobs to Take Their Chances in U.S." The New York Times, December 7, 2005.
114 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 115 A Shared Future Building Entrepreneurial Communities. Cassopolis: Edward Lowe Latinos United, undated. [Chart summarizing various fair housing Foundation, 2002.
Chico, Gery. "For Chicago Area Hispanics, This Really Is Home Mehta, Chirag, et. al. Chicago's Undocumented Immigrants: An Now." Chicago Sun-Times, December 12, 2005.
Analysis of Wages, Working Conditions, and Economic Contributions. Chicago: University of Illinois at Chicago Center for Urban Chiu, Shirley. Immigrants in the Workforce: National and Midwest Economic Development, 2002. Facts and Figures. Chicago: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
Mihalopoulos, Dan. "Elgin Officials Reject Charges of Housing Bias; "Critical Skill Shortages Initiative." PowerPoint presentation, HUD Says City Targets Latinos," Chicago Tribune, October 3, 2000.
Governor's Workforce Development Conference, October 23, The Occupational Status and Mobility of Hispanics. Washington: Pew Hispanic Center. [Executive Summary] "Digital Job Divide." Illinois Department of Employment Security, The Office of the Governor of Illinois. Gov. Blagojevich Announces Occupational Employment Statistics, Chicago PMSA, July 2002. $240,000 in Funding to Address Critical Shortage of Manufacturing [A selection of statistics] Workers in Southern Illinois. Chicago: January 31, 2006. [Press Release] Dellios, Hugh. "U.S. Money Helps, Hurts Mexicans." Chicago Tribune, December 14, 2005.
Olivo, Antonio. "Less Aid Given for Latino Housing," Chicago Tribune, August 23, 2005.
Eisen, Phyllis, Jerry J. Jasinowski, and Richard Kleinert. 2005 Skills Gap Report: A Survey of the American Manufacturing Workforce. Paral, Rob and Timothy Ready. "The Economic Progress of U.S.- and "Empresario," Chicagoland Entrepreneurial Center. [Fact Sheet] Foreign-Born Mexicans in Metro Chicago: Indications from the United States Census." Research Reports (University of Notre Dame Frias, Michael A. "Linking International Remittance Flows to Institute for Latino Studies) 2005, no. 4 (May 2005): 1-20.
Financial Services: Tapping the Latino Immigrant Market." FDIC's Supervisory Insights 1, no. 2 (2004).
Paral, Rob and Dan Siciliano. Economic Growth & Immigration: Bridging the Demographic Divide. Washington: American Garza, Melita Marie. "Cicero Landlords Face Discrimination Immigration Law Foundation, 2005.
Charge," Chicago Tribune, April 7, 2000.
"Pew Hispanic Center Report: Unemployment Plays Small Role in Ibarra, Beatriz. Financial Counseling: A Meaningful Strategy for Spurring Mexican Migration to U.S." [Press Release] Building Wealth in the Latino Community. National Council of La Raza, 2005.
Porter, Eduardo. "Not on the Radar: Illegal Immigrants are Bolstering Social Security." Generations (Journal of the American Jervis, Rick and Virginia Groark. "Family Sues West Chicago over Society on Aging), Spring 2005.
June Occupancy Raid," Chicago Tribune, February 28, 2003.
Silva, Mark. "Immigration a Big Risk for Bush." Chicago Tribune, Kochhar, Rakesh. Survey of Mexican Migrants, Part Three: The December 4, 2005. Economic Transition to America. Washington: Pew Hispanic Center, 2005. 116 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 117 A Shared Future Singer, Audrey and Anna Paulson. Financial Access for Immigrants: Mendell, David and Tracy Dell'Angela. "Parents Feeling Betrayed: Learning from Diverse Perspectives. Washington: The Brookings Some in Little Village Can't Go to School They Fought For," Chicago Institution, 2004. Tribune, January 10, 2006.
Smith, Rob. "Latino Group Aims to Help City Resolve HUD Telpochcalli. "About Telpochcalli." Chicago Public Schools. http:// Dispute," Chicago Tribune, August 9, 2000.
"West Chicago pays $100,000 to Settle Lawsuit," Chicago Sun-Times, "UH-Clear Lake and CCISD to Offer Bilingual Program," April 14, November 28, 2003.
2004. [Press Release] Wrigley, Heide Spruck, et. al. "A A Chance to Earn, A Chance to Lear n, A Chance to Learn: Unz, Ron K. and Gloria Matta Tuchman. English Language Linking Employment and English Training for Immigrants and Education for Children in Public Schools. California: English for Refugees New to English," Center for Law and Social Policy.
Children, 1997.
Wrigley, Heide Spruck, et. al. The Language of Opportunity: VerBruggen, Robert. "Student Potential: Without Federal Aid, Expanding Employment for Adults with Limited English Skills. Undocumented Students With Goals of Private Schools Have to Washington: Center for Law and Social Policy, 2003. Look Elsewhere—Unless New Legislation Passes," The Chicago Reporter, May-June, 2005.
Heckman, James J. "Catch ‘em Young." The Wall Street Journal, January 10, 2006.
Cano, Gustavo. "The Chicago-Houston Report: Political Mobilization of Mexican Immigrants in American Cities." "Chicago Learning Campaign: Grow Your Own." [Organization Presentation, Research Seminar on Mexico and U.S.-Mexican Relations, San Diego, October 30, 2005.
College Tuition and Undocumented Immigrants. National Cano, Gustavo. "The Virgin, the Priest, and the Flag: Political Conference of State Legislatures.
Mobilization of Mexican Immigrants in Chicago, Houston, and New York," 62nd Annual Conference of the Midwest Political Science Delisio, Ellen R. "Lessons From Our Nation's Schools: Mexican Arts, Association, Chicago, April 15-18, 2004.
Culture Frame Learning." Education World, October 2, 2003.
Garcia, John A. "Latino Immigrants: Transnationalism, Patterns of The "DREAM Act." Washington: National Council of La Raza.
Multiple Citizenships, and Social Capital," Presentation, Siglo XXI: "DREAM Act" Summary. Washington: National Immigration Law Latino Research into the 21st Century, January 27-29, 2005.
Center, 2004.
How Did Latinos Really Vote in 2004? Washington: National Council Finaid.org, "Financial Aid and Scholarships for Undocumented of La Raza, 2004. [Memorandum] Kahn, Carrie and Lourdes Garcia-Navarro. "Immigrants Run Key Issues and Challenges for Hispanic Students in Lake County: Scholarship Program for Mexicans," Morning Edition, NPR, January An Overview of Available Outreach Initiatives at Partner Schools/ Districts. Lake County Community Foundation.
118 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 119 A Shared Future Lopez, Mark Hugo. Electoral Engagement Among Latino Youth. Health and social services
College Park: The Center for Information & Research on Civic Learning & Engagement (CIRCLE) of the School of Public Affairs at Cullitoin, Katherine. Health Disparities Impacting the Latino University of Maryland, 2003.
Community—This Is Not a Time to Go Backwards on Civil Rights. National Latino Council on Alcohol and Tobacco Prevention, 2006.
Preliminary Research Briefing: New Americans Survey. New Americans Initiative, Illinois Coalition for Immigrant and Refugee Economic and Health Costs of Diabetes. Agency for Healthcare Rights, 2005.
Research and Quality, 2005.
Suro, Roberto. "Latino Power? It Will Take Time for the Population Franklin, Stephen. "Latino Labor Risks Rise," Chicago Tribune, Boom to Translate," The Washington Post, June 26, 2005.
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124 - The Chicago Council on Global Affairs Task Force Report - 125 The Chicago Council
on Global Affairs, founded in 1922
as The Chicago Council on Foreign Relations,
is a leading independent, nonpartisan organization
committed to influencing the discourse on global
issues through contributions to opinion and policy

formation, leadership dialogue, and public learning.
task force series
conomic Eng
A Shared Future:
The Economic Engagement
of Greater Chicago and Its
t of Gr
ea
ter Chicag

o and Its Me
report of an independent task force
Douglas Doetsch, Clare Muñana and Alejandro Silva, Co-chairs sponsored by
332 South Michigan Avenue Suite 1100 Chicago, Illinois 60604 thechicagocouncil.org

Source: http://www.ime.gob.mx/investigaciones/aportaciones/chicago2.pdf

local.droit.ulg.ac.be

The ius respondendi and the Freedom of Roman Jurisprudence 1 (University of Helsinki) The significance, even the very existence of the ius respondendi is one of the many unsolved puzzles of Roman legal history. This is certainly not due to lack of effort, as there has been a continuous stream of literature on the matter from the 1930s to the present2.

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NATURAL APPROACHES FOR GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE AND RELATED DISORDERS Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic recurrent condition affecting millions ofAmericans. A recent study investigating the economic and social burden of gastrointestinal(GI) disease in the United States indicated that GERD was the most common GI-relateddiagnosis given at office visits in 2006. This study also showed that sales of proton pumpinhibitors (PPIs) exceeded $10 billion per year, and the number of prescriptions for PPIs peryear has doubled since 1999.1 Numerous environmental and genetic risk factors have beenimplicated in the pathogenesis of GERD. GERD commonly presents with heartburn and acidregurgitation, although there are numerous atypical presentations, such as chronic cough,noncardiac chest pain, laryngitis, and poor sleep quality. This disease is associated with severalother conditions, including Barrett's esophagus, esophageal carcinoma, gastritis, esophagitis,respiratory conditions, sleep disorders, and various ear-nose-throat (ENT) conditions. Con-ventional treatment often includes the use of PPIs and other acid blockers. Natural therapiesand lifestyle interventions are important to consider, owing to the chronic nature of GERD.