Dp_ amperes_21012010_en




Identifying and treating micropollutants in wastewater treatment stations in the fight against water pollution The AMPERES research programme CONTACTS PRESSE
SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT Charlotte Le Barbier +33 (0)1 58 18 54 61/ +33(0)6 78 37 27 60 charlotte.lebarbier@suez-env.com Christine Waser +33 (0)1 34 80 53 70/ +33 (0)6 87 29 90 54 christine.waser@suez-env.com CEMAGREF Marie Signoret +33 (0)1 40 96 61 30 / +33 (0)6 77 22 35 62 presse@cemagref.fr AMPERES is an acronym for Analyse des Micropolluants Prioritaires et Emergents dans les Rejets de station d'épuration et les Eaux Superficielles – Analysis of Priority and Emerging Micropollutants in Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plants and Surface Water ROTECTING AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS AND BIODIVERSITY AMBITIOUS EUROPEAN TARGETS FOR 2015 AMPERES, A UNIQUE RESEARCH PROGRAMME TO ANTICIPATE POST-2015 AND PROTECT BIODIVERSITY DETECTING MICROPOLLUTANTS IN COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTS AND AT WEAK CONCENTRATIONS A SCIENTIFIC CHALLENGE TAKEN UP BETTER UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXISTING WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS REASSURING RESULTS EVALUATING THE MOST PROMISING TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES TO PROPOSE SOLUTIONS FOR TOMORROW'S WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS TOMORROW'S WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS ARE BEING DESIGNED TODAY. TWO ADDITIONAL PROJECTS INSPIRED BY AMPERES CEMAGREF AND SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT INVOLVED IN THE AXELERA COMPETITIVENESS CLUSTER SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT, CEMAGREF AND CNRS Cemagref – SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT PROTECTING AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS AND BIODIVERSITY AMBITIOUS EUROPEAN TARGETS FOR 2015
PROTECTING AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS, AN URGENT NECESSITY
France has a dense hydrographic network, with an average of one kilometre of flowing water
per square kilometre in the country, but weakened by industrial and urban effluent and by
intensive agricultural practices.
For many years the quality of raw water in the natural environment (streams, groundwater,
etc.) has been deteriorating alarmingly, as the IFEN and Lefeuvre reports of 2000 and 2005
show, with a massive impact on aquatic ecosystems. This deterioration is caused in particular
by diffuse pollution1 (nitrates, pesticides, phosphorus, etc.), pollution of sediments, and the
presence of numerous pollutants, to which must be added the general physical deterioration of
watercourses and their catchment areas.
Along with monitoring ecosystems, reducing industrial effluent, reducing diffuse pollution and
managing rainwater, we need to identify ways to improve wastewater treatment plants, through
which a large part of our pollution flows into watercourses.
This pollution also has wide repercussions on the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems.
BIODIVERSITY, A PUBLIC ASSET THAT NEEDS URGENT PRESERVATION
Worldwide, 39% of species today are considered to be endangered. Biological
impoverishment costs 2,000 billion a year, or 6% of global GDP2.
In December a new study3 of 69 freshwater species of fish in France revealed that 15 of
them are under threat of extinction. The analysis shows that the degradation and
destruction of natural environments constitute the principal threat to freshwater fish in
metropolitan France.
A DYNAMIC FRENCH ACTION PLAN
TO MAKE UP FOR THE DELAY IN IMPLEMENTING THE STANDARDS FOR WASTEWATER
TREATMENT PLANTS The action plan launched by Jean-Louis Borloo in 2007 to make up for the lag in implementing wastewater treatment plant standards4 allowed ambitious works to be launched thanks in particular to financial backing by the water Agencies, loans from the Caisse des Dépôts, etc.
1 Water pollution caused by effluent over the entire area of a country and transmitted indirectly to aquatic ecosystems.
2 "The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity", study presented at the ninth UN Biodiversity Conference in 2008
3 "Freshwater Fish in Metropolitan France", study by the French Committee of the IUCN, December 2009
4 In accordance with the 1991 Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive Cemagref – SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT






Today, with 41 of the 53 non-compliant wastewater treatment plants undergoing work, France is "on track to win the waste treatment battle," concluded Chantal Jouanno in September 2009.
A major economic effort. to be maintained
3 billion was invested for new wastewater treatment facilities in 2007 and 2008 and
a further 2.5 billion needs to be invested by the end of 2011 to meet ERU standards for
wastewater treatment systems.
It is estimated that maintaining France's wastewater treatment capacity after 2015 will require
the reconstruction of some 500 plants a year (of the country's 17,700) equivalent to the
treatment facilities that would be needed for 3 million inhabitants and costing in the region of
€750 million a year.
With the upgrade to meet wastewater treatment plant standards on track to be achieved, we
must now rapidly anticipate the new challenges in preserving water resources and biodiversity
Europe-wide. Even though the European Framework Directive does not impose any regulations
on wastewater treatment plants, they will be expected to participate in maintaining "good
ecological status" in 2015.
THE EUROPEAN WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE 2000
AMONG THE STRICTEST REGULATIONS IN THE WORLD
Europe, via the Water Framework Directive (WFD) adopted in 2000, intends to guarantee the
health of aquatic environments and maintain all water activities and usages
sustainably and at a lower cost. The Directive defines the "good ecological and chemical
status" of all natural aquatic environments that needs to be reached by 2015.
The European Framework Directive's overall environmental approach to the water cycle and the
fact that it takes into account environmental as well as chemical criteria make it a particularly
innovative set of regulations. By imposing emission reductions on 33 "priority" substances in the
natural environment to be met by 2015, the Directive also goes a step further than other
regulations in force around the world.
Cemagref – SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT Of these 33 priority substances:  Emissions of 13 of them into aquatic environments must cease by 2015.  Emissions of 20 of them must be reduced1, the European Directive 2008/105 of 16 December 2008 having set environmental quality standards for water. Furthermore, the implementation of the Water Framework Directive at European level, although at present not imposing an Environmental Quality Standard for pharmaceutical and cosmetic substances, nonetheless leads water managers and users to consider the contamination risks from them, as well as from other non-regulated so-called "emerging" substances. SOME DEFINITIONS "Good ecological and chemical status" is evaluated in terms of the abundance and diversity of species present in the ecosystem and the chemical composition of a mass of water (concentrations of pollutants in the ecosystem). The Directive leaves it to each Member State to assess the "good ecological and chemical status" of its various surface water masses, based on scientific evidence, while remaining within the framework set out by the Directive. "Priority" substances: Substances that must be reduced or removed as a priority, that is, by 2015 (notably, certain metals, petroleum derivatives, pesticides, solvents, detergents and other substances released by industry). "Emerging" substances: Substances we know too little about to evaluate the risks from their presence in the environment (hormones, pharmaceutical and beauty-product compounds such as parabens, industrial scents, etc.). Taking into account the complexity of an objective as broad as the "good status" of water masses and wanting Member States to impose strict but attainable 2015 targets, the EU set out the overall objective as follows: − Diagnose the ecological status of water masses, which France has done through large analysis projects since 2004, − Identify the causes of changes in ecosystems, − Define the remediation priorities for water masses based on associated costs, and define the benefits to be achieved. This overall objective was given some precision by the Grenelle de l'Environnement, a multi-party multi-sector environmental discussion forum in France; specifically, 66% of surface water masses in France (lakes, streams, rivers, reservoirs, etc.) must achieve good ecological status by 2015. IN PARTICIPATING IN MAINTAINING THE GOOD ECOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL STATUS OF RAW WATER, THE TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER BEFORE IT IS RELEASED INTO THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT DEMANDS PRECISE KNOWLEDGE OF THE SUBSTANCES IN IT AND THE MEANS THAT NEED TO BE IMPLEMENTED TO ELIMINATE THEM. THIS REQUIRES MAJOR INPUT FROM RESEARCH AND, IN PARTICULAR, APPLIED RESEARCH. THE AMPERES RESEARCH PROGRAMME'S OBJECTIVE IS TO PARTICIPATE IN BUILDING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF MICROPOLLUTANTS. 1 European Directive 2008/105 of 16 December 2008 setting environmental quality standards for water. Cemagref – SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT AMPERES, A UNIQUE RESEARCH PROGRAMME TO ANTICIPATE POST- 2015 AND PROTECT BIODIVERSITY MICROPOLLUTANTS: LONG-UNRECOGNIZED SUBSTANCES There are innumerable organic micropollutants. Present as trace elements or in miniscule amounts in wastewater, between 100 and 1,000 have been identified by studies of the 100,000 substances currently in use in industry, agriculture and for domestic purposes. They come essentially from human activities such as industry, motorised traffic and agriculture. Chemical analysis of these compounds is difficult because these substances can each have very different physical-chemical properties. According to earlier studies by Cemagref, apart from hormones, which have been studied for dozens of years and whose disruptive endocrine effects on aquatic fauna need no more demonstrating, there is little quantitative data on these substances. For most of them, we still need to develop knowledge about their exposure, their impact and how they degrade. However, what has been established is that certain compounds can have a definite impact on aquatic organisms even at very low doses: algae, duckweed, molluscs, etc. are affected along with fish. As an example, ibuprofen, a very commonly used and benign drug for humans, has a harmful effect on crabs. Some drugs used in human and veterinary medicine – antibiotics, analgesics, contraceptive pills – lead to the "feminisation" of male freshwater fish. Environmental quality standards were therefore set by the WFD and the 2008 Directive for watercourses to limit the impact of anthropic emissions1 on aquatic environments. Vast measurement programmes have been launched since 2004 at industrial sites across the whole of France, under the aegis of the Ministry for Ecology and Sustainable Development, culminating in an INERIS report with some key recommendations. However, identifying nanogram quantities of these substances (a nanogram being a billionth of a gram) is highly complex and delicate and demands very special analytical protocols, most of which did not exist before AMPERES. This is why these substances were not taken into account in many of the regulations now in force. TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS ON THESE SUBSTANCES, CEMAGREF, SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT AND THE UNIVERSITY OF BORDEAUX 1, WITH THE SUPPORT OF THE WATER BOARD OF RHÔNE-MÉDITERRANÉE ET CORSE, LAUNCHED AMPERES IN 2006. IT WAS A THREE-YEAR RESEARCH PROGRAMME TO STUDY MICROPOLLUTANTS IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER AND TO ANALYSE THE ABILITY OF VARIOUS EXISTING WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES TO ELIMINATE THESE SUBSTANCES. OVER 100 SUBSTANCES STUDIED, SELECTED ON THE BASIS OF PERTINENCE AMPERES studied over 100 compounds (see table below) taking into account, in addition to the priority substances in the Framework Directive, a certain number of emerging compounds: some 30 pharmaceutical industry molecules, 5 hormones and about 50 other pertinent substances. These other substances were chosen because they are potentially 1 "Anthropic emissions" are emissions created by humans Cemagref – SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT harmful or frequently used, and they could in principle survive wastewater treatment, the objective being to target the most potentially problematic substances. THREE SCIENTIFIC STAGES TO UNDERSTAND AND FIGHT MICROPOLLUTANTS The objective of this initiative was to deploy operational solutions based on the scientific findings from rigorous studies and analyses. The AMPERES programme thus set three precise objectives: 1. Detect the micropollutants in complex environments (wastewater / sludge) and at weak concentrations by establishing reliable methods for sampling and analysing micropollutants 2. Better understand the role of existing wastewater treatment plants in eliminating priority and emerging substances by precisely quantifying the concentration of micropollutants in wastewater and the efficiency of typical treatments in wastewater plants 3. Evaluate the most promising treatment technologies. A TOTAL BUDGET OF €2.4 MILLION FOR A PROJECT OF NATIONAL SCOPE The success of the partnership with Cemagref, the University of Bordeaux 1 and SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT lies in their complementarity in terms of fundamental and applied research. This collaboration is manifested in particular by the large investment in research programmes funded by the French national research agency ANR, and in the competitiveness-cluster projects running in line with those of the Axelera competitiveness cluster (see Appendix). The AMPERES project, with an initial budget of €2.4 million over 4 years, received €800k funding from the ANR. Cemagref and SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT also each contributed over €1 million to complete the project, each providing the resources for more than a dozen researchers and technicians. Cemagref – SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT DETECTING MICROPOLLUTANTS IN COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTS AND AT WEAK A SCIENTIFIC CHALLENGE TAKEN UP Micropollutants are present in very weak concentrations in raw water and in wastewater leaving treatment plants but what makes them hard to detect is not just their weak concentrations, it is also the complexity of the milieu - wastewater and sludge – in which they are found. This therefore requires developing collection and sampling methods that will be appropriate for such a complex mix of factors along with highly elaborate and sharply focused analytical protocols. The work consisted of: Collecting and using existing data on the source and concentration of the micropollutants and understanding how these pollutants are treated by the wastewater plant so as to focus analysis programmes where they are most pertinent. Then developing and validating the methods used to analyse the targeted pollutants: oestrogen-type hormones, betablockers, etc. AN EXTENSIVE COLLECTION AND SAMPLING CAMPAIGN ON THE GROUND FOLLOWED BY LABORATORY ANALYSES ENABLED THE SUBSTANCES TO BE QUANTIFIED AND THE PRESENCE OF MICROPOLLUTANTS IN THE VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTS EVALUATED THROUGHOUT FRANCE During the analytical campaigns, samples were collected of wastewater entering and leaving the treatment plant, as well as at numerous intermediate points along the treatment line, in order to determine the efficiency of each process.  A total of 2,000 samples were collected for 5,000 analyses over three years  Each campaign lasted about two weeks and each collection point produced more than 300 analyses over a period of three days  Eight laboratories in France and Europe were chosen to work together and take up the challenge, given the number of substances researched (over 100) and the complexity of the analyses Cemagref – SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT BETTER UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXISTING WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS REASSURING RESULTS A PANEL OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS WITH TYPICAL MICROPOLLUTANT TREATMENT SOLUTIONS These analysis campaigns focused on 21 wastewater treatment plants in France between February 2007 and October 2008. These plants were representative of the various processes (water and sludge), of different sizes (small and large local authorities), and different types of network (unitary / separated), to ensure that the results would be homogeneous and represent the state of treatment facilities in the country. These on-the-ground measurements were used to evaluate the potential of eliminating these substances by conventional systems (activated sludge, biofiltration, reed filtration) as well as by more innovative processes (membrane bioreactors, tertiary treatment by filtration or oxidation). Diagram of micropollutant elimination procedures implemented in wastewater treatment plants depending on the degree of treatment applied (primary, secondary, tertiary). Cemagref – SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT WASTEWATER TREATMENT STATIONS STOP 85% OF PRIORITY SUBSTANCES AND 35% OF THE OTHER SUBSTANCES STUDIED THAT ARE RELEASED INTO WASTEWATER Although they were designed to treat nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon, in accordance with European regulations, wastewater treatment plants already stop a large proportion of the micropollutants analysed.  The activated-sludge and biological-treatment procedures in today's plants reduce the flow of pollutants significantly: more than 50% of priority substances are over 70% eliminated; the more thorough the biological treatment, the more effectively it eliminates micropollutants.  The membrane bioreactor process (MBR) studied seemed to be able to improve treatment efficiency further for about 20% of detected substances.  As for the sludge line, most compounds detected in raw water were also found in sludge, but at varying concentrations and always below regulatory thresholds.
Treatment plants thus eliminate 85% of priority substances and about 35% of all the
other substances studied.
AMPERES provides a reassuring answer to environmental concerns about priority and
emerging substances in domestic wastewater. However, increasing environmental
demands and enhanced preservation of aquatic environments could require more
sophisticated treatments to be implemented from 2015 onwards.
EXAMPLES OF COMPOUNDS SUCCESSFULLY ELIMINATED IN A CONVENTIONAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
PLANT:
• Adsorbable substances retained in the sludge of wastewater treatment plants are, for
example, DEHP (a plasticiser), PBDE (flame retardant), fluoranthene (aromatic hydrocarbon),
most metals.
• Biodegradable substances are also eliminated effectively, such as aspirin, ibuprofen and
paracetamol.
• Volatile substances diffuse into the air in very small quantities, in particular dichloromethane
(a chemical solvent).

ELIMINATION AND TREATMENT DIFFICULTIES IN WASTEWATER PLANTS:
• 25% of detected substances are resistant to biological treatment (secondary and classic
wastewater plant treatments):
For example: diuron, glyphosate (some pesticides), carbamazepine (a pharmaceutical
compound), antidepressants, etc.
• 50% of detected substances remain in treated wastewater despite good elimination
performance, due to their high concentration when entering the wastewater treatment plant:
detergents (alkylphenols), plasticisers (DEHP), chemical solvents (dichloromethane) and aspirin.
• A dozen other worrying substances have been identified as potentially exceeding these
standards when the entering water flow is very low: one dirt repellent, two detergents
(alkylphenols), one chemical solvent (trichloromethane), four pesticides (diuron) and two
aromatic compounds or PAHs (fluoranthene).
Cemagref – SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT EVALUATING THE MOST PROMISING TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES TO PROPOSE SOLUTIONS FOR TOMORROW'S WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS
TERTIARY TREATMENT PROCESSES: AN EFFECTIVE SOLUTION AGAINST MICROPOLLUTANTS
Advanced tertiary processes (ozonation, active carbon filtration, reverse osmosis) are currently
used for sterilisation purposes to make wastewater re-usable in areas where water is scarce. As
part of the AMPERES project, their effectiveness in eliminating micropollutants has also been
evaluated.
The study shows that these procedures completely eliminate most (over 90%) of the
micropollutants still present in the water leaving conventional wastewater treatment
plants. These residual micropollutants are non-biodegradable compounds (pesticides and
certain pharmaceutical compounds, for example), as well as substances retained in the
wastewater treatment plant that entered the plant at high concentrations and traces of which
remain on leaving it (plasticisers, detergents, metals).
The AMPERES project allows us to draw the landscape of the new challenges for
tomorrow's wastewater treatment plants, by identifying the most appropriate processes for
eliminating each type of pollutant.
The AMPERES research project has enabled us to identify the most effective anti-micropollutant
technologies. If we extend tertiary treatment to include reverse osmosis and ozonation
(technologies used to produce drinking water), effluent will have virtually no effect
on aquatic ecosystems.
To eliminate virtually all micropollutants, we need to put in place an advanced tertiary
treatment line.
Cemagref – SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT TOMORROW'S WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS ARE EMERGING TODAY. Lyonnaise des Eaux offers local authorities innovative technologies for wastewater treatment and it can support them in achieving two objectives: achieving waste quality targets and maintaining the biodiversity needed to sustain key ecological balances, a key theme in 2010. THE AQUAVIVA PLANT IN CANNES, ONE OF THE MOST EFFECTIVE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN THE WORLD The ultrafiltration technique allows wastewater to be reused. A future wastewater treatment plant in the Cannes basin, Aquaviva uses the most modern treatment wastewater treatment technology in the world: ultrafiltration membranes coupled with a biological reactor (membrane reactor) to sanitise the waste water. It achieves treatment yields in excess of regulatory requirements that meet future "bathing water quality" standards. Marine flora and fauna will thus be preserved and the biodiversity of the area (coastal fish, aquatic plants) will be monitored. The treated water will also be reused to irrigate green spaces and wash down roads. A carbon-neutral wastewater treatment plant Designed in line with the High Environmental Quality (HEQ) initiative "Aquaviva" represents real technological and environmental prowess: with a capacity to service 300,000 inhabitant equivalents, Aquaviva will have a carbon-neutral footprint thanks in particular to its 4,000 m² of solar panels, which makes it the largest solar farm in the Alpes-Maritimes. Built on the coast, on the site of the present wastewater treatment plant, Aquaviva will be perfectly integrated into its coastal and tourist environment, and will be noise free, odour free and visually unobtrusive. Cemagref – SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT THE LIBELLULE1 ZONE: AN EXPERIMENTAL AREA THAT USES NATURE'S OWN PURIFICATION PROPERTIES TO REDUCE MICROPOLLUTANTS Lyonnaise des Eaux is continuing its innovative research in the experimental Libellule Zone. The Libellule Zone is a natural site adjoining various types of wetlands where plants filter and sanitise the water leaving the wastewater treatment plant. A complementary wastewater treatment solution, the Libellule Zone uses local biodiversity and the complementary characteristics of various ecosystems to help degrade macropollutants (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) and potentially micropollutants (under study). Promising initial results In Languedoc Roussillon, Lyonnaise des Eaux created a first Libellule Zone of 1.7 ha in October 2009, within the commune of Saint-Just: the water processed by the wastewater treatment plant takes 10 days to cross the Libellule Zone and reach the natural environment in the direction of the Etang de l'Or. The capacity of the Libellule Zone has been scientifically monitored since water first flowed into it in August 2009. The water entering and leaving the various habitats was analysed as was the effluent at the end. This allowed the effect of the vegetation to be measured on each micropollutant. The impact of micropollutants on the natural environment could be reduced thanks to the biodiversity thus created and used. "SIRENS" TO WARN OF POLLUTION Lyonnaise des Eaux has installed an innovative device for protecting the aquatic ecosystem and biodiversity of the Etang de Thau for the Thau Agglomeration (Hérault) local authority. This, the largest lagoon in the Languedoc-Roussillon region, is classified as an area of ecological importance for fauna and flora (zone naturelle d'importance écologique, floristique et faunistique or "Znieff") and is part of the Natura 2000 network, a European network of nature sites remarkable for their habitats and the species they harbour. "SIRENS" is a real-time environmental diagnostic system that incorporates:  Measuring and alert stations called that measure the quality of the aquatic environment and immediately trigger alarms if pollution is detected;  Flow meters in the canals in the town of Sète (part of the Agglomeration) to measure the exchange of water between the sea and the lagoon;  Measuring devices to determine the presence of rainwater and seawater in storm run-  Video-periscope listening devices in the treatment networks; 1 "Libellule" (French for "dragonfly") is an acronym for LIberté Biologique Et de LUtte contre les poLluants Emergents – biological freedom and fight against emerging pollutants. Cemagref – SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT  Rapid-analysis methods (rapid enzymatic method and GEN-SPOT molecular biology isolation method) to determine bathing water quality in order to be able to quickly close or open beaches in the event of pollution. Based on the results from the Lyonnaise des Eaux measuring devices, it is possible to: Determine the source of pollution from storm rainwater (wastewater-system overflow or leaching) Improve the effectiveness of wastewater treatment systems Limit other sources of pollution. Active management of aquatic environments has been part of an ISO 14001 certification initiative operated by the wastewater treatment facility of the town of Sète since 2009. It has seen the town lead the field in applying the new bathing water regulations. Cemagref – SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT TWO ADDITIONAL RESEARCH PROJECTS INSPIRED BY AMPERES THE AXELERA COMPETITIVENESS CLUSTER TWO NATIONAL MICROPOLLUTION PROJECTS AMPERES has not just provided answers to the questions that were asked, the project has also inspired questions and thinking that have led to other research programmes. Thus, together, Cemagref and SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT are today engaged in a number of projects to identify how players in the water industry can support local authorities in applying the Framework Directive. These programmes are being run largely through the Axelera competitiveness cluster (Lyons and Rhône-Alpes) including the following projects:  RHODANOS, which aims to anticipate and manage the consequences of liquid effluent from industrial and urban activities into the environment and to create real-time management of the status of water masses in natural environments.  PCB-Axelera, the first environmental cleanup programme for aquatic environments polluted by PCBs. As well as the need to further reduce PCBs flowing into water, and to support consumers and fishermen, the "AXELERA PCB" project aims to work towards developing a full range of analytical tools and technologies to treat water pollution by PCBs. RAINWATER, WASTEWATER, INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT: OTHER JOINT RESEARCH THEMES The research projects that involve both partners are based on three main areas: wastewater, rainwater and industrial effluent. - For wastewater treatment, Cemagref and SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT are combining their skills to join, for example, in offering local authorities a dephosphatation solution using an extensive solution that also recycles phosphorus (MAREVAP project). A second study (REFSTEP project) involves screening and sifting (the first stage, to remove wastewater from raw waste and debris before treatment): it aims to define, develop and validate appropriate and innovative treatment lines to treat and recover pre-treatment waste. - For industrial and municipal effluent treatment, Cemagref and SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT are working to evaluate a process to reduce at source the quantity of sludge produced during biological treatment. This process utilizes a non-ecotoxic chemical reagent that will interact with micro-organisms to restrict their growth without disturbing their purification capacity. The project intends to verify, on an industrial scale, the effectiveness of this process developed by a leader in the chemical industry. The last project is an impact study of saline effluent on the biological activity of wastewater treatment plants. - For rainwater, little data currently exist on priority substances. However, it is very possible that urban effluent during periods of rain will eventually be subject to regulation in terms of monitoring and eliminating the priority substances that it contains. In this matter, Cemagref and SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT are taking part in a research programme – ESPRIT – aiming to quantify the concentrations of priority substances during periods of rain for various waste Cemagref – SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT treatment systems (unitary, separated). Based on an understanding of where they come from (atmosphere, roads, roofs, etc.), of their distribution during periods of rain, and their variability from one rainfall to the next, this study will develop an initial database of knowledge and evaluate various strategies for managing and treating priority substances. Cemagref – SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT In 2008, SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT devoted €65 million to technological Research & Development dedicated to its two businesses: water and waste. SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT's industrial mission, founded on technological expertise and leadership, puts Research & Development at the heart of its strategic priorities. It is a key differentiating factor. SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT'S R&D INVOLVES:  Over 400 researchers and experts  Over 65 research programmes  A network of more than 200 laboratories (water and waste)  A network of more than 120 university and institutional partners  Continuous innovation combined with development of new technologies allows SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT to respond to the three major requirements of today's world: - Fighting climate change and preserving natural resources - Providing our customers with drinking water and impeccable service - Protecting the environment and the quality of life. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT LIES AT THE HEART OF SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT Natural resources are not infinite. SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT (Paris: SEV, Brussels: SEVB), et ses filiales s'engagent au quotidien à relever le défi de la protection des ressources en apportant des solutions innovantes à des millions de personnes et aux industries. SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT supplies drinking water to 76 million people, provides wastewater treatment services for 44 million people and collects the waste produced by 60 million people. SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT has 65,400 employees and, with its presence on a global scale, is the world's leader exclusively dedicated to environmental services. In 2008, SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT reported revenues of 12.4 billion euros. SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT is a 35%-owned subsidiary of GDF SUEZ. Cemagref, an environmental sciences and technologies research institute, is a public establishment under the dual oversight of the Ministry for Research and the Ministry for Agriculture. It conducts environmental research at national level, focused on action and three key social challenges: sustainable management of water and land, natural risks, and environmental quality. Its scientists and engineers are organised into three research departments - Water, Land, and Ecotechnologies – and study aquatic (surface water) and land ecosystems, natural random phenomena, areas that are predominantly rural and semi-rural, water technologies and waste technologies. Fully integrated into the French and European research landscape, Cemagref conducts its research to support public policies and in partnership with industrialists (130 research Cemagref – SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT contracts). It is involved in a dozen competitiveness clusters. In 2006 it won the Carnot award for its combined activities.  Total budget: €110 million of which 30% are its own resources  1,400 staff including 950 scientists  9 centres across France  25 research teams. CNRS: ISM-LPTC-UNIVERSITY OF BORDEAUX 1 The Institute of Molecular Sciences (ISM) is a Mixed Research Unit comprising the CNRS, University of Bordeaux 1, ENSCPB, University of Bordeaux (ISM, UMR 5255 CNRS). The Institute's expertise is in four broad areas based around: Theoreticians in quantitative and dynamic molecular and reactional chemistry Organic synthesis chemists Physicochemical investigators (spectroscopy, photochemistry, molecular reconnaissance and analysis) Physico- and toxicochemists for aquatic and atmospheric environments For more information about SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT, go to our website www.suez-environnement.com For more information about CEMAGREF go to our website www.cemagref.fr Cemagref – SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT

Source: http://www.suez-environnement.fr/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/DP_-AMPERES_21012010_EN.pdf

Daubert_rpt/prnt

Daubert:The Most Influential Supreme Court Ruling You've Never Heard Of A Publication of the Project on Scientific Knowledge andPublic Policy, coordinated by the Tellus Institute Daubert:The Most Influential Supreme Court Ruling You've Never Heard Of A Publication of the Project on Scientific Knowledge andPublic Policy, coordinated by the Tellus Institute

Microsoft powerpoint - cutaneous fungal infections

Cutaneous Fungal Infections oDermatophytosis - "ringworm" disease of the nails, hair, and/or stratum corneum of the skin caused by fungi called dermatophytes. oDermatomycosis - more general name for any skin disease caused by a fungus. • Etiological agents are called dermatophytes - "skin plants". Three important anamorphic genera, (i.e., Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton), are involved in ringworm.