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Jewish american and holocaust literature

ALAN L. BERGER AND New beginnings always occasion reflection on the past. This inexo- rable rule of human behavior applies especially to the cultural realm whereinnovation is in constant, and frequently creative, tension with what hasgone before. Thus, the dawn of the new millennium is an appropriate momentto view two related literary genres, which have to a large extent shapedtwentieth-century literature. Jewish American and Holocaust literature to-gether have confronted, and reflected on, the meaning of being human, theplace of tradition in modernity, the content of Jewish identity, the issue ofmemory, the nature of evil, and the role of God in history. Further, thequestions raised by these genres have both particular and universal reso-nance. Composed against a tumultuous background of great cultural transi-tion and unprecedented state-sponsored systematic murder, this literatureaddresses the concerns of human existence in extremis.
Despite frequent rumors of its demise, the Jewish American literary tradition shows every sign of healthy continuation at the turn of the newmillennium. While Malamud is gone, Bellow's career is closing, and Rothseems to be at the peak of his powers, the grandchildren of the great twen-tieth-century "Bellow Malamudroth" nevertheless continue the tradition.
Despite its ambivalent relation to the multicultural movement of the pastthirty years, and recent academic critical preoccupation with variouspostmodernisms, young Jewish American writers have recently been thesubject of an annual American Literature Association Symposium devoted torereading the established tradition from new scholarly perspectives, as wellas exploring contemporary writers. The 1997 November/December issue ofTikkun was devoted to the Jewish literary revival, while Andrew Furmanreminds us in his Contemporary Jewish American Writers and the MulticulturalDilemma (2001) that "we should rejoice that we had a Bellow, but read andenjoy young Jewish novelists on their own terms" (B9). In his feature articlein The Chronicle of Higher Education (July 2001), "The Exaggerated Demiseof the Jewish American Writer," Furman argues that Jews are still writingabout their experiences in America. Most important, the vitality of Jewish 2004 State University of New York Press, Albany ALAN L. BERGER AND GLORIA L. CRONIN American letters has finally been acknowledged by the appearance of thenew Norton Anthology of Jewish American Literature (2001).
The first phase of Jewish American presence in American literature begins with the arrival of Jewish immigrants on American shores in theeighteenth century. This literature of arrival continues up to the 1880s, tobe followed by what the editors of the Norton Anthology call the "TheGreat Tide" from 1880 to 1924, which ends with the xenophobic slam-ming shut of the gates at Ellis Island. What follows is the steady advanceof Jewish American writers on Broadway, in Hollywood, in radio, in thetelevision industry, and into the American literary mainstream. In the eyesof the literary establishment, the Jewish American tradition comes of agewith Roth, Malamud, and the awarding of the Nobel Prize to Saul Bellowin 1976. Around this culminating achievement, a rich scholarly criticaldiscussion emerged regarding the phenomenon of self-meditation aboutJewish identity in America. It includes a significant tradition of humorwriting, scholarly commentary, literary criticism, contemporary religiouscommentary, Holocaust literature, post-Holocaust literature, and second-generation Holocaust literature.
The Holocaust is a watershed event that divides culture into a before and an after. Moreover, the Shoah stands as the defining mark of thetwentieth century. Elie Wiesel observes that every age has produced adistinctive literary form. "If," he writes, "the Greeks invented tragedy, theRomans the epistle, and the Renaissance the sonnet, our generation in-vented a new literature, that of testimony."1 Holocaust literature, which forWiesel is itself an oxymoron, is paradigmatic. Written in many languages,this literature underscores the fact that no field of human endeavor re-mains untouched by the extermination of the Jewish people. The flamesof the Shoah revealed in a stark and irrefutable manner the fact that cul-ture is no shield against murder. At first, in the early 1960s, a few survivorswrote about their experience. With the passage of time and the increase inhistorical documentation, novelists increasingly turned their attention tothe manifold implications of the Holocaust. Literary critics then begandiscussing Holocaust literature and its radical challenges to assumptionsabout God, the meaning of language itself, and its impact on traditionalteachings. As the essays in this volume reveal, the discussion of the mean-ing and message of testimonial is continuing and deepening.
Linking the Genres Jewish American and Holocaust literature share several attributes that link them in surprising ways. For example, they share the misperception ofbeing exhausted forms. The argument runs that not much of importance has 2004 State University of New York Press, Albany appeared since Bellow, Malamud, and Roth. Or, conversely, what has ap-peared is simply a reworking of the past. In terms of Holocaust literature, onefrequently hears that too much attention has been paid the Shoah—that itis time to move on. Accusations, some well intended, others mean-spiritedand self-serving, warn against remembering the Holocaust as the watershedevent of Jewish and human history.
The second shared characteristic is that both genres are experiencing a renewal. Among the significant names that come to mind here are writerssuch as Max Apple, Gina Berriault, Rosellen Brown, Melvin Jules Bukiet,Helen Epstein, Ruth Feldman, Rebecca Goldstein, Allegra Goodman, HughNissenson, Jacqueline Osherow, Marge Piercy, Tova Reich, Adrienne Rich,Jonathan Rosen, Thane Rosenbaum, Art Spiegelman, Steve Stern, and ahost of others. These writers extend and enrich the genres in important ways.
Writing Our Way Home: Contemporary Stories by American Jewish Writers, the 1992 anthology edited by Ted Solotaroff and Nessa Rapoport,reveals the breadth and depth of both Jewish American and Holocaust litera-ture. For example, the editors observe that "in rescuing the Holocaust fromthe banality of repetition, these stories from writers of diverse backgroundprovide another indication of the fresh winds of imagination that blow fromvarious sectors of the Jewish scene" (xxiii).
Concerning the Holocaust, Yosef Hayim Yerushalmi notes in Zakhor (1996) that more has been written on the Shoah than on any other historicalevent in Judaism. However, the image of the Holocaust, he writes, "is beingshaped, not at the historian's anvil, but in the novelist's crucible" (98).2Memoirs, novels, poetry, and short stories dealing with the event and itsaftermath continue to appear with great frequency. These literary works treatthe experiences of survivors ranging from the theologically shattering writ-ings of Elie Wiesel to the psychologically overwhelming stories of Ida Fink.
Additionally, the memoirs of hidden children have begun to emerge withincreasing frequency. These works raise crucial ethical, philosophical, soci-etal, and theological issues. Moreover, novels by and about the second gen-eration, that is, children of Holocaust survivors, form their own distinctivesubgenre and are the subject of several scholarly studies including Alan L.
Berger's Children of Job: American Second-Generation Witnesses to the Holo-caust (1997), the first systematic study of American second-generation Holo-caust novels and films. Berger observes that the writings of the present childrenof Job continue "to shape both contemporary memory of the Holocaust andlate twentieth-century Jewish ritual" (190). Additional works dealing withsecond-generation witnesses include Alan L. and Naomi Berger (editors),Second-Generation Voices: Reflections by Children of Holocaust Survivorsand Perpetrators (2001); Efraim Sicher (editor), Breaking Crystal: Writingand Memory After Auschwitz (1998), and Dina Wardi, Memorial Candles: 2004 State University of New York Press, Albany ALAN L. BERGER AND GLORIA L. CRONIN Children of the Holocaust, translated by Naomi Goldblum (1992). TheirHolocaust legacy plays a vital role in the psychosocial lives and the imagisticrealm of the second generation. Moreover, these works point the way to a re-working of old Judaic myths and to new rituals of post-Auschwitz Jewish identity.
The third resemblance between these genres is that, frequently, the works of a single author represent both types of writings. For example, onethinks of the writings of Nathan Englander, Allegra Goodman, Marge Piercy,Lynne Sharon Schwartz, Joseph Skibell, and Areyh Lev Stollman, amongothers. The extraordinary events of twentieth-century Jewish history con-tinue to compel the literary imagination as literary critics and writers seekto confront the possible meanings of the bloodiest century in human his-tory. Writers of second-generation Holocaust literature reveal both a meansof coping with the enormity of the Shoah and a refusal to permit its be-coming merely literature. Furthermore, this work displays the deep well-springs of the Jewish imaginative capacity. These are challenges that willonly deepen and mature in the new century.
Mainstream scholarly articles, journals, national newspapers, weeklies, and a variety of Jewish publications have published literally thousands ofbook reviews and articles devoted to the subjects of Jewishness in Americaand what constituted Jewish American literature in the twentieth century.
This literature's principal lines of inquiry have always been celebration, self-recognition, and cultural self-awareness. However, new cultural assessmentsof the conditions of Jewish life for second-generation Holocaust witnessesand American Jews in the midst of plenty seem to have supplanted thosedealing with Zionist politics, economic deprivation, and social alienation. Inthe postalienation era we find renewed emphasis on the life of a demo-graphically dwindling generation of American Jews. This generation is largelyunschooled in Jewish traditions, as a consequence of the returnee or ba'alt'shuvah phenomenon, renewed concern over the meaning and aftermath ofthe Holocaust for second- and now third-generation witnesses, and the resur-gence of traditional orthodox Judaism. Critical assessments, biographicalinvestigation, bibliographical mapping, theological commentary, and histo-riography continue apace. The liberal humanist critical perspective celebrat-ing primarily the values of Jewish humanism is now joined by feminism,postcolonialism, postmodernism multiculturalism, men's studies, gay studies,and a newly reconstituted cultural studies. Hence, the current critical discus-sion on Jewish American and Holocaust literature negotiates the ethicalissues emerging from the postmodern moment and the multicultural debatewith their emphasis on identity.
This volume of essays is intended to further this critical metanarrative by showing how traditionally canonized Jewish American writers are beingreread and reassessed through the lenses of contemporary critical theory, and 2004 State University of New York Press, Albany by extending critical assessment to the works of current Jewish Americanwriters who comprise an ongoing vibrant contemporary tradition in the newmillennium, and who continue to grapple with the legacy of the unmasterabletrauma of the Holocaust.
Part One: Holocaust Literature The essays dealing with the Holocaust are far-reaching and include a discussion of the writings of those who perished as well as a post-9/11 medi-tation on the relationship between aesthetics and grief by a son of Holocaustsurvivors. International in scope, three themes emerge from these studies: afocus on hiding, narrative strategies for remembering, and the emergence ofthe genre of Holocaust literature itself. Alan L. Berger's study of the literatureof hidden children notes the complex psychosocial and theological legacy oftheir hiding experience, which constitutes an assault on their core identity.
Were they Jews? Were they Christians? Whom could they trust? Why werethey separated first from their Jewish birth parents and then from their Chris-tian foster families? Berger cites the poignant comment of Robert Krell, him-self a hidden child, who observes, "Liberation was not altogether liberating."During the war, hidden children had to embrace silence to survive. After thewar, they had to learn to overcome this silence in order to bear witness andto begin working through their experiences. Among the lessons to be learnedfrom the experience of hidden children, Berger writes, "perhaps the mostimportant legacy will occur when people who hear their testimony seek tobuild a moral society which cherishes, rather than murders, children." Ellen Fine's lucid analysis of Ida Fink's writing discusses the intimate connection between the survivor's focus on the "hidden witnesses" in A Scrapof Time and the subtext of relationships, especially those between parents andchildren. Fink's stories tell of the Germans' continuing attempt to sever inti-mate bonds. The Polish survivor seeks to bring the reader, who is an outsider,inside the event. "Fink's stories themselves," writes Fine, provide a "connec-tion between the inner and outer, allowing the reader (the outsider) to gain aninside glimpse into the impact of the hiding experience upon ordinary men,women and children." Fink's tales offer "chinks" or points of contrast betweeninner and outer, reader and event, life and death, the living and the dead,author and reader. In spite of the limits of representation, Fink's work insightfully"creates narratives out of the lives [of the victims] and the dark universe theyinhabited, the terror they courageously faced on a daily basis." Inevitably andtragically, the survivors feel guilty for having lived. Fink's narratives, Fineattests, "assure us that the traces [of their lives] will not vanish." The late Harry James Cargas writes perceptively about a different di- mension of hiding. Responding to a newspaper attack which claimed that 2004 State University of New York Press, Albany ALAN L. BERGER AND GLORIA L. CRONIN Jerzy Kosinski, the enigmatic Polish writer and Holocaust survivor, was notreally the author of his own works, Cargas addresses the issues raised by theensuing scandal. His conclusion? Kosinski was indeed the author of his ownworks. One of the major themes in Kosinski's books is the "attempt to hideidentity." This is a type of hiding that evokes important questions for Holo-caust literature. What, for example, is the nature of memory? What kind ofidentity do survivors possess? What constitutes truth in literature? Hugh Nissenson's articulate piece discusses the works of six major European writers who experienced the Holocaust. Linking aesthetics tocontent, Nissenson writes that these six—Tadeusz Borowski, Anne Frank,Etty Hillesum, Jacob Presser, Primo Levi, and Emmanuel Ringelblum—arethe best stylists on the Shoah. Further, these writers shared a common theme,a "vision of the Holocaust as a new historical reality." Nissenson pursues histhesis in contending that these writings, for all their emphasis on bearingwitness, are also important because their authors had a love of both languageand of the specific form being worked—frequently the diary or literary jour-nal. Nissenson concludes his essay by observing that the enduring prose ofthese writers marks a major contribution to twentieth-century European lit-erature, the genre of "Holocaust literature—with its unprecedented subjectmatter, modern Europe's volitional descent, back through its own Dark Agesand the chaos preceding its creation—into the pit." Gerhard Bach's concern is with narrative strategies against forgetting employed by both older and younger writers. He discusses how Americanwriters Cynthia Ozick and Saul Bellow, and European authors Martin Amisand Irene Dische, reveal a different way of communicating the Holocaust.
Ozick's The Shawl, attests Bach, exemplifies Irving Howe's demand that"Holocaust fiction communicate to the reader both the external Auschwitz(factual events and experiences) and the internal Auschwitz (individual suf-fering, coping with memories)." Bellow's The Bellarosa Connection shiftsfrom story to storyteller. Bach notes that this "implies a shift from objectify-ing testimony to subjectified witness." Amis and Dische, for their part, reflectthe postmodernist impetus by deconstructing the historicity of the Holo-caust. Their narratives in, respectively, Time's Arrow and Pious Secrets, Bachargues, "make an appeal to the reader to serve as implicit—and to a certainextent even complicit—collaborateurs in the mental reconstruction of Holo-caust realities." Consequently, for second-generation writers the demand isnot for empathy. Rather, the writer—and reader—are called upon to activatetheir own strategies against forgetting and to construct meaning out of memory.
Bach asserts that contemporary strategies against forgetting are "stringentlyforceful antidotes to an otherwise rampant culture of obliviousness." Marianne M. Friedrich, Gila Safran Naveh, and Susan E. Nowak deal with specific case studies of Holocaust memory, images of the Shoah, and 2004 State University of New York Press, Albany the role of fiction in representing the Holocaust. Friedrich discusses Ozick'sThe Shawl. Unlike Bach, however, she views the novella as exemplifyingboth an ancient and a modern form of literature. Thus, Ozick's work simul-taneously establishes a "midrashic intertextuality in particular . . based onan ancient oral tradition" and addresses "a very avant-garde internationaltrend in fiction pointing toward an increased emphasis on ‘secondary orality'in an Ongian sense." Further, Friedrich sees a connection between TheShawl and Paul Celan's Todesfugue in that both works treat a "deeply troubledmother-child relationship, overshadowed by the problem of Jewish identity."Friedrich views both works as embodying Ozick's vision of haggadic fictionas "liturgical literature." Consequently, and in the face of the destruction ofthe European Jewish community, this fiction recalls—even as it relates thehorrific loss of—European Judaism.
Gila Safran Naveh focuses on the aesthetics of representation. How, she inquires, can the Holocaust be made real to us despite its "lack ofpresence"? Naveh asserts that rather than attempting to expunge the Shoahfrom ordinary life, writers and filmmakers such as Aharon Appelfeld, IsaacBashevis Singer, and Claude Lanzmann bring the Holocaust into everydaylife, creating what Ozick terms "a mind engraved with the Holocaust." ForLanzmann, the situation is one of antimemory; "the transmission is theknowledge." In the case of the writers, Appelfeld's use of the term a "grainof wheat" and Singer's "speck of dust" are, argues Naveh, unique signifiersthat "cause the signified rather than being caused by it." "Grain" and "speck"are terms that resonate with the Jewish historical experience. For example,they conjure God, Jewish literature, biblical statements, and Jewish prayer.
Annihilation is read as "turning into dust." God's promise to Abraham is tomake the Jewish people more numerous than grains of sand on the shore.
Susan E. Nowak deals with the theological implications of the Holo- caust on the writers Norma Rosen and Rebecca Goldstein. For both of theseauthors, explains Nowak, Holocaust fiction is a "self-reflexive, dynamic, andtransformative genre." Rosen and Goldstein are therefore concerned notwith simply mirroring the remains of a vanished world, but rather in engag-ing the insistent, haunting presence of the Shoah in a manner that seeks atikkun—repair or mending of the world—even if in an imperfect and frag-mented manner. Consequently, each of these writers is convinced that toglimpse a repaired world is simultaneously to "bear responsibility for creatingit." Nowak thus views the task of the post-Holocaust writer as being morallyresponsible for creating a better world while instructing her readers on howwe can live in a post-Holocaust universe.
Part One concludes with Thane Rosenbaum's profound meditation "Art and Atrocity in a Post-9/11 World." A second-generation Holocaust witness,Rosenbaum explores the complex relationship between art and aesthetics.
2004 State University of New York Press, Albany ALAN L. BERGER AND GLORIA L. CRONIN "Murder," he reminds his readers, "is not a work of art, but rather a moralcrime." How is one to respond to this crime? On the one hand, it assumesthe proportion of a gigantic struggle between the imagination of writers andthe imagination of terrorists. Yet, on the other hand, silence—at least ini-tially—may be the most appropriate response to the moral outrage of terroristmass murder. Rosenbaum emphasizes the fact that September 11, 2001, wasnot the Holocaust. However, the attack revisits the question of the properrole of memory in the aftermath of atrocity. Both for the Holocaust victimsand for the victims of 9/11, "sitting with the sadness and listening to thesilence"—anathema in a culture seeking instant closure—are necessary pre-ludes to any attempt at an aesthetic of atrocity. Let us listen, Rosenbaumpleads, to the ghosts.
Part Two: Jewish American Literature Essays treating Jewish American literature in this volume range from a focus on particular authors such as Saul Bellow, Philip Roth, and JonathanRosen to an exploration of what constitutes a Jewish writer. The concludingthree essays in this section specifically concern themselves with Jewish femi-nism and its contemporary challenges.
Gloria Cronin, using the "whiteness studies" theoretical model from postmodern postcolonial theory, urges renewed ethical consideration of howwe read the work of canonized Jewish American authors. Examining theracial architecture of Saul Bellow's fiction, she points out that in Bellow'snovels degeneracy, cultural collapse, barbarism, and the deterioration ofWestern culture are very often troped black and African, and that such tropesof African barbarity and moral corruption escalate with increasing animusthroughout the Bellow canon until contemporary animality, urban desola-tion, and the inner city itself become a true heart of darkness or Africanizedancient forest. She also points out how Africanity becomes a device throughwhich Bellow meditates on a forbidden and feared white shadow self, filledwith physical terror and internal loneliness. Hence, it would appear thatBellow is recirculating Conradian tropes of blackness from the old colonialarchive in a self-serving double move in which he conceives of himself as"civilized" and therefore "not nigger," while simultaneously reinforcing andperpetuating the "niggerhood" of those behind its veil.
Sarah Blacher Cohen revisits Bellow, now in the twilight of his career, and lauds his lavish talent as a comic writer who expresses a preference forthe use of comedy rather than complaint as an antidote to despair. Through-out his career, she argues, he uses comedy to interrupt, resist, reinterpret,and transcend diversity. While in the earlier novels he uses comedy to staveoff mistrust and melancholy, in the later novels it becomes a tonic, "a com- 2004 State University of New York Press, Albany passionate shield," "a flashing saber," "a balance and a barricade," "a counterto depression," "a satiric glass," and a "defiant even militant irony." In ananalysis of several works, she demonstrates how he spans the full range ofhighbrow and lowbrow vaudevillian Jewish humor "to dull the progressiveillness of mortality." Given how little has been published on humor in Jew-ish American literature in the last twenty years, this essay points to the needfor further such humor studies.
Bonnie Lyons uses Philip Roth's American Pastoral as an illustration of how contemporary Jewish American writers increasingly draw upon Euro-pean texts, American mythos, and Jewish preoccupations with time, memory,loss, and history as they develop their fiction. Through her explication ofAmerican Pastoral, she illustrates the sheer postmodern variety and complex-ity of Jewish life at the turn of the millennium in a rapidly evolving Ameri-can culture.
Evelyn Avery addresses the issue of what distinguishes a Jewish writer by tracing the respect and interest Cynthia Ozick and Bernard Malamudshared for one another during Malamud's lifetime, as evidenced throughtheir personal correspondence and interviews. Despite Malamud's secularorientation and Ozick's orthodox life, she argues, both writers shared thevalues of Yiddishkeit, compassion for the underdog and outrage against injus-tice. She compares several key works and characters by both authors, andconcludes with a moving account of Cynthia Ozick's recognition of Malamud'sessentially Jewish soul by her reciting of the Shema, the holiest prayer in theJewish world, at his secular funeral.
Suzanne Lundquist provides a postmodern and ethnographic reading of Jonathan Rosen's Eve's Apple, which she reads as a disquisition on therelationship between the forbidden fruit of the book of Genesis and thecontemporary human body, its mystery of hunger and denial, connectionand acceptance. She describes Rosen's ability to connect the contemporarycondition of anorexia to current spiritual hunger and a whole complex ofJudeo-Christian cultural constructions of the human body, hunger, addic-tion, femininity, masculinity, human intimacy, family dysfunction, bodilymalconception, and eternal hunger, and to our concept of God.
S. Lillian Kremer provides a comprehensive overview of the ideologi- cal shift in Jewish women's writing of the last thirty years. In opposition tothe tendency of Jewish male writers to portray Jewish women as noisy andpushy, manipulative mothers or lovers, spoiled daughters, or castrators ofhusbands and sons, she demonstrates contemporary Jewish American womenwriters writing against this grain by portraying Jewish women with a concernfor ethical, social, and political justice. Female protagonists are often morecomplex and show concern for the pull between Jewish languages, history,religious philosophy, and tradition. Intelligent, assertive women, strongly 2004 State University of New York Press, Albany ALAN L. BERGER AND GLORIA L. CRONIN influenced by Judaism and feminism, are fashioning new paradigms, seekingentrée into religious life, reevaluating traditional Judaism, grappling withsecular feminism, and generally displacing male experience as normative.
This newest generation of Jewish American women writers are at ease withJudaism and Western high culture, portray the Holocaust from a femaleperspective, often use a midrashic narrative mode, and engage in textcenteredness, redemptive writing, and tikkun (healing) themes.
Miriyam Glazer provides a valuable updated map of twentieth-century Jewish women writers by exploring (1) earlier fiction featuring pursuit of theAmerican quest-romance of the prefeminist era; (2) more recent fictiondescribing the cracks in the overall structure, where Jewish women refuse tolook for gentiles over their shoulders and become assertively Jewish; and (3)a mostly secular fiction in which Jewish women fail to find their places.
Provocatively, she invokes postmodern hybridity theory, in asking whetherJews are white or not, and at what point Jews do or do not become whatHomi Bhabha calls a "reformed, recognizable Other" who embodies an"authorized version of Otherness." Are Jews half-breeds who understandeveryone because they belong completely to no larger society, she asks? Suchquestions take the twentieth-century debate on issues of Jewish identity andthe identity of the Jewish writer into the twenty-first century.
Janet Burstein focuses intensively on women's filial narratives of par- ents, children, and women, which sidestep the typically male Harold Bloom–style "anxiety of influence" filial narrative of priority, competitiveness, andstatus. She traces the Oedipal family romance with all its aggressive scenariosthrough fiction and criticism and shows how filial stories written since thelate 1960s by Jewish American women transform these parental stories throughstaging patterns of engagement rather than rupture, continuing dialoguerather than guilt and nostalgia. She also examines fiction that reveals themixed effects upon daughters of the frustrations of their mothers' lives, andwhat they carry forth of the precursor's story even as their own narrativesreverse it. She credits this new generation of Jewish women writers withproducing a "matrix of generous influence" which Harold Bloom called"illusory," instead of the usual masculine agonistic androcentric model.
1. Wiesel, Elie, "The Holocaust as Literary Inspiration," in Dimensions of the Holocaust. (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1977), 9.
2. One now needs to expand Yerushalmi's observation to include cinematic representations of the Holocaust. For insightful studies of Holocaust films and theirsocietal impact, see Judith E. Doneson, The Holocaust in American Film, SecondEdition, Syracuse University Press (2002), and Annette Insdorf, Indelible Shadows:Film and the Holocaust Third Edition. Cambridge University Press (2002).
2004 State University of New York Press, Albany

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Aeg038 166.172

British Journal of Anaesthesia 90 (2): 166±72 (2003) DOI: 10.1093/bja/aeg038 Parecoxib sodium has opioid-sparing effects in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty under spinal anaesthesia² R. C. Hubbard1*, T. M. Naumann2, L. Traylor1 and S. Dhadda1 1Pharmacia, 5200 Old Orchard Road, Skokie, IL 60077, USA. 2Hessing'sche Orthopedic Clinic, Hessingstr, Augsburg, Germany