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THE JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
2004; 12 (3-4): 86-88
Book review
FROM THE ANTIBIOGRAM TO PRESCRIPTION
François Jehl, Monique Chemarat, Michèle Weber and Alain Berard
Coordinator: Philippe Thévenot
Edition bioMérieux
ISBN 973 – 86485 – 2-1.
The 2-nd edition of the book "From
to MIC (AUC/MIC) and the inhibited the antibiogram to prescription", it
quotient (IQ) on one hand. On the was published under the coordination other hand there is presented the of Philippe Thévenet. The Romanian pharmacodinamics of Aminoglycosides translation was made by prof.dr.Olga with detailed aspects of kinetics of Mihaela Dorobat. This book offers a bactericidal effects, post-antibiotics logical presentation of the relations effect (PAE), adaptive resistance and between bacteria and antibiotics and also pharmatokinetics and key pharmaco- both theoretical and practical aspects dinamics parameters of this group of to laboratory staff. The authors make a pertinent statement of the mechanisms Also there are presented the pharmaco- of how antibiotics work at the level of dynamics of β-Lactams, Quinolones bacterial cell wall, the mechanisms of and Glycopeptides and the practical proteins and nucleic acids synthesis importance of the antibiotics pharmaco- and mechanisms of action of anti- tuberculosis and atypical antimyco- The clinical repartition of the bacterium substances. There are antibiotics regarding their activity has described the mechanisms of action of introduced and almost explained the β-Lactams, Glycopeptides, Fosfomycin, notion of critical concentrations or Aminoglycosides, Quinolones, Macrolides, ponderate medium concentrations, Lincosamides – Sinergistine - Ketolide sensitive, intermediate or resistant and other antibiotics. In other chapter strain and the spectrum of antibiotic there is presented bacterial resistance to antibiotics, detailing the mechanisms of The authors offer precise conditions gained resistance and describing the about when antibiogram is not necessary, mechanisms of resistance to these when and how it must be done, the choice of methods, and the main causes The pharmacodinamics of the antibiotics, of error and quality control. with fundamental and practical aspects, There are presented the main underlines the main pharmacodinamics phenotypes of resistance to the major parameters, describing the period of time antibiotics for every group of aerobe when serum concentrations are above Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, there of minimal inhibitor concentrations are described phenotypes of resistance (MIC), the areas under curves reported to β-Lactams in the group of enterobacteria and Pseudomonas to a DNA fragment integrated in aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia chromosome of MRSA strains. and Burkholderia cepacia. The last one There were also described another has a natural resistance to numerous three mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics by enzymatic mechanisms, oxacillin, codified by the gene mecA. through a natural low membrane There are strains which over produce permeability and a phenomenon of ß-lactamases and methicillinase are able to hydrolyze methicillin and Related to the Aeromonas spp., there as strains which have a modification of mentioned the highly heterogeneity of the their affinity of the normal PLP face to resistance phenotypes, which is explained by the diversity of enzymes which are Also, there are described the mechanisms sinthtetised by this group. of resistance to aminosides, tetracycline, As concerns the Haemophilus influenzae, macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramines, resistant to lincosamide and with a lower ketolides, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim/ sensitivity to macrolide and ketolide, sulfamethoxazole and other antimicrobial there is explained its resistance through ß- agents. There is mentioned that the lactamases production and modification of antibiotics that remain active on PLP. The mechanism of resistance to staphylococci are glycopeptides, fusidic imipenem was not yet elucidated. acid, rifampicin, streptogramines and Mentioning the natural resistance of Neisseria meningitidis, N.gonorrhoeae Referring to the antibiotics resistance and Branhanella cattaralis to lincosamides, phenotypes of Enterococcus there are glycopeptides and trimethoprim, there is detailed presented the mechanisms of explained their resistance by beta- resistance to β-Lactams, aminosides, lactamases synthesis and chromosomal macrolides, lincosamide, streptogramines, mutates, but also the possibility of a ketolides, glycopeptides and oxazolidones. gained resistance to tetracycline, Streptococcus pneumoniae can develop quinolones and other antibiotics. resistance to β-Lactams, macrolide, The chapter referring to the main lincosamide, streptogramine, ketolides, phenotypes of resistance of the Gram- chloramphenicol, tetracyclines, glycopeptides, positive bacteria presents the mechanisms quinolones, oxazolidones, rifampicin and of resistance of Staphylococcus and aminoglycosides. Streptococcus groups. The resistance of The presentation of clinical cases with staphylococci to β-Lactams is due to the infectious diseases, in a laborious synthesis of plasmid penicillinase, which manner, illustrates the therapy approach inactivates penicillins and the resistance with chances of success. to methicillin could be due to many There were mentioned the criteria mechanisms. Thus, the resistance is due which have to be taken into account in to the presence of a supplementary choosing the antibiotic/antibiotics in protein bounded of penicillin PLP2a or the treatment of infections diseases, in PLP2' which synthesis is codified by a the order of their importance. There mecA chromosomal gene which belongs FROM THE ANTIBIOGRAM TO PRESCRIPTION were presented the bacteriologic, reviewed in 2003, are of a great pharmacokinetics, tolerance, background, importance to microbiologists and and ecological and economical criteria. medical doctors. The drafts of utilization of antibiotics This book is of a real use and help in the therapy of initial intention (type, both for the laboratory staff and dose, the way of administration, clinicians. The knowledge and the use period of treatment), according to the of the notions from this book in type of infection and the bacteria species practical activity will conduce to the involved, will be useful for clinical improvement of the therapeutic drafts physicians of different specialities. and to reducing the evolution process The presentation of the limit values of of resistance of bacteria. MIC (mg/l) (dilutions method), limit values of the inhibition diameters (mm) (diffusion method in agar) for Sofia Constantiniu different antibiotics in the case of four strains ATCC and the list of international antibiotics classifications,

Source: http://www.jmpiasi.ro/2004/12(3-4)/REVIEW%201.pdf

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Environmental planning while deployed: mission hinderance or enhancement?

Fires set by Iraqi forces prior to their withdrawal during Operation Desert Storm blaze out of control outside Kuwait City Environmental Planning While Deployed Mission Hindrance or Major LeeAnn Racz, USAF, is Director of the Graduate Environmental Engineering and Science Program at the Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Major Peter A. Baker, USMC, is Deputy Head of the Natural Resources and Environmental Affairs Branch at Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia. Captain Kelsey L. Duckworth, USMC, and Captain Tiffany R. Heline, USAF, are graduate students in the Department of Systems Engineering and Management at the Air Force Institute of Technology. Captain Brian D. Woodall, USMC, is Deputy Director of the Environmental Management Division at Marine Corps Installations East–Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, Jacksonville, North Carolina.