Treat Weeds
Front cover photo shows flower of Wild Passion RESOURCE 5: COMMUNITY EDUCATION POSTERS .38 Fruit (Passiflora foetida) Student number:……………………

Welcome to Treat Weeds. You may need to identify and treat weeds when doing revegetation or landscaping work when working for your council, doing ranger work or when managing your own country. Treat Weeds is aimed at students who will be treating weeds under supervision. Training should be completed on the job over an extended period of time.
If you are working with chemicals you should do a chemical use unit such as Apply Chemicals Under Supervision as well as Treat Weeds. There are other higher level qualifications you need to consider if working on your own or if your team is planning to undertake weed contracts. The most relevant are SMARTtrain and ChemCert at Level 3 and the Professional Ground Spray EqUIPmENT REqUIRED
To complete this training you will need the following:
Appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
Safety gear for field work including first aid kit and water.
3. Secateurs and other equipment for collecting weeds, and a plant press and newspaper for pressing weeds.
Tools and equipment for treating weeds such as rakes, shovels, hoes, mattocks, saws and spray packs.
Chemicals for treating weeds.
There are three assignments you will need to complete.
Some of these assignments may go towards your final assessment.
Not yet competent (NYC) Achieved Project Risk Assessment Treat Weeds Using Chemicals Finishing Up
Record and Monitor Weed Treatment

Information about treating weeds can be obtained from many sources.
There are a few excellent weed books available that will help you, see the
References on page 40. The two main field guides for the NT are:

Weeds of Central Australia: a field guide (2009) by Sunil Dhanji and published by Greening Australia.
Weeds of the Wet/Dry Tropics of Australia: A field guide (2002) by Nicholas Smith and published by the Environment Centre NT.
There is also information available online.
1. For information on Northern Territory weeds, including the Northern Territory Weed Management Handbook, go to the Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport.
2. PestGenie has information about herbicides including labels and MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets). The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority has good information about chemical safety, picking the right chemical and legislation. and 3. For information on community activities about weeds go to Weedbusters – an Australian Government sponsored program aimed at increasing the awareness about weed issues nationally.
4. For Australia wide information and some very useful weed links go to Weeds Australia (an Australian Weeds Committee National Initiative), or the Australian Government's Weeds in Australia page, or the Invasive Species Council. and and 1B. TREATING WEEDS SAFELY
There are many dangers associated with treating weeds. It is important
that you be aware of some of the potential dangers so you can avoid
getting injured or poisoned.
Some of the things you can do to keep yourself safe include: 1. Wear thick gardening gloves at all times. 2. Wear appropriate clothes for outdoors – at least long trousers, hat 3. Watch out for snakes, spiders, wasps etc. and rusty iron or broken glass in amongst weeds.
4. Keep safe distances away from other workers around hand tools.
5. Extreme caution should be taken using chemicals and motorised machinery. Only properly trained people should use motorised machinery and chemicals.
6. Always carry a first aid kit and make sure someone has a first aid Always consult expert advice about weed control before you start to avoid any dangerous pitfalls.
8. Always lift heavy objects correctly to avoid injuring your back (see Resource 1 for correct lifting procedures).
The use of chemicals, such as herbicides, when carrying out any weed
control work requires some extra special precautions. Only people with the right training should use chemicals.
Chemical poisoning can occur through the skin or eyes, by swallowing, or by breathing it in. Pregnant women should not use chemicals.
Poisoning can happen quickly, for example if poison is swallowed. For any poisoning Symptons can include fatigue, headache, sweating, dizziness, fever, immediately contact the intense thirst, increased rate of breathing, vomiting, uncontrollable muscle twitches, pinpoint pupils, convulsions, inability to breathe and unconsciousness.
Poisoning can also happen bit by bit over many years. For example someone who does not wear good PPE all the time might get slowly Phone 131126 poisoned. Symptoms may include nervousness, slowed reflexes, Call from anywhere in irritability, or a general decline in health.
Australia 24 hours a day Personal Protective Equipment
The following PPE should be considered when using chemicals.
PVC or other chemical resistant gloves.
Goggles or protective glasses – they protect your eyes which easily absorb chemicals (a full face shield is needed for mixing some concentrated chemicals).
3. Dust mask or respirator – these help prevent the inhalation of Cotton hat – protects the head from chemicals and can be washed clean after each use.
Rubber boots – prevents spray getting onto your feet - the overalls should cover the outside of the boots so drips don't run down the inside of the boot.
Cotton overalls – suitable for general chemical work and will protect work clothes underneath – wash after each use or use disposable overalls.
7. PVC apron – used to protect clothing when mixing concentrated chemicals (a PVC suit may be necessary for some dangerous chemicals).
Safe use of chemicals
Always read the label before using the chemical.
2. Do not transport chemicals in the passenger compartment of a 3. Be careful when opening containers to avoid spills and only mix chemicals in areas where spills can be controlled.
If there is a spill tell your trainer immediately.
Never pour chemicals into other containers (like drink bottles).
Do not spray herbicides near bystanders or unprotected workers.
7. Always have clean water on hand for washing eyes (including eyewash bottle) and other spills.
Remove all PPE including overalls after spraying and before eating or smoking.
Always wash hands before eating or smoking.
10. Always wash your personal protective equipment, such as overalls, separately to all other clothes.
Safe storage of chemicals
Keep all chemicals locked in an appropriate chemical store such as
a shed or cabinet.
2. The chemical store must have a folder with the labels and MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) for every chemical in the store.
3. The chemical store must have running water on hand and should also have an eyewash facility.
Do not store other things in the chemical store such as food.
5. Always store your personal protective equipment away from the 1 – GETTING PREPARED
Before you begin, use this checklist to confirm you have followed good safety procedures and have all the right resources.
Long trousers, shirt and boots Sunscreen, insect repellant and sunglasses Dust mask and rubber gloves Notified others and have phone/2 way radio Checked weather, road and fire reports Permits (if required) and maps 1 – GETTING PREPARED
A weed is a plant growing where it is not wanted, and it usually has
negative environmental and/or economic effects:

Invasive weeds produce seedlings in large numbers and spread
over a big area.
Environmental weeds are plants that are not native to an area.
Transformer weeds are highly invasive weeds that cause serious
environmental damage – these are the ones we really have to worry
Weeds that have become big problems are included in legislation by the government:• Declared (noxious) weeds: Weeds that have been declared by law,
e.g. those weeds declared under the NT Weeds Management Act (a
list of all declared weeds in the NT can be found at Resource 2).
Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) WONS (Weeds of National Significance): These weeds have been
choking a waterway listed by the Australian Government as posing very significant problems to pastoralism, biodiversity, conservation, or human and animal welfare (a list of all WONS can be seen in Resource 3).
Different land managers often disagree on what is a weed. What one person sees as a weed may be a useful plant to someone else (see the Buffel Grass story in the box).
Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) – useful plant or weed?
Buffel Grass is a perennial grass that grows to around one metre high,
often forming loose tufts. It is an introduced species which is native
to Africa and India and is now widespread throughout the Northern
Buffel takes over disturbed areas such as community areas and roadsides and natural areas like creek lines, swamp margins, and coastal dunes. Seeds are spread short distances by wind, deliberate plantings, movement of contaminated hay and by vehicles. Buffel is a major weed in many NT national parks. It is an aggressive invader that chokes out native grasses. In central Australia it has increased fire intensity along creek lines which is affecting the regrowth of the majestic River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). It is not eaten by rabbits and survives well in areas with high rabbit numbers.
However Buffel Grass is widely planted on pastoral properties in the NT where it is a valued fodder species that can withstand heavy grazing by cattle. The species has also been extensively planted in land reclamation programs for soil stabilisation, particularly on sandy soils where its deep root system enables it to grow and survive extremely well. Here it is not considered a weed but a very desirable plant.
Despite the useful or beneficial aspects of this species considerable resources and money have been spent to control Buffel Grass in conservation areas. Urgent consideration needs to be given to realistically weighing up both the costs and benefits of this species.
Weed plants may come from other areas in Australia, or more often, from
overseas. Weeds can come from:

Escaped pastoral plants: Many of our worst weeds have been
introduced as pasture species and have gone wild, e.g. Gamba Grass
which is now a major weed across northern Australia. It is particularly
bad in the Darwin area.
Escaped garden plants: Some of our serious weeds have jumped
the garden fence from urban gardens into the bush, e.g. Mimosa
escaped from the Darwin Botanic Gardens and is now a weed of
national significance.
Accidental introductions: Numerous weeds are accidental
introductions such as Mossman River Grass whose spiny burrs on
the fruits enabled the fruit to stick to clothing, fur and machinery.
Reasons for getting rid of weeds include:
Environmental: Weeds compete with native species, change the (Andropogon gayanus)
habitats that native animals live in, and change natural processes (eg. fire intensity and stream flow).
Economic: They can compete with and contaminate crops, affect
mustering, restrict people movement, be toxic to stock and increase
vehicle cleaning costs.
Safety: Weeds can increase wildfires, cause allergic reactions and
illnesses such as asthma, and obstruct visibility on roadsides.
Pests and diseases: Weeds can provide places for pests to hide
(such as feral pigs) or harbour diseases (especially in horticultural
Aesthetic: They can appear unnatural and unsightly.
The weed situation in the Northern Territory is being made worse by:• Overgrazing and tree clearing.
Bushland weeds can increase the intensity of Increases in vehicle movement e.g. mining exploration, recreational and tourist four wheel drives, military vehicles and cattle trains.
Woodland destroyed by Increased population causing more disturbance and urbanisation.
intense Gamba Grass fire Pollution through bad land management practices e.g. increased levels in nutrients such as fertilisers and sewerage.
Continued spreading of pasture species which turn into bad weeds.
Changes in the way country is now burnt.
With your group talk about why weeds are a problem in your area. Talk about a plant found in your area that some people think is good and other people think is bad. Should this plant be called a weed? 1 – GETTING PREPARED
Working out how weeds spread is an important part of knowing how
to control them. Weeds normally spread by the movement of seeds or
growing parts (rhizomes, tubers, bulbs etc). Weeds spread by the following
Water: Rain and surface water runoff can transport seed long
distances. Some seeds have air bladders that enable them to float.
Flooding rivers can move large quantities of seed very easily.
Wind: Wind can carry seed long distances. Weeds dispersed by this
method often have light fluffy or even winged seeds that can easily
be blown around. In some cases the whole plant will be blown by the
Weeds spread by wind Animals: Mammals and birds can carry all sorts of seeds on their
bodies. Some weeds have special mechanisms that enable them to
stick to fur or hair e.g. hooks, spines or burrs. Some seeds are also
eaten and excreted out at new locations. These seeds have adapted
to pass through the digestive system unharmed.
Humans: Humans are probably the most active spreaders of weeds.
Seeds can be transported on clothing, soles of shoes, on mud and
radiators on vehicles and machinery, in hay and as contaminated
pasture seed. Planes and boats can move seeds long distances.
Weeds spread in animal Plants that become problem weeds show a combination of some of the The plants:

Machinery such as graders grow in a wide range of conditions are often responsible for outcompete native plants after a disturbance reproduce in many ways (seeds, suckers, bulbs etc.) have few natural enemies.
The seeds:

spread easily by wind, water and animals (like sticky or floating fruits) are produced in large numbers can stay dormant in the soil for long periods germinate even when conditions are harsh are produced when the plant is still young.
It is important to know what weeds you have so you can control them
properly. You should be able to identify the main common weeds in your area using the field guides listed on page 2. We also recommend you work You may need to through the Recognise Plants learning guide as it has lots of information describe the leaves, about identifying plants, including references.
flowers, fruit, seed, trunk, Some plant characteristics that are important for weeds are described bark and/or roots to help identify the weed. SHAPE OF THE PLANT
Habit means the shape or growth form of the plant. Some common habits
(Delonix regia) (Calotropis procera) (Centrosema molle) (Sesamum indicum) mONOCOT OR DICOT
Knowing whether a weed is a monocot or a dicot will help you choose a
successful control method.
monocots: Narrow leaved grasses and sedges. New seedlings have
only one seed leaf. Leaves have parallel veins and the roots are fine
and fibrous.
Dicots: Broad leaved plants like trees, shrubs and herbs. New
seedlings have two seed leaves. Leaves have a network of veins and
roots are thick often with a strong tap root.
leaf has parallel 1 – GETTING PREPARED
Understanding the weed's life cycle can help you decide how to control it.
Annual: A plant that lives for only one year. They complete their
life cycle from flowering, producing seed to death within the year.
Control programs should aim to prevent seeding.
(Calopogonium mucunoides) Perennial: A plant that lives for many years. Perennial plants include
woody trees and shrubs that last for a long time. They also include
herbs and vines with soft green leaves – sometimes the leaves die
off leaving tubers and bulbs under the ground that reshoot the next
year. Perennial weeds can be difficult to control as the seed and the
root must be destroyed.
To check the identification of a weed you can show it to a weed expert. You
need to dry and press the weed so it keeps for a while. We recommend
you work through the Collect, Prepare and Preserve Plant Specimens
learning guide if you plan to collect lots of weed samples. Here are some hints to get you started.
• Take a photo first.
Collect a sample of the whole plant if possible.
Try and include leaves, flowers and seeds.
Place the plant in between newspaper pages and put something heavy on it or use a plant press, change the paper every day or so.
If the plant is too large it may be folded in a zig-zag fashion so it fits inside the paper.
Do not store plants in plastic bags for long as they will go mouldy very quickly.
Record as much information as you can including the location, the type of habitat, what other plants were growing with it, and any features about the plant that might be lost when the plant is dried (such as flower or fruit colour or smell of crushed leaves).
Be careful not to spread weed seeds around by being careless with dried specimens. Always burn any unwanted material you have collected.
Your trainer has tagged 10 common local weeds. Identify the 10 weeds and write their Common and Scientific names: Common Name
Using the correct tools will make your task easier and will help to keep you
free from injury. Tick off the items you think you will need.
Stop and think before starting work.
What needs to be done so you can work safely? Complete the What to do about it? column – we have written one
thing in each box – try and think of some others.
Fill in all of the last row by adding a new hazard.
What to do about it?
and what can happen = the risk
• Read label and understand what the chemical is used for • Lift correctly bending knees and not straining back USE OF mOTORISED EqUIPmENT
• Don't wear loose fitting clothing Injury from being caught in machine SUN EXPOSURE
Heat exhaustion, deyhydration and sunburn ROAD TRAVEL
• Minimise distraction in vehicle Injury in vehicle 2A. SUCCESSFUL WEED mANAGEmENT
Preventing weeds is much better than trying to get rid of them later.
Good land management will reduce the chances of weeds entering and
spreading on your land.
Recognise weeds and educate your local community: See the
posters in Resource 5 for some ideas on community education, the
more people keeping a look out for weeds the better.
maintain natural areas: Maintain natural areas so everything is
in balance with as little disturbance as possible. Drive on tracks
rather than off the road. Use local native plants in your gardening,
landscaping and revegetation.
Reduce disturbed areas: Weeds often invade disturbed areas first.
Disturbance can be caused by many factors such as overgrazing, feral
animals, roadside grading and vehicle traffic. In bare areas native
plants can be used to establish ground cover and stop weeds from Any burning must be in invading. Revegetation should immediately follow weed control to line with the Bushfires prevent weeds from re-establishing.
Act and Fire and Emergency Act.  Please contact your local fire Prevent weeds entering area: Remove and destroy weed seed and
station for permits to dirt from your clothes. Wash vehicles and machinery in wash down burn if you live within bays to remove weed seed. Destroy weed seeds by bagging and a Northern Territory incinerating. Check there are no weeds in soil, sand and hay brought Fire and Rescue Service into your area. Feral animals and stock can also move seeds around.
Emergency Response Area. If you live outside those areas, contact quarantine: If there is an outbreak of weeds quarantine the area
your local Volunteer to reduce the chances of it spreading. Quarantine can be used to Fire Brigade Captain or isolate small outbreaks for eradication, or larger infestations as a local area Fire Warden part of preventative measures.
through the Bushfires Council on 8922 0844 (Darwin) or Fire: Good use of fire is essential. Fire can remove some weeds
8976 0098 (Batchelor). (particularly some woody weeds and fire sensitive weed species), however it can encourage some weed species and aid in the germination of others. Increased germination can be an advantage as long as follow up control methods are used to kill the germinated seeds.
Reporting weeds: Reporting weeds to your local authority is
essential to prevent weeds spreading or new weeds establishing
A successful weed control program combines different treatment
methods, not relying on a single method. This is called integrated weed
management. For instance the use of chemical, biological and physical
methods combined may give a better result than just spraying weeds.
Integrated weed management can use methods such as mowing and slashing (physical) followed by spraying when seedlings emerge (chemical). The use of fire can kill seedlings and can also improve access to use other methods. Biological control can reduce the reproduction Quad bike set up to find, rates of weeds and make other methods more cost effective. There are map and treat weeds lots of other examples.
A good weed control program should focus on the following: Early detection and control: Once weeds have taken a hold they
are hard to remove. It is far better to get in early before they spread.
Look out for isolated plants and get rid of them.
All land owners and Regular follow up: Once off treatment of weeds rarely is successful.
managers are required Going back and checking and retreating if necessary is important.
to take all reasonable Long term commitment: Successful weed control will mean working
measures to prevent hard at it over many years. Some weeds have seeds that can last over their land being infested 25 years in the soil.
with a declared weed. The type of treatment you choose depends on the type of weed (its habit, whether its annual or perennial, its method of reproduction and spread etc.) and your resources and budget. Check the Northern Territory Weed Management Handbook for the best treatment for your weeds.
Physical control methods are the oldest forms of weed control and until
fairly recently were the only way to control weeds. The advantages of
physical methods are:
• They can be applied with equipment that is normally readily They can be cost-effective.
They are non-polluting to the environment and non-toxic to the operator.
They can help retain ground cover.
The disadvantages of physical methods are:
They can sometimes be costly and time consuming when used over large areas.
Some weeds can be spread by physical means such as road side slashers.
Some machinery can cause erosion and soil degradation.

Handpulling: A labour intensive method which can be very effective
when carried out before seed is set. Well suited for small areas and
shallow rooted plants. Don't leave plants on the ground as they can
reshoot, and make sure all roots are removed.
Grubbing: A similar method to hand pulling however the use of
spades, shovels and mattocks make the job a bit easier. Normally used on deep rooted perennials where it is important to remove all the roots.
Slashing: Normally used over large areas to prevent seed from
setting. Often will not remove the plants but stops them setting
seeds. Helps to maintain ground cover without disturbing the soil.
However some plants can set seed close to the ground out of the
reach of machinery.
mowing: Very similar to slashing but is useful for smaller areas. A
brushcutter can also be used around native plants, make sure you
don't ringbark the natives.
Cultivation: The aim is to kill the weed by exposing the root and to
bury the plant at a depth where it cannot regrow. A cost effective
method of control for annuals, herbs and seedlings. Deep cultivation and ripping can be used for perennial woody species. Cultivation can disturb the soil and expose it to erosion.
Chaining: Bulldozers in pairs pull chains between plants and knock
them over. Chained weeds are often piled and burnt. Used mainly
for woody species. Chaining pulls the plants over and exposes the
roots above the ground.
Felling: Used for trees and large shrubs where the whole plant is
removed by machinery or chainsaws. In some cases the stumps may
need to be treated with herbicide to stop reshooting (see chemical
mulching: Mulching around plants can be effective for small areas
by preventing weeds from germinating and smothering existing
plants. Many materials can be used such as cardboard, straw, saw-
dust, wood-chip, lawn clippings etc. Mulching has the advantage of helping prevent soil erosion and conserving soil moisture.
Nets: Erection of nets across a river or creek is used to control the
movement of aquatic plants.
Grazing: Trampling and grazing by livestock can keep some weeds
under control – it should be followed up with other methods such as
chemical treatment.
of chemical treatments include:
They can be cost effective when used in an integrated control program over a large area.
They minimise soil erosion and degradation.
Disadvantages of chemical treatments are:
They require specialised equipment and training.
There is the risk of pollution to the environment (eg. soil residue and water pollution).
They can be toxic to the operator.

Wear good PPE.
Always read the label first.
Be careful when opening containers to avoid spills and only mix chemicals in areas where spills can be controlled.
If there is a spill tell your trainer immediately.
Never pour chemicals into other containers (like drink bottles).
Do not spray herbicides near bystanders or unprotected workers.
Always have clean water on hand.
Always wash hands before eating or smoking.
Keep all chemicals locked in your chemical store.' It is very important that you only kill the weeds, not other plants such as native plants or crops. Make sure your spray does not "drift" on to the wrong plants. WHEN TO USE HERBICIDES

When the plant is actively growing.
Early in the morning or late in the afternoon – the plant is more likely to absorb the herbicide When the plant is not under stress.
When it is not windy, not raining, and rain is not expected within the next few hours (rain can wash the chemical off the plant before it is properly absorbed).

Foliar spray: Suitable for weeds with soft green leaves and stems
and for regrowth. Herbicide is mixed with water and a wetting agent
and sprayed using equipment that is portable, manually operated
and easy to use. A hand held spray unit, a back pack or a vehicle
mounted spray unit can be used.
Rope wick application: Suitable for weeds with soft green leaves
and stems and for regrowth. Herbicide is usually mixed with water
and a wetting agent. Herbicide wets the wick or rope and this is
brushed on the plants. Rope wick applicators are often hand held or
mounted on a tractor. A big advantage is that there is no damage to
other plants caused by drift of sprays.
Basal bark application: Best suited to stands of shrubs or sucker
regrowth. Herbicide is mixed with diesel and applied as a spray to
the bark at the base of plants. Herbicide may also be painted on with
a brush. The herbicide enters the bark where it is carried throughout
the plant. You must make sure you apply it right around the stem of
the weed.
Cut stump: Usually used for a stand of a few trees or shrubs.
Herbicide is painted on freshly cut stumps either mixed with water
or diesel to kill the roots to prevent further shooting. You must apply
the herbicide immediately after cutting – no more than 10 seconds.
Stem injection: Suitable for treating large areas of trees or shrubs.
Herbicide is injected directly into the sapwood or applied via cuts
made around the trunk.
Basal bark application Soil application: Herbicide is applied in the form of granules, pellets
or liquid to the ground around the plant. The herbicide is absorbed through the roots. Rain is normally needed to wash the herbicide into the root zone for uptake by the plant.
The type of herbicide you use depends on your weed. You will need to
find out the best herbicide for your situation. Herbicides kill plants in
different ways:
Systemic herbicides: Herbicides that travel throughout the plant
and kill the whole plant (e.g. Glyphosate ROUNDUP®).
Contact herbicides: Herbicides that kill only the parts of the plant
that they land on (e.g. Paraquat GRAMOXONE®).
Residual herbicides: Herbicides that stay in the soil and continue to
kill plants over time (e.g. Oxadiazon RONSTAR®).
Selective herbicides kill some plants but not others (e.g. 2,4-D AMICIDE
50®). A non selective herbicide will kill most plant species (e.g.
Glyphosate ROUNDUP®).
material Safety Data Sheet (mSDS)
A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a legal document explaining the
effects on your health from exposure to a herbicide. Information is provided
on toxicity, storage, use, handling and any emergency procedures. You
must make sure you have the MSDS available nearby when working with
any chemicals.
Before using any chemical make sure you read and understand the label
– it may save your life. It is a requirement of use that anyone applying the
chemical MUST read the label before using the chemical. There are many
different versions of the same chemical and it is important that you know
about the one you are using. Sometimes the label might be a little book
rather than just a sticker. The most important parts of the label are shown
Trade name is the
Signal heading tells
Storage and disposal gives
common name of the you how dangerous the information how to store and dispose of the chemical Directions for use this
Active constituent is the main
Safety directions and first
includes information about chemical that kills the weed aid gives information on what
rates as well as how to apply PPE to wear and first aid if an the chemcial 2 – TREATING WEEDS
Biological control is the use of naturally occurring enemies of the weed to
control the numbers of the pest. It is not aimed at eradicating the weed.
Once established there is a natural balance between the control agent
and the pest plant. Biological control is relatively expensive, very specific,
permanent and yet environmentally safe. It is only used on weeds of major
A biological control program has four stages: Overseas exploration: Once the origin of the weed has been
Salvinia (Salvinia molesta) determined, a search is made for its natural enemies.
infestation – Salvinia weevil quarantine and testing: The most promising insects are imported
has been released to control this weed into Australia where they are tested on a very wide range of native plant species.
mass rearing and field release: Selected species are raised in large
numbers in the laboratory then released on mass into the field.
monitoring: The weed populations are monitored to see if the
biological control agents are working and to check that no native
plant species are being attacked.
A number of biological control agents have been released in the Northern Territory to control weeds such as Noogoora Burr, Salvinia, Parkinsonia, Spinyhead Sida and Mimosa. See Resource 4 for some examples of biological control.
Other chemical free methods are becoming increasingly popular as new
technologies develop and methods are further developed. They have
similar advantages to physical treatments. Some chemical free methods
Hot water: Several types are available with hot water sometimes
combined with compressed air or a foaming agent. Delivery is via
a long hose and wand with a nozzle attachment. Small hand held
applicators powered by electricity can be used for weeds around
homes with larger vehicle mounted models suitable for roadsides
and storm water drains.
Infrared radiation: This method is powered by gas and combines
infrared radiant heat with a strong flow of hot air. Equipment pushed
like a mower is suitable for paved areas with larger machinery pulled
units used for weeding orchards, vineyards etc.
Pine oil: Pine oil spray is an effective product derived from pine
trees. Some people consider this product to be a chemical.
Flaming: Normally these are gas or kerosene powered flamers that
heat the cell sap by slowly passing the flame over the plant. It is not
necessary to blacken and burn the weed to kill it. Best used before
seed set and most suitable for young broad leaf plants. Perennial
weeds usually die off but may reshoot from the roots later. Special
nozzles spread the flame evenly over the plant.
Decide on a weed treatment for each of these situations – it may be physical, chemical or biological.
Weed problem
Groups of large trees Weeds in a garden bed Large patches of weeds with bulbs underground Masses of creeper growing up trees Long strips of roadside weedy grasses Large areas of a perennial grass Weeds growing in amongst native plants Free floating aquatic weeds Annual weeds in a vegetable patch TREAT WEEDS USING CHEmICALS
With your trainer carry out all the steps of treating a weed with chemicals.
On this page draw a simple picture of each step you took.

Wear good PPE when cleaning up and disposing of waste.
Only mix enough chemical for the job.
Do not leave mixed chemicals in the container.
Triple rinse all containers and equipment after use.
Carefully clean all the nozzles on spray equipment to stop them getting blocked.
Never use containers for other purposes.
Always read the label for disposal instructions.
Unused chemicals and empty containers must Keep all chemicals locked in the chemical store.
be disposed of properly.
Drummuster is a
national program for the collecting and recycling of empty, cleaned containers 8942 2544 or 0418 892 260 or nationally 1800 008 707). ChemClear provides a
reliable and responsible collection and disposal service for obsolete chemicals or phone 1800 008 182). 3B. TOOL mAINTENANCE
To make the next job easy and to prevent personal injury it is very important
to keep tools in good condition. Follow the steps below:
Wash all tools of mud and dirt and oil any metal parts to prevent rusting. Steel wool and a light oil will remove any surface rust.
Keep tools sharp and in good working order. Bevel the back edge of a spade off with a bench grinder or a coarse sharpening stone. Replace any broken handles. Never use bush sticks as handles as they often break causing injury.
Sand and oil all wooden handles to avoid getting nasty splinters. Use 50% mineral turpentine and 50% raw linseed oil on wood.
It is very important to keep good records of everything you do in weed
management. This will help to check if your weed treatment is working.
After a few year's work you can check back through your records and see
how it is all going.
On the following page is a Herbicide Application Record sheet (there is
an example of a filled in one after it). The law says you must keep these records. It will help you if someone claims you have poisoned their plants or animals as well as providing you with good monitoring information.
Photo points
Photo points are photographs taken from the same point every time.
These photographs will allow you to compare the site over time allowing
you to see the effects of your weed control work. A stake or star picket is
often driven into the ground to mark the point. You should take photos:
Before you start treating the weeds After you have treated the weeds Each year after the treatment mapping
It is important to keep track of the weeds on your land with weed maps.
If possible try and keep maps showing where the weeds were, where the
weeds were treated and then go back and see if the treatment worked.
Name of group or
Applicator's phone no.
Time started
Time finished
Have you read the

Are you properly

Wind speed
Wind coming from
Foliar (leaf) spray Cut stump and paint Container size in litres
Herbicide product name
Surfactant product name
Weed density
Comments – including
any potential spray drift

Location – describe or
draw a mud map

Foliar (leaf) spray Cut stump and paint Container size in litres
Herbicide product name
Surfactant product name
Weed density
Comments – including
any potential spray drift

After treating weeds fill in a Herbicide Application Record.
Use the box below to draw a map showing where you treated the weeds.
resourCes and reFerenCes
Correct handling of materials is important to ensure a safe working
environment. Improper lifting techniques can lead to back pain and
learning the right way to lift will help you avoid this.
1. Plan ahead

• Size up the object and test to see if it is possible to lift by yourself • Clear a path and make sure there are no obstacles in your way • Practice the lifting motion before you lift the object 2. Lifting the object

• Place your feet shoulder width apart with your feet close to the object • Keep the object close to your body • Bend your knees and tighten your stomach muscles • Get a firm hold on the object and stand up slowly keeping your • Let your legs do the lifting work • Take short steps and do not twist 3. Putting the object down

• Keep the object close to your body • Bend your knees and keep your back straight • Let your legs do the work • Wait until it is firmly in place before letting go RESOURCES AND REFERENCES
Weed management in the Northern Territory falls under the Weeds
Management Act which is run by the Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport. The declared (noxious) weeds are All Class A and divided into three categories: B weeds are also considered to be Class A – to be eradicated.
Class C weeds as well. Class B – growth and spread to be controlled.
Class C – not to be introduced to the Northern Territory.
Botanical Name
Common Name
Acacia catechu Acacia nilotica Alternanthera philoxeroides Himalayan Raintree Andropogon gayanus (Dalbergia sissoo) Annona glabra Asparagus asparagoides Asphodelus fistulosus Barleria prionitis Cabomba spp. Chrysanthemoides monilifera Bitou Bush/Boneseed Cryptostegia spp. Dalbergia sissoo (Area: N of 18o S latitude) Himalayan Raintree Paterson's Curse (Echium plantagineum) Datura ferox Fierce Thornapple Echium plantagineum Eichhornia crassipes Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypiifolia Lycium ferocissimum Martynia annua Mimosa pigra Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Nassella neesiana Chilean Needle Grass Mexican Feather Grass Nassella tenuissa Mexican Feather Grass Nassella trichotoma Parthenium hysterophorus Prosopis spp. Rubus fruticose agg. BlackberrySalix spp. except S. babylonica, Willows (except S. X calodendron & S. X reichardtiji Weeping Willows, Pussy Willow and Sterile Pussy Willow) Ulex europaeus Ziziphus mauritiana RESOURCES AND REFERENCES
Botanical name

Common Name
Acanthospermum hispidum Alternanthera pungens Andropogon gayanus Argemone ochroleuca Calotropis procera (Area: S of 16o30' S latitude) Rubber BushCarthamus lanatus Cenchrus echinatus Mossman River Grass Khaki Weed (Alternanthera pungens) Emex australis Hymenachne amplexicaulis Hyptis capitata Hyptis suaveolens Jatropha gossypiifolia Lantana camara Lantana montevidensis Leonotis nepetifolia Mimosa pigra Knobweed (Hyptis capitata) Mimosa pudica Common Sensitive Plant Opuntia spp. (Area: S of 18o S latitude) Parkinsonia aculeata Pennisetum polystachion Pistia stratiotes Ricinus communis Salvinia molesta Senna alata Senna obtusifolia Mimosa (Mimosa pigra) Senna occidentalis Sida acuta Sida cordifolia Sida rhombifolia Stachytarpheta spp. Tamarix aphylla Tamarisk, Athel Pine Themeda quadrivalvis Tribulus cistoides Tribulus terrestris Xanthium spinosum Xanthium strumarium (syn. X. occidentale) RESOURCES AND REFERENCES
(Includes all class A and class B weeds)
Botanical Name
Common Name
Acroptilon repens Creeping Knapweed Ageratina riparia Amaranthus dubius Ambrosia artemisiifolia Ambrosia psilostachya Perennial Ragweed (Chromolaena odorata) Austroeupatorium inulaefolium Baccharis halimifolia Boerhavia erecta Brachiaria paspaloides Common Brachiaria, Chromolaena odorata Siam Weed, Christmas Bush Clidemia hirta Koster's Curse, Soap Bush Coix aquatica Croton hirtus Lion's Tail (Leonotis nepetifolia) Datura spp. Digitaria fuscescens Digitaria insularis Diodia sarmentosa Echinochloa glabrescens Echinochloa stagnina Egeria densa Elodea canadensis Canadian Pondweed Equisetum ramosissimum Horsetail, Scouring Rush Common Sensitive Plant Equisetum spp. Horsetails (Mimosa pudica) Eriocaulon truncatum Prickly Pear (Opuntia stricta) Eriocereus martinii Eriochloa polystachya Fimbristylis umbellaris Globular Fimbristylis Hybanthus attenuatus Hyptis brevipes Ischaemum timorense Kochia scoparia (all except subsp. Trichopyla) Lagarosiphon major RESOURCES AND REFERENCES
Leptochloa chinensis Red Sprangletop, (Includes all class A and class B weeds) Leptochloa panicea Limnocharis flava Yellow Burrhead, Botanical Name
Common Name
Yellow Sawah Lettuce Acroptilon repens Creeping Knapweed Miconia spp. Ageratina riparia Mikania cordata Amaranthus dubius Mikania micrantha Ambrosia artemisiifolia Mimosa invisa Giant Sensitive Plant Ambrosia psilostachya Perennial Ragweed Myriophyllum spicatum Erasian Watermilfoil Water Lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) Austroeupatorium inulaefolium Orabanche spp. (all except O. minor and Baccharis halimifolia O. cernua var. australiana) Boerhavia erecta Paederia foetida Lesser Malayan Stinkwort Brachiaria paspaloides Common Brachiaria, Piper aduncum Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Downy Rose Myrtle Chromolaena odorata Siam Weed, Christmas Bush Rotala indica Clidemia hirta Koster's Curse, Soap Bush Sacciolepis interrupta Coix aquatica Salvinia cucullata Croton hirtus Salvinia natans Datura spp. Castor Oil Plant Schoenoplectus juncoides Digitaria fuscescens Scirpus maritimus Digitaria insularis Sorghum halepense Diodia sarmentosa Spermacoce mauritiana Echinochloa glabrescens Striga angustifolia Echinochloa stagnina Striga asiatica Egeria densa Striga spp. (all non-indigenous) Elodea canadensis Canadian Pondweed Trapa spp. Floating Water Chestnut Equisetum ramosissimum Horsetail, Scouring Rush Xanthium spp. Burrs Equisetum spp. Horsetails Candle Bush (Senna alata) Eriocaulon truncatum Eriocereus martinii Caltrop (Tribulus cistoides) Spinyhead Sida (Sida acuta) Eriochloa polystachya Fimbristylis umbellaris Globular Fimbristylis Hybanthus attenuatus Hyptis brevipes Ischaemum timorense Kochia scoparia (all except subsp. Trichopyla) Lagarosiphon major RESOURCES AND REFERENCES
WONS status brings In 1999, the Australian Government endorsed a list of Weeds of National a weed species under Significance (WONS). Most of the WONS weeds are both weeds of national management agriculture and the environment.
for the purpose of restricting its spread WONS species for which the NT Department of Natural Resources, and/or eradicating it Environment, The Arts and Sport is the lead agency: from parts of Australia. Athel Pine/Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla): A shelter tree threatening
water courses like the Finke river.
mimosa/Giant Sensitive Plant (Mimosa pigra): A botanic garden
escapee which takes over floodplains.
Other WONS species that are, or have been found, in the NT:• Cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana): An aquarium plant which can
invade rivers.
Lantana (Lantana camara): A garden shrub that overtakes bushland.
mesquite (Prosopis spp.): A fodder and shelter tree which takes over
(Cryptostegia grandiflora) grazing lands.
Olive Hymenachne (Hymenachne amplexicaulis): A ponded pasture
grass that threatens wetlands.
Parkinsonia (Parkinsonia aculeata): A shelter tree which forms large
dense thickets and makes areas inaccessible.
Parthenium Weed (Parthenium hysterophorus): An allergy threat
capable of invading grazing land.
Pond Apple (Annona glabra): A tree that threatens wetlands,
Prickly Acacia (Acacia nilotica): A shelter tree that can out-compete
native plants.
Rubber Vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora): A garden plant that is
poisonous to stock.
Salvinia (Salvina molesta): An aquarium plant now choking streams
WONS that only occur in other states:• Alligator Weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides): An aquarium plant
that threatens rivers.
Lantana (Lantana camara) Bitou Bush/Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera): A plant
threatening dune zones and southern native forests.
Athel Pine (Tamarix aphylla) Blackberry (Rubus fruticose agg.): A fruit vine that overtakes
Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides): A garden vine that chokes
ground cover in the Mallee.
Chilean Needle Grass (Nassella neesiana): An unpalatable pasture
Gorse (Ulex europaeus): A plant once used for fences, now
barricading the bush.
Serrated Tussock (Nassella trichotoma): Unpalatable pasture grass.
Willows (Salix species): Trees that choke river banks.
Awarra marakati api arimarruwa yikwani karri kiyana
Awarra marakati kurukura api ampakuturruwa ampiripiluwurri
Api ngajiti ngimpajapirarri ampiripiluwurri kangi marakatiyanga
Pili wiyi awarra marakati api yijamarti kangi ampiripiluwurri ninkiyi
kangi yoni murrakupuni pirrijakulurumi

Gulmara Yol uwal w< a ur.
Nyumukuniny dukitjmala m<rr yaka dhu utthan bawalamirri ur w< a ur.
Nh< u balanya dharpa, dhunupa ringimup.
Albrecht, D.E.A. and Rogers, L. 1999. Weeds of the Tanami: a field guide
to the weeds of the Tanami region, Central Australia. Newmont Australia, Dhanji, Sunil. 2009. Weeds of Central Australia: a field guide. Greening Australia (NT) Ltd, Alice Springs.
Groves, R.H., Boden, R. and Lonsdale W.M. 2005. Jumping the garden fence – Invasive garden plants in Australia and their environmental and agricultural impacts. CSIRO, Canberra.
Kerin, J.C. 2002. The Problem with Weeds. ATSE Focus No 122. Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, Melbourne. Morton, Jane. 2005. Collect, Prepare and Preserve Weed Specimens: Weed collector's manual. Cooperative Research Centre for Australian Weed Management.
Parsons, W.T. and Cuthbertson, E.G. 2001. Noxious weeds of Australia. 2nd ed. CSIRO, Collingwood. Smith, N.M. 1995. Weeds of Natural Ecosytems. A field guide to environmental weeds of the Northern Territory. Environment Centre NT, Go to the Resources section of Greening Smith, N.M. 2002. Weeds of the Wet/Dry Tropics of Australia. A field Australia's website guide. Environment Centre NT, Darwin. for more information about books Smith. N.M. 2001. Not from here: Plant Invasions on Aboriginal lands of – look for the link to NT the Top End. Tropical Savannas CRC, Darwin.
Weeds CRC and Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service. 2007. Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy: Weed and plant collection manual. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.
Weeds Branch. 2007. Katherine Weed ID Deck. Department of Natural Resources, Environment and The Arts, Darwin.
Northern Territory
Weed Management

Weed Management Branch. 2008. Guidelines for Weed Data Collection in the Northern Territory. Version 2.0. Department of Natural Resources, Environment and the Arts, Darwin. Weed Management Branch. 2009. Northern Territory Weed Management Handbook. Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport, Darwin.
Weed Management Branch. 2008. Weed Management Guide: Weed Identification and Impacts – Assisting Aboriginal Communities in the Top End to Identify Weeds. Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport, Darwin.
Weed Management Branch. 2008. Weed Management Guide: Early Detection and Monitoring – Assisting Aboriginal Communities in the Top End to Identify Weeds. Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport, Darwin.
Weed Management Branch. 2008. Guidelines for Weed Data Collection in the Northern Territory by Indigenous Land and Sea Management Groups. Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport, Darwin.
Weed Management Branch. 2008. Technical Manual for Weed Data Collection in the Northern Territory by Indigenous Land and Sea Management Groups. Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport, Darwin.
ALEP Learning Guides. These full colour, step-by-step guides provide practical, easy to follow
instructions. Based in the Top End of the Northern Territory, they can also be adapted to other regions.
GETTING READY1. ALEP Learning Guides – Trainer's Guide2. Carry Out Natural Area Restoration Works RECOGNISING PLANTS3. Recognise Plants4. Collect, Prepare and Preserve Plant Specimens GROWING PLANTS5. Collect, Treat and Store Seed6. Maintain Properties and Structures7. Install Micro-irrigation Systems8. Undertake Propagation Activities9. Pot Up Plants10. Tend Nursery Plants MANAGING COUNTRY
11. Treat Weeds
12. Install, Maintain and Repair Fencing
13. Plant Trees and Shrubs
14. Perform Basic Water Quality Tests
In this learning guide, Treat Weeds you will
learn how to:

For further information contact Greening Australia (NT) Ltd on (08) 8947 3793 or or go to


other tort or otherwise or be barred from an strict liability whether based on contract, Buyer and all users shall promptly notify Everris of an t a timely investiga ve prompt notice of an o the extent consistent the replacement of the product t Everris' election, shall not exceed the purchase price paid by the user or Buyer for the quantity of this product involved or

Nlm-5724 pdf's

This article's author is Raymond Otero, Ph.D. Scabies is an infectious disease of the skin caused by a mite whose penetration is visible as papules or vesicles or as tinylinear burrows containing mites and their eggs. It occurs worldwide and specifically in institutions where hygiene proceduresare suspect. It is also associated with overcrowding and poor hygiene. Scabies can be endemic.