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Microsoft word - flyechin.doc

Echinacea is one of the top selling herbal Echinacea is a member of the Asteraceae if injected, but orally administered preparations products in the US with sales worth more $US300 [Compositae] family, which includes sunflowers, are not so likely to function. Clinical trials are million dollars annually. A member of the daisy daisies and the potent allergen, ragweed. Three hampered by the fact that many of these family, it is claimed to treat abscesses, burns, species are used medicinally—E. angustifolia, E.
products lack appropriate quality control and eczema, liver cancer, urinary tract infections, pallida and E. purpurea, the latter being the most cannot be standardised because the active varicose leg ulcers, boils, and gingivitis, but mostly commonly used in New Zealand. These ingredient(s) has not been defined.
it is used to treat upper respiratory infections.
‘coneflowers' are perennial herbs, and productioninvolves drying the roots or juicing the stems, In a recent study of 40 healthy male volunteers flowers and roots, or ethanolic extraction of who were administered the freshly expressed  sold as capsules, pills, tinctures, teas, creams various compounds. The method of manufacture, juice of E. purpurea or placebo, echinacea did not for topical use, and toothpaste, or in the time of harvest and the part of the plant enhance the immune system as measured by the combination with other compounds harvested are all variables that need to be taken phagocytic activity of white blood cells and the  marketed to children as fizzy tablets also into account when attributing clinical efficacy to production of cytokines. Researchers were containing vitamin C echinacea. The root is said to contain the highest surprised to find that echinacea decreased the  purported to support and promote the natural levels of active components and the stem to be levels of serum ferritin, as that had not been powers of resistance of the body, especially in less desirable. Claimed potency is said to depend predicted. They concluded that the ‘immune infections of the nose and throat on how long the herb is stored before use and how stimulation' does not result from oral intake.
 unproven in many clinical trials to prevent or finely it is powdered and processed.
ameliorate the symptoms of upper respiratory Pharmacies and health food shops in Wellington Studies show that there are indeed many were found to recommend echinacea most  unproven in its claimed immune-enhancing potentially pharmacologically active compounds in commonly as a treatment for a patient presenting echinacea, but whether there is sufficient present with obvious symptoms of asthma following a chest  a known cause of asthma and anaphylaxis in in crude extracts to be effective is debatable.
allergic patients Echinacoside is claimed to be a natural antibiotic Lack of efficacy in preventing upper comparable to penicillin, but its concentration is respiratory infection was reported in a trial of Echinacea was used by American Indians to not likely to be sufficient to have any significant 302 volunteers in Germany. They received oral treat snake bite and relieve fever, and was effect. Polysaccharides, such as heteroxylan and ethanolic extracts of echinacea roots, or placebo, incorporated into a 19th century wonder cure arabinoglycan, are touted as having major for 12 weeks. The number of volunteers who called Meyer's Blood Purifier. With the advent of pharmacologic effects on the immune system, became infected and the length of time until they sulfa antibiotics, echinacea lost its popularity as though these are likely to be digestively destroyed became ill did not differ significantly between the an anti-infective agent. Most recent research has when taken orally. Echinacea has a pungent smell two groups. Even if there is a relative risk been carried out in Germany, where echinacea and taste caused by echinacein, an isobutylamide reduction attributable to taking echinacea, there extracts are injected, a procedure not pursued in that is responsible for a tingling sensation if fresh are dangers in taking it for any length of time. The the US or elsewhere.
stems are chewed. Echinacein is said to counteract recommended treatment period is less than 8 the invasion of tissues by bacteria. This may be so weeks because of the risk of liver poisoning. In For more information: http://skeptics.org.nz fact, people who use other hepatotoxic drugs, Melchart D, Walther E, Linde K, Brandmaier R, such as anabolic steroids, methotrexate or Lersch C. Echinacea root extracts for upper ketoconazole, are warned not to take echinacea.
respiratory infections. Arch Fam Med Several other trials back up these results, including one where 117 volunteers were treated Mullins RJ, Heddle R. Adverse reactions with echinacea and then challenged with a associated with Echinacea: the Australian rhinovirus. Similar numbers of people caught colds experience. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol whether they took echinacea or placebo and the severity of symptoms did not differ.
Echinacea – RxList Herbal FAQ.
A 2002 Australian study of adverse drug Schwartz E, Metzler J, Diedrich JP, reactions found that 51 cases including examples Freudenstein J, Bode C, Bode JC. Oral stimulation of anaphylaxis, acute asthma and skin rashes were of freshly expressed juice of Echinacea purpurea As with many herbs, it's unsettled whether attributable to echinacea ingestion. Several herbs fail to stimulate the non-specific immune echinacea is useful. Also, many herbal patients required hospitalisation. Americans with response in healthy young men: results of a products are not standardized as to what's in known sensitivity to ragweed are warned not to double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study.
them, so even if something is useful, you can't take echinacea. Patients with immune diseases, J Immunother 2002;25(5):413-20 be sure that the quality control or dosage such as lupus, multiple sclerosis or AIDs are likely Turner RB, Riker DK, Gangemi JD. Ineffectiveness that makes it useful is in the bottle. The FDA to suffer adverse reactions to echinacea, though of Echinacea for prevention of doesn't regulate that.
there are no warnings on containers available in experimental rhinovirus colds. Antimicrob supermarkets, pharmacies and health food shops.
Agents Chemother 2002;44(6):1708-9 Some dietary supplements do not contain the ingredients or the amount of theingredients declared on the label. Forexample, in laboratory testing of 25 separate Echinacea products, only 14 (56 percent) were Douglas J. Echinacea-the purple coneflowers.
found to have the amount and type of Echinacea and polyphenol (or marker compound) claimed on the label Executive Summary Echinacea.
Dr Stevphen Barrrett quoting a 2001 product review from ConsumerLab.com Healey B, Burgess C, Siebers R, Beasley R, Weatherall M, Holt S. Do natural health food Just because it is a herb or stores require regulation? NZMJ 13 September marketed as a ‘natural' product, does not guarantee it is either effective or safe.

Source: http://skeptics.nz/wp-content/uploads/flyers/NZSkepticsFlyerEchinacea.pdf

Doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2007.01.023

Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 31 (2007) 848 – 857 Effects of haloperidol and its pyridinium metabolite on plasma membrane permeability and fluidity in the rat brain Tetsuhito Murata a,⁎, Nobuyuki Maruoka a,b, Naoto Omata a, Yasuhiro Takashima a, Kazuo Igarashi c, Fumiyo Kasuya d, Yasuhisa Fujibayashi b, Yuji Wada a a Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193, Japan

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Making music in West London ST MATTHEW'S CONCERT CHOIR AND ORCHESTRA Soloists from the Guildhall School of Music and Drama Stabat Mater Opera choruses and Arias SUNDAY 3RD APRIL 7.30PM St Matthew's Church North Common Road Ealing W5 2QA St Matthews Concert Choir