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These e-Updates are a regular weekly item from K-State Extension Agronomy and SteveWatson, Agronomy e-Update Editor. All of the Research and Extension faculty in Agronomywill be involved as sources from time to time. If you have any questions or suggestions fortopics you'd like to have us address in this weekly update, contact Steve Watson,785-532-7105 swatson@ksu.edu, Jim Shroyer, Crop Production Specialist 785-532-0397jshroyer@ksu.edu, or Curtis Thompson, Extension Agronomy State Leader and WeedManagement Specialist 785-532-3444 cthompso@ksu.edu.
eUpdate Table of Contents 11/06/2015 Issue 536 Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 1. Factors involved in fall growth of canola Establishing a canola stand at the optimum planting date is the most critical step to achieving plant- to-plant uniformity and consequently, high yield. Timely planting, at an even planting depth, and in good soil moisture has the greatest potential to result in rapid establishment and greatest ability to achieve the desired amount of above- and below-ground biomass for overwintering. If planting is too late, the chances of having a non-uniform stand are increased.
Figure 1. Non-uniform winter canola stand due to late planting. Photo by Ignacio Ciampitti, K-
State Research and Extension.

Effect of canola size on winter survival
Canola overwinters -- and is the most tolerant to cold temperatures -- in the rosette growth stage(Fig. 2). At this stage, the crown develops at the soil surface with larger, older leaves at the base andsmaller, newer leaves at the center. The stem thickens but its length remains unchanged. Foroptimum winter survival, a winter canola plant needs 5 to 8 true leaves, 6 to 12 inches of fall growth,a root collar diameter of ¼ to ½ inch, and an extensive root system. Hardened winter canola canwithstand temperatures below 0 degrees Fahrenheit for short periods of time.
Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Figure 2. Winter canola at the appropriate size for overwintering. Photo by Scott Dooley, K-
State Research and Extension.

On the other hand, canola that has too much top growth (typically 20 inches or more) can succumbto winterkill for a number of reasons, including overuse of available soil water and nutrients and stemelongation above the soil surface.
Causes of excessive fall stem elongation
Stem elongation in the fall -- not to be confused with bolting, i.e. stem elongation with visibleflowering structures -- may occur because: The crop was planted too early (Fig. 3),The crop was seeded at higher-than-optimal plant populations (Fig. 4),Excessive soil fertility is present,An unusually warm fall persists (Fig. 3),Selection of an poorly adapted cultivar, orA combination of any of these factors.
For example, closely spaced and crowded canola plants increase early plant-to-plant competition forlight (Fig. 4). This "reaching" for light may lead to an extension of the growing point above the soilsurface. Any time the growing point (rosette) is elevated, the chances for winterkill are increasedbecause overwintering plant parts are located at an unprotected position above the soil surface.
Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Figure 3. Winter canola plot in mid-October. Early planting and warm temperatures resulted in
more than 20 inches of fall growth and an increased risk of winterkill. Photo by Mike Stamm, K-
State Research and Extension.

Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Figure 4. High plant populations in a winter canola plot in mid-October. Competition for light
places the growing point well above the soil surface. Photo by Ignacio A. Ciampitti, K-State
Research and Extension.

Another factor in stem elongation and winter survival is the amount of surface residue present in theseed row. K-State research has shown that residue removal from the seed row is important forkeeping the rosette, or crown, close to the soil surface, especially in no-till cropping systems. Thisresidue management (related to quantity and evenness of distribution) greatly benefits wintersurvival.
Figure 5 shows the effects of residue blowing back into the seed row following planting into heavycorn residue. The canola hypocotyl is etiolated, or overextended, and thus vulnerable to freezingtemperatures and other biotic stresses. Etiolation results from the cotyledons growing through theresidue to the point where light is intercepted. This is where the crown is established. As a result, thecrop easily succumbed to cold temperatures and the field was lost because of poor residuemanagement.
Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Figures 5a and 5b. Inadequate residue management causes etiolation of the hypocotyl to an
exposed position above the soil surface. Photos by Mike Stamm, K-State Research and
Extension.

Planting dates in 2015
Soil moisture conditions dictated planting dates for winter canola in 2015. Through late August andearly September, rainfall was sporadic throughout much of the area so some producers had to waitfor rain in order to plant. Some producers planted later than they had planned. But with warm Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 temperatures and adequate precipitation this fall, there is less concern that the crop will be too smallgoing into the winter months (Fig. 6).
Figure 7 shows that the high and low temperature trends for 2014 and 2015 are similar. Mid-September and mid-October were very warm in 2015. A slow decline in temperatures is occurringnow. This is important as the canola crop should begin to winter harden this time of year. Lowtemperatures at or below 30 degrees F are essential for winter hardening.
Figure 6. Small-sized canola plants planted in late September (photo taken early November).
Photo by Ignacio A. Ciampitti, K-State Research and Extension.

Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Figure 7. High and low temperatures from 2014 and 2015 at Manhattan. Mid-October
temperatures were very warm in 2015. Source: Kansas Mesonet, K-State Weather Data Library.

Varietal differences exist for traits such as fall vigor, the ability to avoid fall stem elongation, andwinter survival. More hybrids are being grown each year and the industry will one day switch frombeing dominated by open-pollinated (OP) varieties to hybrids. Hybrids tend to have greater fall vigorbecause of larger seed size. Fall vigor is important because it results in rapid establishment and rootgrowth. However, with hybrids and certain OP varieties, there can be a tradeoff between fall vigorand too much fall growth, and this usually has to be managed by agronomic practices such asplanting date and seeding rate. Planting hybrids later to take advantage of improved vigor maypresent some challenges in terms of winter survival if weather conditions are not favorable for fallgrowth.
The K-State canola breeding program has been selecting for lines that avoid fall stem elongationregardless of the planting date or seeding rate. These lines have prostrate fall growth and this oftentranslates into better winter survival. This trait could be especially useful in years when soil moistureconditions are ideal for planting but the calendar indicates it is too early to plant. In addition, wehope to broaden the optimum planting window by planting these lines earlier while avoiding therisk of too much fall growth.
Another tool under development by private industry and being evaluated by the K-State canolabreeding program is the semi-dwarfing trait, or low-biomass-producing trait. The semi-dwarfing traitalso helps to keep the crown closer to the soil surface regardless of planting date or seeding rate. Wehave seen enhanced winter survival in hybrids that possess this trait.
Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Figure 8 shows three entries from the National Winter Canola Variety Trial. The stake represents thesoil surface while the red arrows point to the canola plant's growing point. The hybrid on the left wasdeveloped in the European Union (EU) and is exhibiting about 2 to 3 inches of fall stem elongation.
The variety in the center is an experimental line from the K-State canola breeding program, showingno stem elongation. The hybrid on the right was developed in the EU and it possesses the semi-dwarfing trait. We would expect the hybrid on the left to be more susceptible to winterkill because ofthe elevated crown.
Conventional Hybrid Semi-dwarf Hybrid Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Figure 8. Varieties exhibiting differences in fall stem elongation in the National Winter Canola
Variety Trial. Photo by Mike Stamm, K-State Research and Extension.

K-State agronomists are investigating production practices to help manage fall vigor and growth. Wehave studies evaluating seeding rate by variety (OP vs. hybrid) in narrow and wide row spacing (9-in,20-in, and 30-in). In collaboration with private industry, we are evaluating plant growth regulatorsand their ability to help manage fall growth. Using plant growth regulators in winter canola is acommon practice in the EU. Other questions we want to address through these studies include: Howfar can we reduce seeding rates and remain profitable? Does reducing the seeding rate enhancewinter survival? How do varieties respond to different seeding rates? What is the optimum seedingrate for a given row spacing by variety interaction? Having too much or too little fall growth in winter canola depends on an interaction of the varietychosen, management practices (primarily related to planting date, seeding rate, and row spacing),and the weather. Predicting the weather is challenging enough and this can be stressful on canolaproducers. Through breeding and production research at K-State, we hope to find improved ways tomanage these risks.
Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Mike Stamm, Canola Breeder Ignacio Ciampitti, Crop Production and Cropping Systems Specialist Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 2. Current status of new herbicide-resistant crops In the near future, producers will have access to several new crop cultivars with resistance to a wider range of herbicides than has been available until now. These technologies are tools that will help growers combat herbicide resistant weeds. Here is a brief summary of these new crop cultivars and when they are expected to reach the market.
Inzen grain sorghum. K-State released to sorghum breeding programs a line of grain sorghum that is
resistant to ALS herbicides several years ago. DuPont assumed ownership of the technology and
those seed companies that signed agreements with DuPont will be developing Inzen sorghum
hybrids. Currently companies developing hybrids are Pioneer and Advanta. DuPont also is
developing the ALS grass herbicide "Zest," which is a liquid formulation with nicosulfuron as the
active ingredient, for use with these new ALS-resistant grain sorghum hybrids. When commercial
Inzen hybrids are on the market producers will have new opportunities for postemergence grass
weed control. DuPont intends to have herbicide registration for Zest completed in time for use on
the 2016 sorghum crop. Hybrid availability for 2016 isn't known at this time.
Enlist corn, soybeans, and cotton. Enlist traits are being developed by Dow AgroSciences. These traits
confer resistance to both 2,4-D and aryloxyfenoxypropionate (the "fop" grass herbicides) in corn, and
2,4-D resistance in soybeans and cotton. Dow has developed a new formulation of 2,4-D called 2,4-D
choline, which is lower in volatility than 2,4-D amine. This new formulation will be marketed in a
premix with glyphosate called Enlist Duo. This premix will be intended for use on Enlist crops, and
has just received a full Section 3 Federal label.
Enlist soybean, corn, and cotton traits have been deregulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
However, certain export markets have not been approved yet, so commercial availability is not yetknown. Enlist cotton likely will be commercially available in 2016 and Enlist corn and soybeans couldpotentially be available for the 2016 growing season if key export markets are approved. Enlistsoybeans and cotton could alleviate concerns about drift onto the crop from adjacent applicationsof 2,4-D. Enlist cotton and soybeans will be stacked with both glyphosate- and glufosinate-resistantgenes as well, which would also allow the use of glyphosate and glufosinate herbicides on thosecrops.
Xtend soybeans and cotton. Xtend traits are being developed by Monsanto Company. These traits
confer resistance to dicamba herbicide. This would allow direct application of new formulations of
dicamba to soybeans and cotton to help address glyphosate-resistant weeds, as well as alleviate
concerns about dicamba drift onto Xtend crops. BASF and Monsanto are developing new
formulations of dicamba with lower volatility and drift potential than Clarity, which already has lower
volatility than Banvel. Monsanto will sell a premix of glyphosate and a new formulation of dicamba
under the product name of Roundup Xtend. A new dicamba formulation will also be available by
itself under the product name of XtendiMax for Monsanto and Engenia from BASF. Like Enlist crops,
Xtend cotton and soybeans have been deregulated by USDA, but their availability for 2016 is still
uncertain because of foreign market and herbicide registration approvals.
Note: Dicamba- and 2,4-D-resistant soybeans and cotton are not cross-resistant, so application ofdicamba on Enlist soybeans or cotton or 2,4-D on Xtend soybeans or cotton would still result insevere injury or plant death. As mentioned above, new formulations of dicamba and 2,4-D are beingdeveloped with reduced volatility, but spray drift will still be a concern onto susceptible or non- Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 resistant crops. HPPD-resistant soybeans. GMO soybeans with resistance to the HPPD-inhibiting class of herbicides
are in development by both Bayer and Syngenta. No HPPD herbicides are currently available for use
in soybeans, so this would provide a new mode of action and allow for greater diversification of
weed control options to help manage herbicide-resistant weeds. HPPD-resistant soybeans have been
deregulated by USDA, but matching herbicide and export approvals must be in place before the
technologies become commercially available.
Dallas Peterson, Weed Management Specialist Curtis Thompson, Weed Management Specialist and Extension Agronomy State Leader Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 3. Grass control management in 2-gene Clearfield wheat There are now several 2-gene Clearfield wheat varieties currently on the market in our geography, including AP503 CL2 from Syngenta/AgriPro, Brawl CL Plus from Colorado State University, and Doublestop CL Plus from Oklahoma State University.
It is important that spray applicators know whether a Clearfield wheat variety is 1-gene or 2-genesince the spray adjuvants that can be used when spraying 2-gene Clearfield varieties with Beyondherbicide can severely injure 1-gene Clearfield varieties. What exactly is the difference between2-gene and 1-gene Clearfield varieties in terms of how they can be managed, herbicide applications,grass control, and crop injury? There is no difference in the labeled rates of Beyond that can be applied in a single growing seasonto 1-gene and 2-gene Clearfield varieties. However, methylated seed oil (MSO) or crop oilconcentrate (COC) can be added as an adjuvant to Beyond when it is used on 2-gene Clearfieldvarieties. On 1-gene Clearfield varieties, only a non-ionic surfactant (NIS) can be used as an adjuvant.
In cases, a nitrogen-based fertilizer such as AMS or 28 percent UAN should also be added to the spraysolution.
The adjuvant can make a significant difference in the level of feral rye and downy brome control withBeyond, especially with spring treatments. Since cheat, Japanese brome, and jointed goatgrass areusually quite susceptible to Beyond, the adjuvant usually does not make as much difference in thelevel of control of these grasses. A recent K-State study near Manhattan illustrates the effect.
Winter Annual Grass Control and Crop Response in 2-gene Clearfield Wheat
Treatment
Wheat injury Japanese Downy bromeRye control rate (oz/acre) timing brome controlcontrol (%) MSO + AMSBeyond + MSO + AMSBeyond + MSO + AMSBeyond + Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 MSO + AMSLSD (0.05) Note: The maximum single application use rate of Beyond is 6 oz/acre. The 12 oz/acre rate wouldsimulate spray overlaps in the field and is not a labeled broadcast application rate.
For spring applications of Beyond, including MSO as an adjuvant measurably improved control ofdowny brome and feral rye compared to using NIS as the adjuvant. But as mentioned above, Beyondwith MSO can only be used on 2-gene Clearfield varieties. MSO has been more effective than COC inthese situations.
Beyond is labeled for control of many winter annual grasses (including jointed goatgrass, cheat,downy brome, and Japanese brome), but only suppression of feral rye. Control of feral rye withBeyond in K-State tests has been somewhat erratic and unpredictable. The best control will likely beachieved with fall applications, using the 6 oz rate instead of the 4 oz rate, and using MSO instead ofNIS where that is allowed. In general, the best control of feral rye in 1-gene Clearfield varieties hasbeen with fall applications. With 2-gene Clearfield varieties, producers now have more options forbetter rye control.
The other advantage of 2-gene Clearfield over 1-gene Clearfield wheat varieties is in the higherdegree of crop safety from applications of Beyond. Occasionally, Beyond has caused some crop injuryto 1-gene Clearfield wheat. This occurs most often where there is spray overlap (2x rates), whenstress conditions prevail, or where wheat was not at the recommended treatment stages at the timeof application. In K-State tests, 2-gene Clearfield wheat varieties have demonstrated much lesspotential for crop injury than 1-gene varieties in these situations.
Dallas Peterson, Weed Management Specialist Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 4. Management adjustments when planting wheat late Most of Kansas wheat has been planted by this time of the year. However, some producers may have delayed planting for different reasons, including harvesting a summer crop during late October, or waiting for significant precipitation to occur. Planting wheat in early November is within the acceptable range in southeast and far south central Kansas. In other areas of the state, this is later than desirable, and later than the cutoff date for full crop insurance benefits.
Although good yields may still be achieved if wheat is planted outside the optimal planting window,late-planted wheat is often subjected to colder fall temperatures and has less time to tiller prior towinter dormancy, which can reduce wheat yield potential and increase the risks of winter injury.
Under these circumstances, some management adjustments can be made to try to compensate forthe consequences of late planting: Increase seeding rate
As mentioned above, late-planted wheat tends to produce fewer tillers during the fall than wheatplanted at the optimal time. Fall tillers are generally more productive than spring tillers, contributingmore to the crop's yield potential. Therefore there is a need to compensate for the reduced tilleringby increasing seeding rates to get more seed per row foot. Wheat seeding rates for Kansas varydepending on the precipitation zone, and increase from west to east (Table 1). Likewise, seedingrates should be increased every week that planting is delayed after the end of the optimal plantingdate range by about 150,000 – 225,000 seeds per acre (or 10 to 15 lb/acre) in western Kansas, or225,000 – 300,000 seeds per acre (15 – 20 lb/acre) in eastern Kansas. Final seeding rates should notbe above 90 pounds per acre in western Kansas and 120 pounds in eastern and central Kansas.
Table 1. Seeding rates for different Kansas regions for optimum planting date. Upward adjustmentsto these rates are needed when planting wheat late.
Region within Seeding rateKansas Optimum planting date * To determine row length needed for one square foot based on row spacing, divide 12 by the rowspacing of your field. For example, if row spacing is 7.5 inches, 12/7.5 = 1.6 feet, or 19.2 inches of roware needed to be equivalent to one square foot.
Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Maintain the optimal planting depth (1 to 1.5 inch deep)
Wheat needs at least 4-5 leaves and 1-2 tillers prior to winter dormancy for maximum cold tolerance.
Late-planted wheat will most likely have fewer tillers and leaves than wheat planted at the optimaltiming, and therefore will be more susceptible to winterkill. To increase the chances of wintersurvival, it is important to plant wheat at the normal planting depth (1 to 1.5 inches below the soilsurface). This will ensure good root development and anchorage, as well as good soil insulationduring the winter. Shallow-planted wheat is at greater risk of winter injury. If the seed is placed toodeeply, it may not have enough vigor in cold soils to emerge well.
Place starter phosphorus (P) fertilizer with the seed
Phosphate-based starter fertilizer promotes early-season wheat growth and tillering. Additionally, Pis less available under colder temperatures, which can result in P deficiency under cold weatherconditions. When planting late, producers should strongly consider using about 20 lbs/acre of Pfertilizer directly with the seed, regardless of soil P levels. This placement method is more effective atthat time of year than other application methods. The later the planting date, the more fall rootdevelopment is slowed. The closer the fertilizer is to the seed, the sooner the plant roots can get to it.
Use fungicide seed treatment or plant certified seed
Late-planted wheat is typically sown into colder soils, which generally increases the time needed forgermination and emergence to occur. As a consequence, there is increased potential for seed- andsoil-borne diseases that affect seedlings and early-season wheat development. Fungicide seedtreatments can protect the seed and seedling during the extended time it is subjected to potentialseedling diseases, improving stand establishment under poor growing conditions. It is importantthat the seed treatment thoroughly coat the seeds to ensure good protection. For fungicide seedtreatment options, please refer to the most current version of the K-State fungicide seed treatment Consider variety selection
It is probably too late to make any changes in varieties this fall. However, a few points to consider invariety selection when it is known that wheat will be planted late (e.g. when planning to sow wheatfollowing soybeans) are tillering ability and maturity. A variety that has good tillering ability mayoffset some of the consequences of late planting, as it might produce one or two tillers during the fallwhen planted late whereas a low tillering variety may produce none. Also, late-planted wheat istypically behind in development going into the winter, which might translate into slowerdevelopment in the spring. This delay can result in plants being exposed to drought and especiallyheat stress during grain filling, reducing the duration of the grain filling period. Thus, selecting anearly-maturity variety with good yield potential may offset to some extent the consequences of lateplanting by decreasing the chances of having a grain filling period subject to drought and heatstress. Romulo Lollato, Wheat and Forages Specialist Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 5. October weather summary for Kansas: Lopsided rains Statewide average precipitation in October was 1.71 inches, which was 91 percent of normal.
Unfortunately, the distribution wasn't very even. The western third of the state fared the best, with the Southwest Division as the wettest. The divisional average was 4.05 inches, or 265 percent of normal. In contrast, the Southeastern Division averaged only 0.81 inches, or 26 percent of normal.
Another factor was the distribution of events across the month. The western areas of the state had several events of more than a quarter of an inch. For most of the eastern areas of the state, rainfall above a tenth of an inch fell only on the last day of the month. The greatest monthly precipitation totals reported were 8.85 inches at Liberal, Seward County (NWS) and 5.00 inches at Hugoton, Stevens County, (CoCoRaHS). Still, 12 daily precipitation records were set in October. Nine of those records were established in western locations.
Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Temperatures were warmer than normal across the state, although not as warm as in September. Thestatewide average temperature was 58.6 degrees F, or 3 degrees warmer than normal for the month.
There was only one new record daily high temperature set during the month, and 3 records tied. Nonew daily highs were set for the month. In contrast, there were 3 record cold high temperatures.
Most of the warmth showed in the minimum temperature side. There were 18 new record warmminimum temperatures and 13 records tied. None of these set new records for the month. No newdaily cold minimum temperatures were set for either a day or for the month. The Northeast andSoutheast Divisions were the closest to normal, with the Northeast Division averaging just 1.2degrees F warmer than normal and the Southeast Division averaging 1.9 degrees F warmer thannormal. The Northwest Division was the warmest averaging 56.4 degrees F, or 4.2 degrees warmerthan normal. The warmest reading was 98 degrees F, reported at Lakin in Kearny County on the 12th.
The coolest reading for the state was 21 degrees F at Atwood in Rawlins County on the 30th. Thewarmer-than-average temperatures allowed late-planted spring crops such as corn and soybeans tofinish development. Concerns now are for the dry conditions, with winter planted crops needingmoisture to complete establishment before winter.
Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 With the limited rainfall, severe weather was also limited. Preliminary data indicates there were notornadoes reported, nor any hail reports. There were 5 reports of damaging wind, mostly in theSouthwest Division.
Drought conditions continued to deteriorate, particularly in the eastern third of the state. This wasnot unexpected, given the lower-than-average precipitation in the area. Moderate droughtconditions shifted eastward, and the area of abnormal dry conditions expanded. The moderatedrought ranges from northwest Kansas through parts of central Kansas. Thirty seven counties inwestern Kansas remain in drought watch status according to the latest advisory from the KansasWater Office. A return to normal or above-normal precipitation is needed to sustain improvements.
Some long-term hydrological deficits are in place affecting some water supplies and reservoirs. Thedrought outlook is for improving conditions, and the precipitation outlook for November is positive.
However, we are moving into a drier period of the year, so even above-normal precipitation will beslow to erase the dry conditions.
Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 October 2015
Kansas Climate Division Summary
October 2015
2015 Jan through Oct
Northw 1.48
Northea 0.82
STATE 1.71
1. Departure from 1981-2010 normal value Source: KSU Weather Data Library Mary Knapp, Weather Data Library Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 6. Comparative Vegetation Condition Report: October 20 - November 2 K-State's Ecology and Agriculture Spatial Analysis Laboratory (EASAL) produces weekly Vegetation Condition Report maps. These maps can be a valuable tool for making crop selection and marketing Two short videos of Dr. Kevin Price explaining the development of these maps can be viewed onYouTube at: The objective of these reports is to provide users with a means of assessing the relative condition ofcrops and grassland. The maps can be used to assess current plant growth rates, as well ascomparisons to the previous year and relative to the 26-year average. The report is used by individualfarmers and ranchers, the commodities market, and political leaders for assessing factors such asproduction potential and drought impact across their state.
NOTE TO READERS: The maps below represent a subset of the maps available from the EASAL group.
If you'd like digital copies of the entire map series please contact Nan An at and we can place you on our email list to receive the entire dataset each week as they are produced.
The maps are normally first available on Wednesday of each week, unless there is a delay in theposting of the data by EROS Data Center where we obtain the raw data used to make the maps.
These maps are provided for free as a service of the Department of Agronomy and K-State Researchand Extension.
The maps in this issue of the newsletter show the current state of photosynthetic activity in Kansas,the Corn Belt, and the continental U.S., with comments from Mary Knapp, assistant stateclimatologist: Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Figure 1. The Vegetation Condition Report for Kansas for October 20 – November 2 from K-
State's Ecology and Agriculture Spatial Analysis Laboratory shows that the highest biomass
production continues to be a small pocket of activity along the Arkansas River in southwest
Kansas. Irrigated alfalfa is a major product in the region. There is a small area of moderate
photosynthetic activity in south central Kansas. Freezing temperatures have yet to reach this
far south. Very low NDVI values are visible in Trego, Ellis, Rush, and Ness counties, where
moderate drought conditions persist.

Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Figure 2. Compared to the previous year at this time for Kansas, the current Vegetation
Condition Report for October 20 – November 2 from K-State's Ecology and Agriculture Spatial
Analysis Laboratory shows much of the state with lower photosynthetic activity. Only the
Southwest and South Central Divisions have higher photosynthetic activity. These areas
continue have beneficial moisture, while the rest of the state has been dry. Moderate drought
conditions persist in areas of the state, while abnormally dry conditions cover over half the

Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Figure 3. Compared to the 26-year average at this time for Kansas, this year's Vegetation
Condition Report for October 20 – November 2 from K-State's Ecology and Agriculture Spatial
Analysis Laboratory shows that most of the state continues to show near-average
photosynthetic activity. The Southwest and South Central Divisions have the largest areas of
above-average photosynthetic activity as moisture continues to be above average. From
central through southeast Kansas, lower NDVI values continue. These areas continue to miss
most of the storm systems, and moderate drought and abnormal dry conditions continue to
expand.

Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Figure 4. The Vegetation Condition Report for the Corn Belt for October 20 – November 2 from
K-State's Ecology and Agriculture Spatial Analysis Laboratory shows that the greatest
photosynthetic activity is concentrated in the southern parts of the region, although there is a
band of high activity in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Favorable moisture conditions in
North Dakota through Iowa to Illinois and Ohio, as crops mature and freezing temperatures
end the growing season.

Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Figure 5. The comparison to last year in the Corn Belt for the period for October 20 – November
2 from K-State's Ecology and Agriculture Spatial Analysis Laboratory shows lower
photosynthetic activity centered in the Central Plains, as an extended dry period has increased
drought impacts, particularly with winter grains. Drought conditions continue to expand in
this area. There is a small area of higher NDVI values in central South Dakota and eastern Ohio
where moisture has been more favorable this year than last.

Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Figure 6. Compared to the 26-year average at this time for the Corn Belt, this year's Vegetation
Condition Report for October 20 – November 2 from K-State's Ecology and Agriculture Spatial
Analysis Laboratory shows most of the region has average biomass production. Above-
average photosynthetic activity can be seen in the Western Plains, where temperatures have
continued mild and moisture has been favorable. Parts of Kansas and Missouri stand out with
lower NDVI values as warmer-than-average temperatures and low precipitation stress
vegetation. Cloudy, wet weather in Northern Michigan has increased disease pressure and
slowed harvest.

Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Figure 7. The Vegetation Condition Report for the U.S for October 20 – November 2 from K-
State's Ecology and Agriculture Spatial Analysis Laboratory shows that the highest
photosynthetic activity is east of the Mississippi River, where favorable temperatures have
extended the growing season. Lower NDVI values are noticeable in the Ohio River Valley and
along the Mississippi River, where crops have matured early. Low NDVI values are also notable
in the Inner Mountain West, as the colder temperatures begin to be felt. Low NDVI values are
also notable along the lower Mississippi River and into east Texas. Heavy rains have caused
flooding issues in these areas.

Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Figure 8. The U.S. comparison to last year at this time for the period October 20 – November 2
from K-State's Ecology and Agriculture Spatial Analysis Laboratory shows that lower NDVI
values are most evident from southern Oklahoma to the Gulf Coast. Heavy rains from the
remnants of Hurricane Patricia have had a negative impact on vegetation in the region. Across
drought pressure. In the Northwest, lower NDVI values are visible in eastern Montana, which
had more favorable precipitation last year. Much higher NDVI values are visible west of the
Cascades and in northern Idaho, thanks to recent rains. Transition of this rainy pattern into a
snowy pattern will be essential for significant drought relief.

Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Figure 9. The U.S. comparison to the 26-year average for the period October 20 – November 2
from K-State's Ecology and Agriculture Spatial Analysis Laboratory shows much below-
average photosynthetic activity in east Texas and western Washington. Decreases in NDVI
readings in both of these areas are due largely to a very wet pattern over the last two weeks.

Mary Knapp, Weather Data Library Kevin Price, Professor Emeritus, Agronomy and Geography Nan An, former Graduate Research Assistant, Agronomy Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506 Kansas State University Department of Agronomy 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center Manhattan, KS 66506

Source: https://webapp.agron.ksu.edu/agr_social/eupdates/eUpdate110615.pdf

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