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Chapter 3
Rechargeable Coin Type
Chapter 3
Vanadium Pentoxide Lithium Coin
Niobium-Lithium Coin Type
Type Batteries (VL series) . 56
Batteries (NBL series). 72
Manganese Lithium Coin Type
Manganese Titanium Lithium Coin
Batteries (ML series) . 64
Type Batteries (MT series) . 74




3-1 Vanadium Pentoxide Lithium Coin Type Batteries (VL series)
Vanadium Pentoxide Lithium Rechargeable Batteries (VL series)
These completely new coin-type lithium batteries feature vanadium oxide for the positive pole, lithium alloy for the negative pole and a non-aqueous solvent for the electrolyte.
Chapter 3
Vanadium Pentoxide Lithium Coin Type Batteries (VL series)
Memory backup power supplies for offi ce automation equipment (personal computers, fax audio-video equipment (VTRs, etc.), communications equipment (mobile phones, etc.), etc.
Hybrid systems with solar batteries (solar remote con- General Specifi cations
Electrical characteristics (20°C) Dimensions (mm)
Model No.
Weight (g) JIS IEC
Nominal voltage (V) *Nominal capacity (mAh) Continuous drain (mA) Diameter Height
VL621 3 1.5 0.01 6.8 2.1 0.3 - -
VL1216 3 5.0 0.03 12.5 1.6 0.7 - -
VL1220 3 7.0 0.03 12.5 2.0 0.8 - -
VL2020 3 20.0 0.07 20.0 2.0 2.2 - -
VL2320 3 30.0 0.10 23.0 2.0 2.8 - -
VL2330 3 50.0 0.10 23.0 3.0 3.7 - -
VL3032 3 100.0 0.20 30.0 3.2 6.3 - -
* Nominal capacity shown above is based on standard drain and cut off voltage down to 2.5V at 20°C.
Chapter 3- 56


Charging circuits
Charging/discharging cycle Approx. 1,000 times at 10% discharge depth to nominal capacity Charging system* Constant-voltage charging.(Please strictly adhere to the specifi ed charge voltage) Operating temperature * Consult with Panasonic concerning constant-current charging systems. The charging circuit is crucial in terms of ensuring that full justice will be done to the battery characteristics. Consider it carefully as the wrong charging circuit can cause trouble.
Precautions regarding the charge voltage setting
Under no circumstances should trickle charging, which is used for nickel-cadmium batteries, be used. Ignoring this precaution will cause the battery voltage to rise to about 5V, resulting in a deterioration of performance.
Chapter 3
Charge voltage range
If a fi xed-charging method is applied, please adhere to the specifi ed charging voltage.
The guaranteed value over an operating temperature range from -20 to +60°C is 3.4V ± 0.15V. (Actual value: 3.4V ± 0.20V) Vanadium Pentoxide Lithium Coin Type Batteries (VL series)
* If the charging voltage exceeds the specifi cations, the internal resistance of the battery will rise and may cause battery deterioration. Also,with a charge voltage around 4V, corrosion of the (+) terminal (case) may occur, causing leakage. ("Infl uence of the charge voltage on VL batteries" in Chapter 3-59.) * It is not possible for the battery capacity to recover completely when the charging voltage is below the ■ Recommended charging circuits
Basic conditions Charge voltage: 3.4V±0.15V Charge current: For a battery voltage of 3V VL621 Approx. 0.2 mA or below VL1216, VL1220 Approx. 0.5 mA or below VL2020 Approx. 1.5 mA or below VL2320, VL2330 Approx. 2.0 mA or below VL3032 Approx. 4.0 mA or below (It is permissible for the current to increase beyond the above level when the battery voltage drops below 3V.) ■ Mixed usage of batteries
Do not use these batteries and lithium primary batteries or other rechargeable batteries together, and do not use new batteries and old batteries together even if they are of the same type.
Chapter 3- 57


Reference: Examples of 5-V charging circuits
Standard circuits For D2 , select a diode of small inverse current(IR=1 A below / 5V) D1, D2 : MA716(Diode type code) D3 : MA704, MA700 Simple economical circuits D : MA700 (Very small inverse current) Load with 5V applied Chapter 3
Common to all types For D , select a diode of small inverse current (IR=1 A below / 5V) Vanadium Pentoxide Lithium Coin Type Batteries (VL series)
For minimizing current leakage due to resistance, etc., as when charging by another battery.
For details, refer to the constant voltage element specifications D : MA700 or MA704 ✽ D : MA700 or MA704 ✽ Patent pending Select a diode having an inverse current as small as possible. (IR=1 A below / 5V) Transistor control(for VL2320) Chapter 3- 58
Charging characteristics
4 Common to VL621 and VL1216 / Common to VL1220 VL2020 and VL2330 Temp. 20°C Infl uence of the charge voltage on VL batteries
If the charge voltage goes beyond its adequate range, battery performance may deteriorate early. Be sure to observe the guaranteed Chapter 3
charge voltage.
Prohibited operating range Early battery deterioration region 60˚C withstand voltage limit Vanadium Pentoxide Lithium Coin Type Batteries (VL series)
Adequate charge voltage range Operational range (guaranteed specified value) The lower the charging voltage becomes,the less the capacity becomes.
Chapter 3- 59
■ Dimensions(mm) ■ Dimensions(mm) ■ Specifi cation ■ Specifi cation Chapter 3
■ Discharge Temperature Characteristics ■ Discharge Temperature Characteristics Vanadium Pentoxide Lithium Coin Type Batteries (VL series)
■ Consumption current vs. Duration time ■ Consumption current vs. Duration time Chapter 3- 60
■ Dimensions(mm) ■ Dimensions(mm) ■ Specifi cation ■ Specifi cation Chapter 3
■ Discharge Temperature Characteristics ■ Discharge Temperature Characteristics Vanadium Pentoxide Lithium Coin Type Batteries (VL series)
■ Consumption current vs. Duration time ■ Consumption current vs. Duration time Chapter 3- 61
■ Dimensions(mm) ■ Dimensions(mm) ■ Specifi cation ■ Specifi cation Chapter 3
■ Discharge Temperature Characteristics ■ Discharge Temperature Characteristics Vanadium Pentoxide Lithium Coin Type Batteries (VL series)
■ Consumption current vs. Duration time ■ Consumption current vs. Duration time Chapter 3- 62
■ Dimensions(mm) ■ Specifi cation Chapter 3
■ Discharge Temperature Characteristics Vanadium Pentoxide Lithium Coin Type Batteries (VL series)
■ Consumption current vs. Duration time Chapter 3- 63
3-2 Manganese Lithium Coin Type Batteries (ML series)
Manganese Lithium Rechargeable Batteries (ML series)
These super compact lithium rechargeable batteries feature a manganese compound oxide for the positive electrode, a lithium/aluminum alloy for the negative electrode and a special non-aqueous Chapter 3
solvent for the electrolyte. They can easily be incorporated into circuits where 3V ICs are used to save space.
Memory backup power supplies for mobile phones, memory cards, pagers and other compact communications equipment, data terminals and offi ce automation equipment Manganese Lithium Coin Type Batteries (ML series)
General Specifi cations
Electrical characteristics (20°C) Dimensions(mm)
Model No.
Weight(g) JIS IEC
Nominal voltage(V) *Nominal capacity(mAh) Continuous drain(mA) Diameter Height
ML612S 3 2.6 0.01 6.8 1.2 0.15 - -
ML614S 3 3.4 0.01 6.8 1.4 0.17 - -
ML616S 3 2.9 0.01 6.8 1.6 0.2 - -
ML621S 3 5.0 0.01 6.8 2.1 0.3 - -
ML920S 3 11.0 0.03 9.5 2.0 0.5
ML1220 3 17.0 0.03 12.5 2.0 0.8
ML2020 3 45.0 0.10 20.0 2.0 2.2 - -
ML2430(Under development) 3 120.0 0.30 24.5 3.0 4.0
*Nominal capacity shown above is based on standard drain and cut off voltagedown to 2.0V at 20°C.
Chapter 3- 64
Charging circuits
Charging/discharging cycle Approx. 1,000 times at 10% discharge depth to nominal capacity Charging system* Constant-voltage charging.(Please strictly adhere to the specifi ed charge voltage) Operating temperature * Consult with Panasonic concerning constant-current charging systems. The charging circuit is crucial in terms of ensuring that full justice will be done to the battery characteristics. Consider it carefully as the wrong charging circuit can cause trouble.
Precautions regarding the charge voltage setting
Under no circumstances should trickle charging, which is used for nickel-cadmium batteries, be used. Ignoring this precaution will cause the battery voltage to rise to about 5V, resulting in a deterioration of performance.
Chapter 3
Charge voltage range
If a fi xed-charging method is applied, please adhere to the specifi ed charging voltage.
Guaranteed voltage is 2.8V 3.2V at the temperature of -20°C 60°C.
Manganese Lithium Coin Type Batteries (ML series)
* If the charging voltage exceeds the specifi cations, the internal resistance of the battery will rise and may cause battery deterioration. Also, with a charge voltage around 4V, corrosion of the (+)terminal (case) may occur, causing leakage. ("Infl uence of the charge voltage on ML batteries" on the back.) * It is not possible for the battery capacity to recover completely when the charging voltage is below the specifi cation. ■ Recommended charging circuits
Basic conditions Fixed-voltage charge Charge voltage: 2.8 3.2V (Standard voltage: 3.1V) Charge current: For a battery voltage of 2.5V ML612S,ML614S,ML616S Approx. 0.3 mA or below ML621S Approx. 0.6 mA or below ML920S Approx. 1.2 mA or below ML1220 Approx. 1.2 mA or below ML2020 Approx. 3.0 mA or below ■ Mixed usage of batteries
Do not use these batteries and lithium primary batteries or other rechargeable batteries together, and do not use new batteries and old batteries together even if they are of the same type.
Chapter 3- 65
Reference: Examples of 5-V charging circuits
When charging using another battery ML612S, ML614S, ML616S 3.0V(3V or more) Standard circuits For D2 , select a diode of small inverse current D1, D2 : MA716(Diode type code) D3 : MA704, MA700 Simple economical circuits D : MA700 : Very small inverse current Chapter 3
* VF of D will be different from the value given above if a current in excess of 100 A flows to the load during operation. Compensation must be provided by the resistors in such cases. Manganese Lithium Coin Type Batteries (ML series)
Infl uence of the charge voltage on ML batteries
If the charge voltage goes beyond its adequate range, battery performance may deteriorate early. Be sure to observe the guaranteed charge voltage.
Prohibited operating range Early battery deterioration region 60 C withstand voltage limit Adequate charge voltage range Operational range (guaranteed specified value) The lower charging voltage becomes, the less capacity becomes.
Chapter 3- 66
■ Dimensions(mm) ■ Dimensions(mm) ■ Specifi cation ■ Specifi cation Chapter 3
■ Discharge characteristics ■ Discharge characteristics Manganese Lithium Coin Type Batteries (ML series)
■ Consumption current vs. Duration time ■ Consumption current vs. Duration time Chapter 3- 67
■ Dimensions(mm) Lithium Battery Holders for ML616S
These battery holders are designed for sure and easy loading/removal of Panasonic coin type lithium batteries in/from equipment enabling the batteries to fully exploit their capabilities as the backup power supply in C-MOS RAM memory and microcomputer memory. All of the battery holders are designed to prevent inverted insertion of the battery.
Chapter 3
■ Discharge characteristics Manganese Lithium Coin Type Batteries (ML series)
Precaution for washing battery holders
The battery holders can be adversely affected by some
detergents used in the circuit board washing process and may result in cracks forming in the holder. Please test the ■ Consumption current vs. Duration time holders in your washing process before use.
Chapter 3- 68
■ Dimensions (mm) ■ Dimensions (mm) ■ Specifi cation ■ Specifi cation Chapter 3
■ Discharge characteristics ■ Discharge characteristics Manganese Lithium Coin Type Batteries (ML series)
■ Charge / discharge characteristics ■ Consumption current vs. Duration time ■ Consumption current vs. Duration time Chapter 3- 69
■ Dimensions(mm) ■ Dimensions(mm) ■ Specifi cation ■ Specifi cation Chapter 3
■ Discharge characteristics ■ Discharge characteristics Manganese Lithium Coin Type Batteries (ML series)
Consumption current vs. Duration time Consumption current vs. Duration time Chapter 3- 70
■ Dimensions(mm) Under development ■ Specifi cation Chapter 3
■ Discharge characteristics Manganese Lithium Coin Type Batteries (ML series)
■ Consumption current vs. Duration time Chapter 3- 71
3-3 Niobium-Lithium Coin Type Batteries (NBL series)
Niobium-Lithium Rechargeable Batteries (NBL series)
The NBL series eliminates the need for a voltage boosting circuit since they can be charged at a low voltage. They help to simplify charging circuits.
Chapter 3
Memory backup power supplies for mobile phones using ICs which reduce the voltage to lower levels and which are driven at 2.5V or so.
General Specifi cations
Niobium Lithium Coin Type Batteries (NBL series)
Electrical characteristics (20°C) Dimensions(mm)
Model No.
Weight(g) JIS IEC
Nominal voltage(V) *Nominal capacity(mAh) Continuous drain(mA) Diameter Height
NBL621 2 4 0.01 6.8 2.1 0.25 - -
*Nominal capacity shown above is based on standard drain and cut off voltage down to 1.0V at 20°C.
Consult Panasonic for charging conditions.
Chapter 3- 72
■ Dimensions(mm) ■ Specifi cation Chapter 3
■ Discharge characteristics Niobium Lithium Coin Type Batteries (NBL series)
■ Recovered capacity (According to charge voltage) Chapter 3- 73
3-4 Manganese Titanium Lithium Coin Type Batteries (MT series)
Manganese Titanium Lithium Rechargeable Batteries (MT series)
These coin-type manganese titanium lithium coin batteries use a lithium-manganese complex oxide for the positive pole and a special lithium-titanium complex oxide for the negative pole. They provide a Chapter 3
capacity which is more than 10 times that of capacitors of the same size.
Main power supplies in compact products such as rechargeable watches Memory backup power supply for pagers, timers, etc. Manganese Titanium Lithium Coin Type Batteries (MT series)
General Specifi cations
Electrical characteristics (20°C) Dimensions(mm)
Model No.
Weight(g) JIS IEC
Nominal voltage(V) *Nominal capacity(mAh) Continuous drain(mA) Diameter Height
MT516 1.5 0.9 0.05 5.8 1.6 0.15 - -
MT616 1.5 1.05 0.05 6.8 1.6 0.20 - -
MT621 1.5 2.5 0.05 6.8 2.1 0.25 - -
MT920 1.5 4.0 0.10 9.5 2.0 0.45 - -
MT1620 1.5 11.0 0.50 16.0 2.0 1.25 - -
*Nominal capacity shown above is based on standard drain and cut off voltage down to 1.0V at 20°C.
Consult Panasonic for charging conditions.
Chapter 3- 74
■ Dimensions (mm) ■ Dimensions (mm) ■ Specifi cation ■ Specifi cation Chapter 3
■ Charge / discharge characteristics ■ Charge / discharge characteristics Manganese Titanium Lithium Coin Type Batteries (MT series)
■ Consumption current vs. Duration time ■ Consumption current vs. Duration time Chapter 3- 75
■ Dimensions (mm) ■ Dimensions (mm) ■ Specifi cation ■ Specifi cation Chapter 3
■ Charge / discharge characteristics ■ Charge / discharge characteristics Manganese Titanium Lithium Coin Type Batteries (MT series)
■ Consumption current vs. Duration time ■ Consumption current vs. Duration time ■ Discharge characteristics Chapter 3- 76
■ Dimensions (mm) ■ Specifi cation Chapter 3
■ Charge / discharge characteristics Manganese Titanium Lithium Coin Type Batteries (MT series)
■ Consumption current vs. Duration time Chapter 3- 77
Chapter 4
Batteries with Terminals and
Soldering Lithium Batteries
Chapter 4
Batteries with Terminals. 80
Soldering. 80
Batteries with Terminals
of applications, obviating eliminating the need for Highly Reliable Terminal Welding
reinforcement or other such means.
(1) Using a laser to weld terminals
(2) Execution of pre-soldering
Panasonic uses a laser welding method to weld the The tips of the terminals are pre-soldered in order to terminals onto the batteries so they can be mounted enhance the reliability of the soldering.
onto PC boards by soldering. This method has the effect of boosting the tensile strength accompanying a welding strength to approximately 100N (approx.10kgf) compared with 20N to 50N (approx. 2 to 5 kgf) yielded by the conventional resistance welding method. The method also more or less cuts in half the individual variations occurring in the welding. Furthermore, it Panasonic offers a full range of batteries with terminals enables terminals to be welded onto thin batteries, such for PCB mounting. Since the terminals come in a variety as those with a thickness of 1.6 mm, and it improves of types, please contact Panasonic for further details. compatibility with many other uses. This highly reliable A more limited selection of simple battery holders to terminal soldering method can be used in a wide range support the batteries is also available.
(1) Using a soldering iron
Do not allow the soldering iron to make direct contact with the bodies of the batteries. Proceed with the Example where the terminals were soldered straight onto a soldering quickly within 5 seconds while maintaining the coin-type lithium battery, the terminals were connected to Chapter 4
a PC board or other electronic components, and the heat iron tip temperature at about 350°C, and do not allow the generated by the soldering adversely affected the battery, resulting in a deterioration of the battery characteristics: temperature of the battery bodies to exceed 85°C.
The heat generated when terminals are mounted using solder (2) Automatic dip-soldering bath
causes lithium to melt.
Soldering with a dip-soldering bath can be used but do not allow the temperature of the battery bodies to The separator melts and becomes perforated.
exceed 85°C. It is important to note, depending on the temperature conditions inside the dipping device,that The positive and negative poles are welded together, the battery body temperature may rise after dipping causing "internal shorting." due to the residual heat retained. When a post-dipping Batteries with Terminals and Soldering
temperature rise is observed, review the temperature In terms of the battery characteristics, the open-circuit voltage conditions and consider a dipping time reduction or a and electrical capacity are both reduced. way of forcibly cooling the batteries after dipping.
The battery loses its functions or it bursts in rare cases.
Dip-soldering bath temperature Within 5 sec.
* Consult Panasonic if the battery body temperature will exceed 85°C.
Never Use Refl ow Soldering
Separator(note 2) Never use reflow soldering since doing so directly heats the battery surface to high temperatures, causing electrolyte leakage, deterioration of battery characteristics and risking bursting or ignition.
(note 1)Metal whose melting point is about 180°C(note 2)Non woven cloth of polypropylene whose melting point is about 165°C Chapter 4- 80
Chapter 5
Standards and Regulations
QS9000 / ISO9001 Approval . 82
Security Export Control . 83
Transporting Lithium Batteries. 83
Chapter 5
QS9000 / ISO9001 Approval
The Lithium & Micro Battery Division has acquired certifi cation under ISO9001, the international standard The QS-9000 standard was established by the "Big for quality assurance, for its cylindrical type lithium Three" U.S. automakers (Daimler-Chrysler, Ford batteries and coin-type lithium batteries. and GM) on the basis of the ISO9001 international In addition, we have acquired certification under standard governing quality assurance but with additional QS-9000, the quality standard for the automobile requirements of their own. manufacturing industry, for its coin-type lithium primary A company which has been certifi ed under this standard can supply highly reliable products by incorporating into its quality system proven "predictive management" techniques which are substantiated by numerical data from a customer satisfaction survey, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), process capability analysis, measurement systems analysis, etc. which are required under the standard.
Standards and Regulations
Chapter 5
Chapter 5- 82
Transporting Lithium Batteries
Regulations for transporting lithium batteries (only batteries which have a solid cathode electrode are listed)
(as of March / 2000) Name of regulations
ICAO IATA
Means of transportation
air cargo
Total weight of
1g or less
1g or less
1g or less
1g or less
Total weight of
2g or less
2g or less
2g or less
2g or less
lithium battery pack
Total weight of
5g or less
5g or less
5g or less
5g or less
Total weight of
25g or less
25g or less
25g or less
25g or less
lithium battery pack
Total weight of
12g or less
12g or less
12g or less
12g or less
Total weight of
500g or less
500g or less
500g or less
500g or less
lithium battery pack
Total weight of
500g or less
500g or less
500g or less
500g or less
Up to 5kg of batteries can be Up to 35kg of batteries can be Up to 250kg of batteries can be DOT;49CFR173.185
carried if they are packed in a carried if they are packed in a carried if they are packed in a
container which is approved 2nd container which is approved

container which is approved 2nd
class by UN.
2nd class by UN.
class by UN.
A: The batteries listed above are not subject to these restrictions provided that they satisfy the A45 conditions,IATA.
B: The batteries listed above are not subject to these restrictions provided that they have been certifi ed as satisfying the test standards specifi ed in the U.N. recommendation and as not falling under the classifi cation Standards and Regulations
of hazardous items.
C: The batteries listed above can be transported provided that they satisfy the conditions stipulated by the laws and regulations listed below and that they meet the packaging standards. The regulation above is an extract of the latest version. See the original for details.
U (International Civil Aviation Organization) (International Air Transport Association) (International Marin Organization) (Department Of Transportation) This section of the catalog is quoted by transportation hazards issued by the organizations shown above.
Chapter 5
Security Export Control
"Security export control" entails observing the legislation Lithium batteries are on the list of items subject to the provided to maintain international peace and safety Export and Trade Control Regulation (Item 7 in annex by preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass Table 1) but all the products mentioned in this catalog destructions (nuclear weapons, chemical warfare are exempt from these regulations. weapons, biological weapons and missiles) and the The above notwithstanding, these batteries may be excessive buildup of conventional weapons. COCOM, subject to the regulations depending on their ultimate the committee that imposed controls on exports to destination, application and other conditions. the Communist bloc, was disbanded on March 31, When a non-exemption/exemption certifi cate is required 1994. However, the items, etc. which were restricted for exportation, etc. or if you have any queries, contact by COCOM are still the target of the restrictions but a Panasonic sales representative.
they are now also subject to some amendments which were made in September 1996. Chapter 5- 83
Chapter 6
Avoiding Hazards and
Preventing Quality Problems
Avoiding Hazards . 86
Preventing Quality Problems . 87
Chapter 6
Case Study and Explanation
To store batteries, place each of the batteries in the sections provided on the designated tray in such a way that they will not make contact with one another. 2,000 new batteries were taken out from the 20-piece 21 cylindrical type lithium batteries with tab terminals tray containers and thrown randomly into a cardboard were placed in a 20 piece tray--one battery more box where they were stacked on top of one another. than the capacity of the 20-piece tray shown in the About 30 minutes later, smoke was seen emanating fi gure--two of the batteries were placed together with from the batteries followed by ignition several minutes their poles reversed. As a result, the tab terminals came into contact with each other, causing external Case study: Ignition of batteries stacked together shorting, and the temperature of the two batteries rose dramatically, generating heat and causing the halon tubes to burst.
Since two batteries were placed in a space (indicated by ) allocated to one battery, their terminals made ing resulted.
Avoiding Hazards and Preventing Quality Problems
This particular case involves batteries which were packed in trays and destined for OEMs. The batteries were packed in an intermediate package consisting of 10 trays with each tray containing 20 (or 40) batteries, and the trays were stacked on top of each other. The intermediate package (of the 10 trays) was opened at the distribution stage of our operations, and fi ve of the trays were delivered to one customer. Since the trays were stored at an angle inside the box, the batteries fell out of their positions on the trays and became stacked up on the bottom inside the small box. As a Generating heat and deterioration of capacity result, some of the batteries burst.
To store batteries, place each of the batteries in the sections provided on the designated tray in Case study: Bursting such a way that they will not make contact with Chapter 6
of batteries stacked on one another.
top of one another Chapter 6- 86
Preventing Quality Problems
Reduction of Battery Voltage and Deterioration of Capacity
(1) Reduction of battery voltage and deterioration of capacity through contact with
antistatic conductive materials
Incidents have been reported where terminal-mounted batteries for memory backup or coin-type lithium batteries have come into contact with antistatic conductive materials, thus forming external discharge circuits and leading to voltage drops or capacity deterioration.
In manufacturing plants using ICs, LSI and other semiconductor components, thoroughgoing antistatic measures are taken. Various protective materials are used to prevent static: most of them have special compounds of carbon, aluminum foil and other metals and are therefore conductive. These protective materials are used, for example, in the form of packaging bags, trays, mats, sheets, fi lms, corrugated boards and resin cases. A protective material may have a resistance ranging from 103 to 106 Ω/cm, for instance. This means that if the (+) and (-) terminals of a battery come into contact with this material, a current ranging from several milliamperes to several microamperes will fl ow and the battery will discharge, causing voltage drop and capacity deterioration.
A terminal-mounted battery was inserted into a A battery was placed directly Exclusive grounding line on a rubber sheet spread over conductive mat. The battery charge was exhausted a worktable. The (+) and (-) in several days.
terminals were in contact with charge was exhausted.
Conductive rubber sheet Avoiding Hazards and Preventing Quality Problems
Battery-mounted PC boards were inadvertently When batteries are to be used near protective materials, brought into contact with spacers and a conductive take every possible care to ensure that the (+) and (-) rubber sheet. The battery terminals of the batteries or PC boards, etc. on which charge was exhausted.
batteries are mounted do not touch these protective materials directly.
A battery-mounted PC board was inadvertently brought into contact with a conductive resin case. The battery charge was exhausted.
Conductive resin case Chapter 6
Chapter 6- 87
Preventing Quality Problems
(2) Reduction of battery voltage and deterioration of capacity through contact between batteries
Incidents have been reported where terminal-mounted batteries for memory backup or coin-type lithium batteries have come into contact each other, thus forming discharge circuits (shorted state) and leading to voltage drops or capacity deterioration. Observe the following precautions.
1. Remove the batteries from the tray one at a time.
If the tray is turned upside down, the batteries will come into contact with each other, forming discharge circuits. 2. Do not place batteries randomly in a parts box or other container. Discharge circuits will be formed by multiple batteries coming into contact numbers of the batteries, causing the batteries to discharge and drain.
Recommended procedures Prohibited procedures *Utilize the tray lid in taking out batteries *Do not throw batteries randomly into a parts box by turning over trays containing batteries.
Intermediate package(200 batteries):20 pieces ✕ 10 trays Tray containing batteries Trays containing batteries Lid tray (tray with no hole) Avoiding Hazards and Preventing Quality Problems
Discharge circuits Trays containing batteries Batteries being exhausted Battery being exhausted Battery being exhausted *Contact of batteries with each other forms discharge circuits, thus the batteries are drained.
*Lay a tray lid flat and place a tray containing batteries on top of it: batteries are pushed up by protrusions of the lid tray so that they can be easily picked up with fingers.
Chapter 6
Chapter 6- 88
Preventing Quality Problems
Memory Erasure Problems
<Reference Sample> Coin-type lithium batteries are often used as the power supplies for memory backup in various equipment. However problems with the erasure of valuable data in the memory due to improper contact between the batteries and equipment have been reported.
1. When batteries are to be used continuously for
a prolonged period.
Select tab terminal-mounted batteries, and solder the tabs to the battery connection terminals of the equipment. (See Fig. 1) When batteries need to be replaced, use a battery holder (see Fig. 2) or battery with lead wire connectors (see Fig. 3). Battery holders made by Panasonic (exclusively for the CR2032 and BR2032, see Fig. 2) are available for use.
2. When batteries need to be replaced in the short
term, select batteries with no terminals or lead
wire connectors. Use of Y-shaped terminals (2-point contact) for both the (+) and (-) poles as the shape of the connection terminals in the equipment helps to Avoiding Hazards and Preventing Quality Problems
achieve a more stable contact. (See Fig. 4) The contact pressure of the contacts should be no less than 2 to 10N (approx. 200 to 1000 gf). To prevent momentary contact failure of several milliseconds in the circuit, the use of a tantalum capacitor, etc. with a capacitance of several microfarads is effective. (See Fig. 6) For the connection terminals of the equipment, Fig. 5: excessive load use iron or stainless steel with nickel plating at the very least. Gold-plating is more suitable when the contact resistance must be reduced.
Note: Do not touch batteries with bare hands because perspiration (salt), body oil etc. will increase the surface resistance which may lead to defective Chapter 6
Chapter 6- 89
Batteries - Create A New World For Literature and General Product Information:
Panasonic Industrial Europe GmbH Panasonic Industrial Europe GmbH Avda. Josep Tarradellas, 20-30, 5° Bracknell Berkshire 08029 Barcelona - Spain Tel: +34 93-494 92 42 Fax: +34 93-419 89 31 Tel: +44 1344-853262Fax: +44 1344-853724 Panasonic Industrial Europe GmbH Panasonic Industrial Europe GmbH 270 avenue du Président Wilson 93218 Saint Denis La Plaine Tel: +39 02-6788-232 Tel: +33 1-49 46 44 10 Fax: +39 02-6788-207 Fax: +33 1-49 46 42 20 Germany (all other european countries)
Panasonic Industrial Europe GmbH
Winsbergring 15
22525 Hamburg
Tel: +49 40-85 386-157
Fax: +49 40-85 386-160
For more details, please contact:
Panasonic is a registered trademark of Matsushita Electric Co., Ltd.
P 2002. Printed in Germany. This catalogue has been produced using un-chlorinated paper.

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GENERICOS CENTROAMERICANOS, S.A. AÑO IX No. 68 Actualidad MédicaEspecial para Folia Médica: Dr Carlos FernándezEsteroides en el tratamiento inicial de la SepsisEl dolor lumbar: Dr E. J. MerladetFibra y cáncer colorrectalOzonoterapia¿Cuándo mata la enfermedad coronaria?más.

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MILITARY MEDICINE, 177, 9:1015, 2012 Healing Touch With Guided Imagery for PTSD in Returning Active Duty Military: A Randomized Controlled Trial Shamini Jain, PhD*†; CDR George F. McMahon, NC USN‡; LCDR Patricia Hasen, NC USN‡; CDR Madelyn P. Kozub, NC USN‡; Valencia Porter, MD, MPH∥; Rauni King, RN, MIH, CHTP§; Erminia M. Guarneri, MD§ ABSTRACT Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a significant problem in returning military and warrantsswift and effective treatment. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether a complementarymedicine intervention (Healing Touch with Guided Imagery [HT+GI]) reduced PTSD symptoms as compared totreatment as usual (TAU) returning combat-exposed active duty military with significant PTSD symptoms. Active dutymilitary (n = 123) were randomized to 6 sessions (within 3 weeks) of HT+GI vs. TAU. The primary outcome was PTSDsymptoms; secondary outcomes were depression, quality of life, and hostility. Repeated measures analysis of covariancewith intent-to-treat analyses revealed statistically and clinically significant reduction in PTSD symptoms ( p < 0.0005,Cohen's d = 0.85) as well as depression ( p < 0.0005, Cohen's d = 0.70) for HT+GI vs. TAU. HT+GI also showedsignificant improvements in mental quality of life ( p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.58) and cynicism ( p = 0.001, Cohen's d =0.49) vs. TAU. Participation in a complementary medicine intervention resulted in a clinically significant reductionin PTSD and related symptoms in a returning, combat-exposed active duty military population. Further investigation ofGT and biofield therapy approaches for mitigating PTSD in military populations is warranted.