Flour Treatment in Europe We are doubtless coming closer to a uniform European The present necessity for oxidative treatment might be regarded as definition and regulation of a disadvantage of the fast and gentle processing of grain into flour.
chemical flour treatment, but Natural “ageing” of the flour by exposure to the atmosphere alone is nevertheless there is still a no longer possible, and we now have to speed it up with oxidative preparations. Oxidation primarily affects sulphur-containing amino wide scope for the use of acids that are constituents of the gluten. The oxidation of two adjacent numerous generally approved hydrogen sulphide (thiol) groups results in the formation of a disulphide additives for this purpose.
bridge between different sections of the long gluten molecule or between different gluten molecules. This causes a hardening of the Examples of stricter provisions are the regulations on white bread enforced by France 1.1 Ascorbic acid
By far the most important substance for this purpose is ascorbic acid which state, for example, that (AA). Using a complex biochemical method it is produced in a very “pain de tradition” may only pure form from glucose (grape sugar, dextrose) and sold as a fine or contain yeast, leaven, gluten, crystalline powder in various concentrations to facilitate dosing. Less soy or bean flour, maize flour often, AA of purely biological origin is used. The most common product and fungal amylases but not is Acerola fruit powder, the dried juice of the Acerola (Barbados) cherry, ascorbic acid or lecithin, and with 17-19 % pure AA. Other substances on the market are AA obtained also Denmark’s stringent from rose hips and mixed preparations, some of them containing AA approval regulations for of biochemical origin. In all cases this more natural variant is much enzymes that rather suggest more expensive than the synthetic product (up to 50 times the price).
Action of Ascorbic Acid in Dough The following article aims to provide an overview of the flour improvers most commonly used in Europe. It does not go into details of the differences between specific countries, as these will change in the coming years in any Adapted from R. Kiefer, 1990 Newsletter • Mühlenchemie GmbH • Kornkamp 40 • D-22926 Ahrensburg Tel.: +49(0)4102-23 93-01 • Fax: +49(0)4102-23 93-23 • e-Mail: [email protected] • homepage: www.muehlenchemie.de At the mill, flour is treated with 1.3 Glucose oxidase
Although it has a very long- about 0.5 - 3 g of pure AA per lasting effect this effect starts 100 kg. Very soft glutens or flours The enzyme glucose oxidase later than that of AA and allows for certain applications (mainly (GOD) is usually derived from better processing of the doughs, frozen dough) require a larger the mould Aspergillus (in a similar for bromate clearly oxidizes dose of 6-10 g.
manner to amylase). Honey is glutathione only very slowly AA does not act on the protein also a rich source of GOD, but without the addition of an enzyme directly; it may be seen rather as its suitability is greatly restricted (cf. ascorbic acid). It results in protecting against a loss of by its taste. The enzyme enters very good fermentation tolerance protein stability by counteracting the honey from the pharyngeal and a high volume yield.
glutathione, that occurs in the glands of the bees.
In the main, bromate acts directly flour naturally and has the One effect of GOD in the dough on the gluten. Because of doubts opposite effect. This is only is to oxidize glucose into gluconic about its effects on health it has possible if AA is oxidized to acid with the aid of atmospheric gradually been replaced by AA dehydro-ascorbic acid (DHAA) oxygen (the slight souring that since the 1950s. A further at the beginning of the kneading occurs in the process is problem is that it accelerates fire process with the aid of the flour’s negligible); its other effect is to and explosion (bromate is a own enzymes (ascorbate transform water into hydrogen constituent of fireworks, oxidase and glutathione peroxide. This oxidizing agent dehydrogenase). In this process also acts on the thiol groups of In countries that are now glutathione is oxidized to the gluten, causing them to replacing bromate, combinations glutathione disulphide, thus tighten. The limiting factor in this of AA and enzymes offer good eliminating the gluten-softening process is the availability of alternative ways of achieving effect of glutathione. (see figure oxygen. Besides other chemical satisfactory dough and baking reactions that consume oxygen, Proof of an adequate quantity yeast also needs oxygen before Because of the low doses and homogeneous distribution starting its actual fermenting required (similar to AA or less) of the product in the flour can activity as it initially breathes and its lower price, bromate can easily be obtained with Tauber’s instead of fermenting. This hardly be replaced without reagent in conjunction with a means that the conditions for intervention by public authorities.
Pekar test. A convenient and GOD are really only good on the Bromate is easily detected and storable set with the two solutions surface of the dough as plenty required is available on the of oxygen is always available with a kit in a similar manner to market. Titration with iodine, there. The problem can only be which is more accurate but less solved by technical measures convenient, is still common during dough preparation, for practice as well.
example overpressure or the supply of extra oxygen.
A typical GOD preparation is For the sake of completeness, 1.2 Enzyme-active soy flour
dosed in similar quantities to azodicarbonamide should be other enzymes, i.e. 10 - 50 g to mentioned as well. This chemical One enzyme from soy flour, 100 kg flour (about 1,500 to 7,500 foaming agent used in the lipoxygenase, also has an units of GOD), but this depends manufacture of expanded oxidative effect on the protein of to a very great extent on the plastics (not only does it have an the gluten. During the oxidation product and process.
oxidative effect, it also of lipids by lipoxygenase, decomposes into large-volume peroxides are formed that have gases upwards of 120 °C) has a cross-linking effect on thiol 1.4 Bromate
been used as a temporary groups. However, the gluten- replacement for bromate and in strengthening effect of soy flour In Europe the powerful oxidizing some cases still is. A great is comparatively slight; its agent bromate (more precisely: disadvantage is its low dosing bleaching effect (see below) is potassium bromate) may now tolerance; a slight overdose more important.
only be used in flours for export.
causes the bread to split badly, although the properties of the that is a constituent of all proteins dough are still good. The dosage and produced either by is approximately similar to that 1.8 Chlorine and chlorine
hydrolysis of extremely cysteine- of AA or bromate. Detection is rich proteins and complex carried out by releasing the gas.
purification procedures or by The product most often used – Except in the UK and Ireland, synthetic means.
in a correspondingly larger dose these oxidizing agents are no As cysteine splits disulphide – is azodicarbonamide mixed longer used in Europe because bridges like other reducing with calcium sulphate to reduce of their possible harmful effects agents one would expect it to its inflammability, usually with on health and the technical risks counteract the effect of AA if used 23 % of the pure substance.
they involve. There is no doubt at the same time. Initially it was that with certain baked goods (for only discovered empirically that example cake with a high this is not the case: AA and 1.6 Cystine
proportion of fat and sugar) cysteine complement each other.
chlorination of the flour – that can One makes the gluten firmer Cystine is the dimer of the amino only be carried out at the mill – while the other ensures adequate acid cysteine (see below) in produces the best results. This elasticity. This is possible – as it which two molecules of cysteine is presumably the reason why was proved later – because the are linked by a disulphide bridge.
the UK is using the enzymes two substances act on different This sulphur bridge gives the almost as a pledge to achieve constituents of the gluten and molecule a certain oxidative the authorization of chlorine and attack it at different sites.
effect. But at low doses it is chlorine dioxide in the coming The use of these flour improvers possible that the gluten may regulation on flour improvers.
in frozen doughs, especially, soften, as reducing cysteine is makes it necessary to add very released when cystine reacts large doses of both substances, with thiol groups of the protein.
for on the one hand good Although this has yet to be fermentation stability is required thoroughly investigated, cystine Gluten that is too short is difficult (AA!) and on the other hand the is used in spite of its high price to process and results in a low deep-freezing process shortens as compared to AA because it volume yield, since the gas the gluten, a problem that can is occasionally found to have a formed by the yeast is not able be solved at least in part by positive effect on the properties to expand the dough as it should.
cysteine. The amount of cysteine of the dough.
The problem can be solved by added is often two-thirds of the using substances with reducing quantity of AA. The cost of this properties that break down method is quite considerable, as 1.7 Dehydroascorbic acid
surplus disulphide bridges and the prices of cysteine fluctuate thus give the protein molecules greatly and in some cases have DHAA is the oxidized form of AA.
more room to move you might even exceeded 100 DM.
This means that if DHAA were say they release them from their Cysteine is usually sold as used instead of AA it would be shackles. Short gluten properties anhydrous L-cysteine possible to dispense with the may result from the varieties hydrochloride or L-cysteine initial step of oxidation. Tests used, but they are sometimes hydrochloride monohydrate, as have shown that it is quite caused by the storage and it is more easily synthesized and possible to use DHAA. One processing of the grain has better water-solubility in this reason why it is so rarely used (overheating) or the use to which is its instability, but this could be the flour is put (freezing shortens Sodium nitrocyanoferrate / improved by coating. A further the gluten).
ammonium hydroxide can be problem is that it is more difficult used for detection, but this is an and thus more expensive to unreliable method as the blue synthesize. Finally DHAA was 2.1 Cysteine
spots are sometimes difficult to not included in the directives on see and fade quickly.
additives in the European A suspected “opponent” of AA is cysteine, a simple amino acid 2.2 Reducing yeast
find their way into foods, the European regulations become enzymes do not in this case react Yeast also produces reducing at the place where they are At least fungal amylases are substances, but these are only added (in the mill); they do not generally approved in all the EU released when the cells die.
take effect until the baker adds countries except Denmark.
There are now preparations water. This difference of time and Where other enzymes such as made of inactivated, killed yeast place is a great challenge to the hemicellulase or protease are on the market that have a flour treatment sector in general, not yet expressly approved they softening effect similar to that of but in the case of enzymes it is are at least tolerated as “side cysteine. But as the dose an especially complex matter. On activities”. The UK does indeed required is about 100 times as the other hand enzymes are recommend an analysis by the high (100 - 1,000 g to 100 kg), highly specific; that is, if they are COT (Committee of Toxicity), but even the lower price (about 1/10 pure enough they act on selected it has not so far prohibited the and above) cannot make up for targets and only have to be use of untested enzymes.
it. This is true even of so-called added in small quantities.
Amylases and proteases are glutathione yeast, a variant with Moreover, they are entirely generally approved in the UK a very high reductive potential.
natural as they can only be So one might say that the main obtained from micro-organisms advantages of inactivated yeast by way of fermentation or from are in the field of labelling.
vegetable or animal tissue and 3.1 Amylases
fluids by means of extraction.
Like all highly concentrated Amylases split unbranched 2.3 Sodium metabisulphite and
natural substances enzymes sections of the starch molecule have a strong potential for into smaller components. Like all causing allergies.
enzymes, amylase only acts on Both sodium metabisulphite For this reason care must be dissolved substrate, i.e. swollen, (MBS) and sulphur dioxide are taken during processing that as damaged starch in the dough.
now approved in the UK and little enzyme dust as possible is This reduces the viscosity of the Ireland only. However, MBS is dough and improves its still used occasionally in Spain.
In Germany, most enzymes are processing characteristics. The These powerful reducing agents defined as “technical aids” with short-chain dextrines formed by are especially good at breaking no significance in the end product the action of a-amylase serve as down the gluten fast and reliably, and as such do not have to be a substrate for b-amylase or which greatly simplifies the declared on the label. But clearly amyloglucosidase; these in turn production of biscuits, crackers the time will come when enzymes split off sugar (maltose, glucose) and wafers. But as these require declaration too as the that can be used by the yeast.
substances are known to destroy vitamin B1 (thiamin) their use should be avoided. Alternatives Sources of Industrial Enzymes based on enzymes are now available; they achieve the same results but react rather more slowly and require more knowledge on the part of the Pancreatin, chymosin Enzymes have been in common Amylase, hemicellulase use in the food industry for many Protease, amylase years. In contrast to most other applications in which enzymes This chain of reactions increases usually 400 DP, but occasionally per gram”, named after fermenting power and thus it is stated in SKB/g (see under Sandstedt, Kneen and Blish who volume yield, enhances flavour fungal a-amylase) and is in the developed the determination and browning and prolongs shelf range of 80 to 100.
method. Many manufacturers do in fact use the units from their own assays, but they can usually 3.1.2 Fungal amylase
express them in terms of SKB/g 3.1.1 Enzyme-active malt flour
if wished. A typical dose for a Moulds of the genus Aspergillus wheat flour that is neither sprout- Like all other living material, grain are often used in the production damaged nor treated with malt needs enzymes for its vital of enzyme preparations for flour is 250 - 500 SKB per kg of functions. As it does not come applications in foods as this flour (i.e. 5 - 10 g of an amylase back to life, so to speak, until genus includes numerous well- with 5,000 SKB/g to 100 kg of germination, this is the phase described strains that have no flour). But even in the case of when enzymes are produced in detrimental effect on health. This flours with a very low falling large quantities. Bakers and is important, for in addition to number it is sometimes useful to brewers have long put this producing the desired enzyme add small amounts of fungal characteristic to use by the moulds might otherwise give amylase (1 - 2 g at 5,000 SKB/g) germinating cereals before off toxins that would then find as this slightly improves the processing them further.
their way into the finished properties of the dough and the Malt flour is the dried product product. In large fermentation results of the baking process made from germinated barley or equipment the moulds are made without affecting the falling wheat. Although the functions to produce amylase and give it are largely identical, approvals off into their environment (the for use in flour treatment differ culture medium) as far as from one country to another.
possible. A multi-stage France, for example, only permits purification process malt flour made from wheat.
Amyloglucosidase (AMG) is a Malt flour contains primarily a- ultrafiltration) then results in a natural side activity of many and b-amylase, but it also crude enzyme concentrate that amylase preparations, but it can contains protease, glucanase is usually spray-dried to form a also be obtained in a purer form and many other enzymes. Some powder with a good shelf life.
from specialized Aspergillus of these may have a positive Various carriers – mainly strains. AMG breaks down starch effect on the baking process maltodextrin, starch or flour – are into its smallest subunits, namely (amylases, glucanases), but they added to make the substance glucose. And in contrast to a- can also cause damage more convenient to use at the amylase it does not stop at (proteases). Like the flour’s own mill (dosing, flow properties).
branched molecules amylases, the amylase of the Fungal amylase is usually a- (amylopectin). But it would take malt flour has a pronounced amylase. Most side activities can a very long time to reduce effect on the falling numbers. If be eliminated in the production viscosity through the effect of the falling numbers are very high process. In contrast to the cereal AMG alone, as the enzyme only (i.e. the flour's own enzymatic amylase in malt flour it has only acts on the starch from one end activity is very low), anything up a very slight effect on the falling and only splits off a single to 150 g of malt flour to 100 kg numbers since it reacts more glucose molecule at a time. This of flour may be needed to bring sensitively than cereal amylase means that the main significance the falling number into the range to the high temperatures at which of AMG lies in browning and in of 250 - 300 s. With falling the falling number is determined maintaining the fermentation numbers around 300 s, no more and is inactivated before it can process over an extended period than 50 g should be added to break down the starch gel.
(controlled fermentation). As it prevent the doughs from The dosage of a-amylase always occurs in conjunction with becoming too sticky. The activity depends on its concentration, or a-amylase, AMG is usually dosed of malt flours is often expressed more precisely its activity. The in very small amounts (less than in DP for diastatic power and is usual international unit is “SKB 0.1 g to100 kg).
3.1.4 Hemicellulase
considerably by adding use of cysteine. But unlike the amino acids, protease does not Wheat flour contains about have little effect on the falling stop acting when the additive is 2.5 % pentosans (rye flour about numbers, but their activity can used up. As a result, its effects 7 %) that can bind up to ten times sometimes be recognized very increase with the fermentation their weight of water. These clearly in the amylogram (lower time of the dough. This is why pentosans belong to the category T and AU) and in the there is a considerable demand of the hemicelluloses, relatives extensogram where some for enzyme preparations that do of cellulose, and are made up of hemicellulases cause a change not contain even traces of different sugar molecules in the curve similar to that protease. The use of protease is (including glucose, xylose and produced by cysteine but without less of a problem with flours that any breakdown of the protein.
are rich in gluten. Furthermore, (synonyms: pentosanase, Most of these enzymes are also proteases are very useful in the xylanase) break these derived from Aspergillus strains, production of biscuit or wafer substances down. Initially this but these are strains that have flours. With these the elasticity process leads to the formation been selected for or specialized of the gluten is undesirable; of soluble molecules from in the production of sometimes even the complete pentosan, which is suspended suppression of gluten formation in water but insoluble, and this Hemicellulases are mostly sold is necessary. Here protease also increases the binding of water in compounds with amylase. It is makes it possible to use greatly and thus viscosity. These not possible to give a general fluctuating raw materials as it molecules are broken down still dosage recommendation as gives them uniform technical further as the process continues; there is no standard method of water is released and the viscosity reduced. It is assumed activity. The available methods that pentosans form a network are usually based on determining 3.1.6 Other enzymes
with gluten; the more pentosans the release of reducing sugars, are involved, the firmer is the the reduction of viscosity or the Glucose oxidase is often breakdown of synthetic or mentioned, and has already been This is why darker wheat flours coloured molecules and are very described above under and mixtures containing rye flour difficult to relate to each other.
“oxidation”. The literature also have a lower volume yield. The Moreover, even the use of a contains frequent references to volume yield can be increased standard method for different lipase. This enzyme splits fats hemicellulases does not into mono- and diglycerides.
necessarily permit conclusions Theoretically this should lead to in respect of baking properties.
the formation of in situ emulsifiers Gluten and Hemicellulose Presumably the points at which with the well-known effects hemicellulases of different origin described below. But quite apart attack the pentosan molecules from the inconsistency of the are too various.
information given in the literature (it is disputed whether the doughs have to contain additional fat, and if so what kind of fat) there is also the problem of a possible Protease (also proteinase or impairment of taste due to the peptidase) splits the protein release of fatty acids.
strands of the gluten molecule and thus leads first to a softening arabinofuranosidase and S CH2 PROTEIN
and then to a complete collapse transglutaminase have also been of the structure. With short gluten tested for their possible suitability structures a slight softening may as flour improvers, but they have well be desirable; in this case it not yet been used on a large Adapted from Hoseney & Faubion, 1981 has a similar significance to the scale. The development of microbial lipoxygenase as an The interaction of lecithin with the dose required may be up to alternative to the enzyme in soy the starch and its ability to bind 1 % of the flour.
and bean flour is a further highly water also prolong the shelf-life interesting topic. Initial of the crumb. Lecithin also has approaches failed because of a positive effect on volume yield, 4.3 Emulsifier complexes
the unsuitable pH optimum of but in this respect it tends to fall the microbial enzyme and behind synthetic emulsifiers such In many cases it is possible to presumably the fact that it is not as diacetyl tartaric esters of enhance the properties of an type II lipoxygenase. Only the mono- and diglycerides emulsifier by combining it with latter is capable of oxidizing and (DATEM). A trend towards another emulsifier. An example thus bleaching carotenoids in the slightly lower volume yields of this is the mono- and observed in some parts of diglycerides, that only achieve Europe is likely to increase the their optimum suitability for use use of lecithin again. Moreover, in flour treatment through lecithin fractions are available combination with lecithin. The 4.1 Lecithin
that offer the advantage of being lecithin improves their flowability, natural emulsifiers with properties solubility and dispersion and Bakers, especially, have been specially adjusted to specific clearly their interaction with constituents of the flour as well.
The dosage of lecithin for flour Well-known and widely used treatment is in the range of 30 - “organic” flour improvers fall into 150 g to 100 kg of flour. Such this category. The combination Lecithin Phospholipids low doses mainly have the effect makes it possible to reduce the of improving the processing dose necessary for optimum characteristics of the dough, effect to 100 - 300 g with 50 % whereas a considerably larger emulsifier in the complex.
dose increases the stability of Diacetyl tartaric esters of mono- the dough and fermentation and diglycerides are also receptive to enhancement with lecithin: the addition of as little as 10 % lecithin improves their 4.2 Mono- and diglycerides
emulsifying effect and also R1 and R2 : fatty acids Choline, serine, reduces the vinegar smell.
ethanolamine or inositol Mono- and diglycerides are The above combinations are only produced by splitting off two fatty effective if the emulsifiers are acids or a single fatty acid from mixed before being converted familiar with lecithin longer than edible fats and oils. By selecting into their powdered form.
with any other emulsifier. At first the fatty acids left on the glycerol Interestingly, it is not sufficient it was mainly the effect of lecithin backbone it is possible to just to mix the individual from egg yolk that was used to produce emulsifiers with greatly distribute large amounts of fat differing properties. For flour evenly in the product and achieve treatment there is mainly a a finer crumb and higher baked demand for the mono- and 4.4 Diacetyl tartaric esters of
volume, but now concentrated diglycerides with good anti-staling mono- and diglycerides
lecithin from soybeans is properties. These are most often available for this purpose. In its found with linear, saturated fatty deoiled form it is also well suited acids that interact well with starch One very effective group of for use in mills. The most obvious and thus slow down the staling emulsifiers in respect of volume benefit of lecithin is probably the process. In other respects, too, yield is mono- and diglycerides noticeably drier surface of the these emulsifiers have similar of edible fats esterified with dough; bound up with this is effects to lecithin, namely greater mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid.
better machinability, that is also volume yield and a finer crumb.
DATEM is one of the main a result of greater smoothness.
With fat-rich products, especially, constituents of most baking improvers, especially when the substances influence the swelling 6.1 Benzoyl peroxide
aim is to produce voluminous of the flour constituents, and this baked goods with a crisp crust.
helps to counteract the negative For a long time benzoyl peroxide In Europe, DATEM esters are effects of excessive enzyme was a familiar oxidative bleaching not often used in flour treatment.
activity (e.g. water release). The agent, and it is used to this day The optimum dose is about 300 most suitable preparations are in flours for export.
- 400 g to 100 kg.
those that stabilize the pH at the In addition to its good bleaching level to which it has been effect it has a slight influence on adjusted, i.e. so-called buffer the structure of the gluten, but 4.5 Sodium and calcium
substances. Examples are this is not apparent when other mixtures of the salts of fruit acids.
flour improvers such as AA are (SSL and CSL)
In most cases the dosage is in Under the new “Miscellaneous” the typically low range for flour directive, these emulsifiers (made treatment, that is about 50 to a from the fatty acid stearic acid maximum of 200 g to 100 kg of esterified with a double ester of (Dibenzoyl peroxide) lactic acid) have now been Nevertheless, with the inorganic approved as food additives phosphates and carbonates care throughout Europe. The remarks has to be taken not to exceed concerning DATEM also apply the limits of the flour grades, as to these, but with the difference these substances pass into the that SSL and CSL are especially ash. With sprouted grain it is in suitable for baked goods with a any case advisable, whatever the treatment, to use a smaller The dosage for benzoyl peroxide proportion of the enzyme-rich outer layers of the grain and flour. It is usually sold as a 30 % 5. Acidulants and acidity produce lighter-coloured flours product, and the dose is then that then tolerate the addition of correspondingly higher. The flour improvers containing ash.
effect of benzoyl peroxide on the Sprouting in rye and wheat flour is already visible after 24 to results in a high level of amylase 72 hours of storage.
activity in the corn itself with the 6. Bleaching agents usual effects on baking properties. It is generally known Although we are now aware of 6.2 Enzyme-active bean flour
that even flours with very low the importance of roughage, and soy flour
falling numbers produce good minerals and vitamins there is baking results if well acidified.
still a demand for a very light- Only enzyme-active flour made But for one thing acidity is not coloured crumb in many wheat from soy or faba (horse) beans something every European likes, products. This is true of a wide may now be used throughout and for another the bakeries range of baked goods from Europe to achieve a light- have less and less time and Arabian bread and baguettes to coloured crumb. The quantity available personnel. This means toast slices. Even the German that can be used is very much that other ways and means had language bears witness to the limited by another enzyme to be sought.
low opinion our travelling urease that is present as a side By adding fruit acids and the salts neighbours once had of the dark activity. This causes an of these and also carbonates bread made from rye flour that undesirable, bitter taste. For this and phosphates approved for is so popular in our country.
reason the maximum quantities use in foods it is possible to Pumpernickel ( pain pour Nickel); used are usually 0.5 % for soy adjust the pH of the dough apparently Nickel was the name flour and 2.0 % for faba bean slightly so that it moves out of of the horse ridden by Napoleon, flour. The classic application for the range in which the enzymes the first. The flavonoids soy flour is doubtless baguettes, of the grain have their strongest responsible for the colour can be in which it is increasingly effect. Moreover, these bleached with oxidizing agents.
replacing the less effective bean

flour. A typical dose of 0.5 % are used has a physical cause: already has a definite bleaching the finer texture changes the effect. It is used at about the reflecting properties of the crumb same concentration in flours for and the colour appears lighter.
toast slices and flat bread.
On the other hand strong oxidizing agents such as bromate or chlorine really do remove the 6.3 Other agents with a
colour from the dark pigments, although this is only a desirable The brightening effect noticed Dr.Lutz Popper when ascorbic acid or emulsifiers Newsletter • Mühlenchemie GmbH • Kornkamp 40 • D-22926 Ahrensburg Tel.: +49(0)4102-23 93-01 • Fax: +49(0)4102-23 93-23 • e-Mail: [email protected] • homepage: www.muehlenchemie.de

Source: http://www.nutrifood.eu/database/muehlenchemie/mc-fltr-e.pdf


Unicor s.a. CETC - AV6416 www. unicorsa.com.ar AV6416 : Palm OTDR AV6416 palm OTDR is the newest instrument designed for testing FTTx network. It´s mainly used to measure the physical characteristics of optical fiber under test, such as the length,the transmission loss and the splice loss etc. It can also locate the faults or breaks of optical fiber. It´s widely applied in the manufacture, construction and maintenance in optical fiber communication system. AV6416 palm OTDR has the most advanced technology of double-color & material integrative mould,which is novel and beautiful in appearance.AV6416 offers three wavelengths and VLF in one handheld unit, especially for testing passive optical network (PON) in FTTx. In addition, it´s equipped with comfortable gallus for carrying conveniently.Mainly features: ο handheld,lightweight and convenience for carrying ο The most advanced technology of double-color & material integrative mould in trade ο Advanced anti-reflective TFT LCD,visible clearly in field ο 1.6m extra-short event dead zone ο Communication light check automatically ο 0.25m high resolution,65534 sampling points ο Fast auto measurement,one-button operating ο Double USB interfaces, supporting USB stick and direct cable download to PC via ActiveSync ο Supporting Bellcore GR196 file format in writing or reading ο Function of intelligent indicating of remaining capacity of battery and warning if the voltage of battery is low. ο WinCE operation system, double operating interface of Chinese and English ο Built-in lithium battery with high capacity for over 10 hours of operating life ο Visible fault locating (VFL) ο Universal FC/PC,FC/SC,FC/ST connector type, it´s convenient for surface cleaning ο Unique function of updating system on-line, returning to factory is unnecessaryο Extra-short event dead zone AV6416 palm OTDR has extra-short event dead zone, which is suitable for testing short optical fiber and pigtail optical fiber.

Microsoft powerpoint - statin template july 2012 v2.7.ppt

Statin Template GuidanceUse of statins in primary and secondary prevention of vascular disease Notes relating to this guidance This guidance serves as an aid to the implementation of NICE clinical guidelines on lipid modification (CG67) and type 2 diabetes (CG66). Please note that NICE CG67 is currently being updated and this guidance document will be subject to review upon publication.