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Eastleigh.gov.uk


A Phase 2 Survey of the Itchen Valley Country
Park Woodlands
For Eastleigh Borough Council
April 2008
PJ Wilson
Pennyhayes, Shute, Axminster, Devon EX13 7QP
Telephone & Fax 01297 552434, Email philipjohnwilson@aol.com
Summary

Woodlands at Itchen Valley Country Park were surveyed in March and April 2008.
The National Vegetation Classification (NVC) was used to map the woodland types.
The majority of the woodlands are thought to be "ancient", with some areas of more
recent origin. There is public access to much of the woodland, and it includes a large
reservoir.
The whole area was clear-felled in the early 1960s, and much of the western part was
replanted with conifers. The north-eastern part was not replanted but was allowed to
regenerate woodland cover naturally.
In the west where the woods were replanted with conifers, the soils are freely-
draining, and the predominant NVC woodland types are W10a and W10c. Further
east the soils become wetter, and the major woodland communities are W8c and W7c
with W8a in slightly drier areas. Where flushes emerge at slope bases there are small
stands of W7b, and there is W6a in the Itchen floodplain in the west.
The eastern woodlands are managed on a coppice rotation, and there is a good
structural diversity, ranging from mature non-intervention stands to dense thicket-like
coppice regeneration. Management in the west is less intensive.
Contents

1
Site description Unit descriptions Acknowledgements Index to photographs Species lists for each unit Plant species recorded in the Itchen Valley Country Park Woodlands in 2008 59 Introduction

The Itchen Valley Country Park is situated between Eastleigh and Hedge End,
immediately to the east of Southampton International Airport. The woodlands are
east of the River Itchen itself, on a low undulating plateau sloping gently down to the
east from the escarpment along the east of the river.
A survey of the Itchen Valley Country Park SINC (Sites of Importance for Nature
Conservation) woodlands to Phase 2/NVC (National Vegetation Classification:
Rodwell, 1990) level was commissioned in spring 2008 by Eastleigh Borough
Council. The SINC woodlands were previously surveyed in 1996 (Rowe, 1996) and,
before that, were partly surveyed in 1987. Neither of these previous surveys used
standard Phase II methods or produced maps of NVC stand type. The surrounding
SINC and SSSI meadows were surveyed in 2007 (Wilson & Bealey, 2007). The area
of the country park within the Itchen Valley SSSI consists largely of the river
floodplain. None of the woodlands described in this report are within the SSSI.
The aims of the survey were twofold: to determine the effects of recent management
in the woodland, in particular the impacts of coppicing in the eastern part of the site,
and to provide a new baseline against which future changes can be measured. This
can then be used to assist future management of the Country Park and provide
information against which future development pressures can be judged.
Methods

Survey was carried out during March and April 2008.
The survey followed standard Phase II methods for woodlands. Each woodland
compartment (Map 1) was surveyed separately. NVC communities and sub-
communities were first determined and their extent recorded on a 1:2000 map. As far
as possible, mosaics of stand types were not recorded as such, but their components
were mapped. A minimum area for mapping was considered to be 30mX30m.
Intermediate stand types and gradations between communities were recorded. A
species-list was recorded from each stand type with abundances on the DAFOR scale
(Table 1), and a complete species-list was recorded from each compartment.
Where a sufficiently large area of any stand type was present in any compartment, a
quadrat was recorded. All quadrats measured 10m X 10m and all vascular plant and
terricolous bryophyte species were recorded with abundance on the Domin scale
(Table 2). The structure of the woody vegetation and canopy height were also
recorded. Tree species visible in the area surrounding the quadrat were noted. An
attempt was made to record at least five quadrats throughout the site from each NVC
sub-community, although in some cases where only small areas were present, fewer
were recorded.
A series of representative digital photographs was collected (Appendix 2 and on disc).
Table 1. The DAFOR cover abundance scale. Scores for the widespread distribution
of each species and for local variation from this.

Table 2. The Domin scale for use in NVC quadrats.
Domin score
<4% few individuals <4% several individuals <4% many individuals Site Description
The Itchen Valley Country Park woodlands are situated to the east of the River Itchen.
They extend from the river itself, where the river cliff forms the western edge of
compartment 1 (River Copse), to Hogwood Lane in the north-east, and southwards to
Allington Lane. The fields at High Hill surrounded by the woodland are also part of
the country park, but were not included in this survey. The woodlands are owned by
Eastleigh Town Council with the exception of Compartment 6 (Hogwood Copse) and
the area surrounding the reservoir in High Wood, owned by the Portsmouth Water
Company. The woodland is divided into 10 compartments along natural boundaries,
frequently the wood banks that would formerly have separated the woods into
management units.
Land slopes sharply up from the river, with this escarpment eroded into a river cliff on
the insides of meanders. The woodlands surround the high point of High Hill, but
sloping gently down to the south and east. Water drains through shallow valleys to
the west in Compartment 10, and into the stream that flows along the east of
Compartment 6. Compartment 3 (Milkmead Copse) and the eastern part of
Compartment 7 are particularly poorly drained, and here there are substantial areas of
wet woodland. There are smaller areas of wet woodland elsewhere.
There is public access to much of the woodland along tracks. Public access is
concentrated in the area nearest to the car parks in the north-west of High Wood.
There is a children's play trail in the north-west of High Wood, and a cycle track
running from the centre of High Wood through River Copse and ending in the east of
Vocus Copse. The western part of River Copse is fenced from public access for
safety reasons.
Much of the woodland is known to be of ancient origin (Map 2), and has been in
existence since 1600. Thirty-four species of vascular plant considered characteristic
of ancient woodland were recorded during this survey. Other parts of the woodland
not recorded as ancient are considered likely to be so on floristic evidence. Much of
the woodland was however clear-felled in the early 1960s, accounting for the virtual
absence of mature broad-leaved trees, although old coppice stools are locally
abundant, and mature trees are present around the margins of some parts of the
woodland. High Wood, River Copse and Vocus Copse were replanted with conifers
(chiefly Pinus nigra, Tsuga heterophylla, Thuja plicata and Pinus sylvestris),
although even in these planted areas, broad-leaved tree regeneration (the major
species is Fraxinus excelsior) is locally abundant.
The composition of the woodlands is related to soil moisture and nutrient status. Wet
peaty soils with permanent flushing at the base of the escarpment in Compartments 1
& 2, and the shallow valley in Compartment 3 have W7b Alnus glutinosa woodland.
The small areas of River Itchen floodplain in Compartment 1 have W6a Alnus
glutinosa
woodland. There are more extensive stands of W7c Alnus glutinosa-
Fraxinus excelsior
dominated woodland with a species-rich ground flora on
seasonally wet clay coils in Compartment 3. Elsewhere in the east of the site, W8c
Fraxinus excelsior woodland is present where soils are slightly drier but still moist.
On higher ground and on slopes where relatively base-rich soils are better drained, the
characteristic community is W8a, dominated by Fraxinus excelsior and Corylus
avellana and frequently with a species-rich ground flora. In Compartment 6, Allium ursinum is dominant in the ground flora, but this was considered to be W8a rather than the northern and western community W8f. Better drained soils, probably on gravels, chiefly in the coniferised west, but also locally in the east, have W10a and W10c. W10a is typical of ancient woodland areas in Compartments 1 & 2, while W10c is present in the more recent woodland in Compartment 9. Hyacinthoides non-scripta is dominant in the relatively species-poor ground flora of W10a, but is virtually absent in the even poorer W10c. Much of the woodland is bordered by narrow stands of W22 and W24 Prunus spinosa and Rubus fruticosus scrub. Rides in the eastern compartments have vegetation related to M23a Juncus acutiflorus/Juncus effusus-Galium palustre rush pasture, Juncus acutiflorus sub-community. The eastern compartments (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) are managed on a coppice rotation, although some areas have not been recently coppiced, and act as screens around the coupes. The position in the coppice cycle is important in determining the structure in any year. In the years immediately following coppicing the woodland is typically open and there is a rapid response from the ground flora with spectacular displays, particularly of Hyacinthoides non-scripta. Rubus fruticosus then increases to become desnse and dominant, to be replaced in turn by a dense thicket of regenerating coppice stems. Rides are also managed in these compartments. It should be noted that the site unit numbering used by HBIC differs from that used by IVCP staff. Other features in these woodlands include a pond in Compartment 7 created in the 1950s for duck shooting, a large reservoir in Compartment 9 and the partially reconstructed remains of a 19th century brick kiln in the south-west corner of Compartment 3. NVC Communities

W1
Salix cinerea-Galium palustre woodland. There are small stands of this community in Units 7, 8 and 10 where it occurs on permanently inundated soils adjacent to streams that form the boundaries of these units. Salix cinerea becomes dominant as large, frequently collapsing trees over an open ground flora with much open water. There are smaller amounts of Fraxinus excelsior and Crataegus monogyna in this relatively low canopy. The ground flora includes several wetland species such as Galium palustre and Oenanthe crocata. Other frequent species include Hedera helix, Carex remota, Carex sylvatica, Circaea lutetiana and Deschampsia cespitosa. This community is closely related to W7b and W8c. W6a Alnus glutinosa-Urtica dioica woodland, typical sub-community. Small stands of this woodland are present in Unit 1. It is present on the very narrow floodplain of the east bank of the River Itchen, where alluvium has accumulated on the inner bends of meanders. These woodlands are regularly scoured by river water when water levels are high. All stands have been planted with Populus sp, and there is a sparse shrub layer of Salix cinerea, Cornus sanguinea and Corylus avellana. The ground flora is species-poor with a mixture of wetland and dry woodland species including Urtica dioica, Mercurialis perennis, Arum maculatum, Carex riparia, Oenanthe crocata, Glechoma hederacea, Galium aparine, Adoxa moschatellina and Ranunculus ficaria. W7b Alnus glutinosa-Fraxinus excelsior-Lysimachia vulgaris woodland, Carex remota-Cirsium palustre sub-community. This community is typically found along and below flush-lines where water levels are consistently high. Two stands were recorded, in Units 1 and 3. Alnus glutinosa is the major canopy tree, largely former coppice, with abundant Salix cinerea. The ground flora has much open water and peaty soil and an open cover of Carex remota, locally Chrysosplenium oppositifolium, with Poa trivialis, Glechoma hederacea, Eurhynchium praelongum, Mnium hornum, Hedera helix, Brachythecium rivulare and Oenanthe crocata. W7c Alnus glutinosa-Fraxinus excelsior-Lysimachia vulgaris woodland, Deschampsia cespitosa sub-community. There is a large stand of this community on the seasonally wet soils in the north of Unit 3, and in the narrow band of floodplain in the north of Unit 2 where it also appears to receive water from flushes emerging at the base of the slope. This woodland is very closely related to W8c with which it intergrades in Unit 3. W7c is probably favoured by slightly wetter soils than W8c. Fraxinus excelsior is the dominant canopy tree, frequently derived from grown-up coppice. Alnus glutinosa is abundant, again largely derived from former coppice. In Unit 3 there has been much recent coppicing and there is dense young regrowth. There is a sparse shrub layer including Crataegus monogyna, Prunus spinosa and Corylus avellana. The ground flora is species-rich with abundant Anemone nemorosa, Deschampsia cespitosa, Hedera helix, Poa trivialis, Brachypodium sylvaticum, Eurhynchium praelongum, Galium aparine, Geum urbanum, Glechoma hederacea, Arum maculatum, Carex sylvatica, Circaea lutetiana, Crataegus monogyna, Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Lamiastrum galeobdolon, Mnium hornum, Ranunculus ficaria and Rumex sanguineus. W8a Fraxinus excelsior-Acer campestre-Mercurialis perennis woodland, Primula vulgaris-Glechoma hederacea sub-community. This is the characteristic woodland community of moderately base-rich, well-drained soils in the south-east of England. Here it is present on dry slopes in Units 1, 2, 4 & 8, and on more level ground in Units 3 and 6. In Unit 3, it occurs where the level is slightly higher than in adjacent stands of W8c and W7c, and is clearly related to these communities, although distinct. In Unit 6, this community is frequently inundated for short periods when the adjacent stream floods. In all stands the community is dominated by Fraxinus excelsior with locally Quercus robur, Acer campestre and Malus sylvestris. Much of this F. excelsior has been coppiced in the past, and some stools are very large. The shrub layer consists largely of Corylus avellana and Crataegus monogyna, although Fraxinus excelsior is also abundant where it has been recently coppiced. The ground flora is very variable in its species-richness, but in general it is moderately rich. Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Mercurialis perennis, Poa trivialis, Anemone nemorosa, Arum maculatum, Eurhynchium praelongum, Hedera helix, Ranunculus ficaria and Glechoma hederacea are abundant. Allium ursinum is frequent in Unit 1, and particularly so in the regularly flooded stand in Unit 6. W8c Fraxinus excelsior-Acer campestre-Mercurialis perennis woodland, Deschampsia cespitosa sub-community. This woodland type is characteristic of heavier, more water-retentive soils in the north-east of the country park. Although this community can be a transient phase in woodlands actively managed as coppices, it seems likely here that it is the natural community over much of the site, as it occurs in both recent coppice and in areas not coppiced for some years. Much of this woodland has been coppiced in recent years, and this woodland has a very distinctive appearance with the regeneration of dense thickets of Salix cinerea, Crataegus monogyna, Prunus spinosa, Fraxinus excelsior and Rubus fruticosus. Some of the F. excelsior stools are very large. Fraxinus excelsior is the major canopy tree, although these are generally widely spaced, and Quercus robur and Prunus avium are occasional in some stands. The absence of Alnus glutinosa is the major factor distinguishing this community from W7c. Apart from where coppice regeneration is very dense, the ground flora is species-rich. Arum maculatum, Eurhynchium praelongum, Brachythecium rutabulum, Carex sylvatica, Deschampsia cespitosa, Galium aparine and Thuidium tamariscinum are more or less constant, with frequent Ajuga reptans, Anemone nemorosa, Cirsium palustre, Eurhynchium striatum, Hedera helix, Primula vulgaris, Ranunculus ficaria, Rumex sanguineus and Veronica montana W10a Quercus robur-Pteridium aquilinum-Rubus fruticosus woodland, typical sub-community. W10 woodlands are characteristic of less base-rich but still well-drained deep soils. Here, W10a is widespread throughout the site. It is the major community in Unit 1 and Unit 2, and it is also present in the north-east in Units 3, 4, 5 & 7 and in the south in Unit 10. In Units 1 & 2 most of the original tree cover has been removed and replanted with conifers, Pseudotsuga menziesii to the south and Tsuga heterophylla in the north. The principal planted tree in the north-east of Unit 2 is Thuja plicata. Young trees of Fraxinus excelsior are frequent through much of this plantation. In the north-east semi-natural stands are regularly coppiced. These areas have a very open canopy of Quercus robur with occasional Prunus avium. The major shrubs are Corylus avellana, Crataegus monogyna and Prunus spinosa with occasional Ilex aquifolium. The densely regenerated thicket in the recent coppice in Unit 3 has abundant Salix cinerea, Rubus fruticosus and Pteridium aquilinum. The ground flora is generally species-poor compared to that of W8 woodlands. Hyacinthoides non-scriptus is generally abundant and locally dominant, with abundant Rubus fruticosus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Hedera helix and Milium effusum. Other species abundant in some stands include Lonicera periclymenum, Anemone nemorosa, Dryopteris dilatata, Brachythecium rutabulum, Pteridium aquilinum, Carex sylvatica, Holcus lanatus, Juncus effusus, Galium aparine and Digitalis purpurea. W10c Quercus robur-Pteridium aquilinum-Rubus fruticosus woodland, Hedera helix sub-community. This is typically a species-poor woodland type, frequently developed under a heavily shading canopy, either of conifers or unmanaged native trees. It is particularly a community of secondary woodland sites, lacking many of the species otherwise associated with long continuity of woodland cover. Here, it is the major woodland community in Unit 9. This unit has been almost entirely felled and replanted with conifers, and much is of secondary origin. Woodland of recent origin in the south of Unit 8 and part of Unit 7 is also this community. The planted woodland in Unit 9 is dominated largely by Pinus nigra with a smaller component of Pinus sylvestris and Thuja plicata. Self-sown Fraxinus excelsior, Betula pubescens and locally Quercus robur also occur. The shrub layer is sparse, consisting mainly of Corylus avellana. The ground flora is poor, with abundant Hedera helix and Rubus fruticosus. Such species as Hyacinthoides non-scriptus and Anemone nemorosa that are abundant throughout the other woodlands here are notable by their absence. Much of Unit 8 has been recently coppiced or cleared, with dense regrowth of Rubus fruticosus, Salix cinerea and other species in the south and Corylus avellana in the north under a very open canopy of Quercus robur. In Unit 7 there is a stand of W10c under a very heavily shading canopy of Quercus robur and Salix cinerea. The ground flora in these stands is also highly impoverished. W21a Crataegus monogyna-Hedera helix scrub, Hedera helix-Urtica dioica sub-community. There is a small stand of this community in the north-east corner of Unit 3. This is dominated by large and widely spaced Crataegus monogyna and Salix cinerea with very little ground flora. W22 Prunus spinosa scrub. Narrow, linear stands of scrub dominated by Prunus spinosa are present along the edges of many of the woodland units, but generally these are outside the unit boundaries. W23 Rubus fruticosus scrub Narrow, linear stands of scrub dominated by Rubus fruticosus are present along the edges of many of the woodland units, but generally these are outside the unit boundaries. Unit Descriptions
Numbers in the text refer to target notes (Appendix 1), numbers following the unit
name are management unit numbers used by IVCP staff.

Unit 1 River Copse (6,7,8,9)
This unit includes most of the wooded part of the eastern side of the valley of the
River Itchen as it slopes steeply down to the river. Where meanders cut into the
valley side in two places, river cliffs are formed (11), while where the river flows
around spurs and along the relatively straight reach in the south, there are
accumulations of alluvium, forming a narrow flood-plain (5, 13). In the south of the
unit, a flush line emerges at the base of the valley slope (4). At the top of the valley
slope along the length of the eastern part of the unit, the terrain flattens to form the
relatively level plateau of High Hill.
Recreational access is restricted to the plateau area, the valley slope being fenced. A
broad ride that runs from south to north (16) is used for cycling, and at the time of
survey was largely devoid of vegetation.
The whole unit is on an ancient woodland site, but little semi-natural woodland
remains. The majority of the unit has been planted with conifers, Tsuga heterophylla
to the north (8) and Pseudotsuga menziesii to the south (6). Young Fraxinus excelsior
trees are present throughout much of the planted area. The narrow floodplain strip
has been planted with Populus sp (5, 13). The conifer plantations are an
impoverished variant of W10a woodland with a poor ground flora under the heavy
shade, dominated by Hyacinthoides non-scriptus. The flood-plain woodlands are
largely W6a, with W8c in the north (14).
Surviving stands of semi-natural woodland include a small area of Quercus robur and
Corylus avellana woodland W10a in the south-east corner (2), Fraxinus excelsior,
Corylus avellana
and Acer campestre woodland W8a with a moderately rich ground
flora in the south-west corner (1) with locally abundant Allium ursinum, and W7a
Alnus glutinosa woodland along the flush line in the south-west (3 & 4). There is a
small strip of Fraxinus excelsior woodland W8a at the base of the valley slope at 12.
There is evidence of badger activity at several places on the slope, with a large sett on
the northernmost spur. There is a large Quercus robur pollard at 15.

Management

This compartment would benefit from gradual, partial clearance of alien conifers, and
allowing natural regeneration of a native woodland canopy. There has been some
recent thinning of conifers in the eastern part. Planting is unlikely to be necessary
given the amount of young Fraxinus excelsior.
Unit 2. Vocus Copse (3,4,5).
Vocus Copse includes a small length of river valley slope with a river cliff where the
meander cuts into it (1). The northern part of the unit is a more gentle north-facing
slope down to the river floodplain, gradually levelling out to the south onto the
plateau of High Hill. Flushes emerge at the base of the slope at 6, and a watercourse
flows through the western part of the unit from 12.
There is recreational access to most of the unit apart from the north-western corner
which is fenced. The cycle track that bisects Unit 1 continues through this unit,
ending in the east. It is largely devoid of vegetation.
Although the whole of the unit is ancient woodland, the majority has been felled and
replanted with conifers. The major planted tree is Tsuga heterophylla, with Thuja
plicata
in the east. Young trees of Fraxinus excelsior are frequent throughout much
of the planted area apart from where the canopy is densest in the centre of the north
(5). The ground flora under the conifers is species-poor, dominated by Rubus
fruticosus
and Hyacinthoides non-scripta, and this woodland is generally referable to
a species-poor variant of W10a, although there are small patches that approach W8.
Along the southern edge of the plantation (4) is an area that has remained unplanted
with conifers, the canopy consisting largely of young Fraxinus excelsior with some
coppiced Corylus avellana and Acer campestre. The low bank along the southern
margin has larger stools of Fraxinus excelsior and Acer campestre. The ground flora
here is moderately species-rich with occasional Polygonatum multiflorum.
The southern extension of the wood (11) is thought not to be ancient. This is also
largely W8a dominated by young Fraxinus excelsior which may have been thinned
recently, with abundant Rubus fruticosus. The small stream that rises here and flows
northwards (12) has wetter W8c, with much Carex remota, Carex sylvatica and Carex
strigosa
. Along the eastern edge (13) is a strip of scrubby Corylus avellana, Salix
cinerea
and Fraxinus excelsior between the woodbank and the fence that marks the
edge of the unit. The eastwards extension of the wood (8) in the north-east has been
recently cleared or coppiced, with dense and impenetrable regrowth of Salix cinerea,
Betula pubescens, Corylus avellana
and Fraxinus excelsior within a matrix of Rubus
fruticosus
. There is a belt of Thuja plicata and Fraxinus excelsior along the north (9)
and a belt of Pinus nigra and Thuja plicata along the south (10).
The flush line that emerges at the base of the slope in the north of the unit (6) has a
narrow strip of wet W7c woodland. This has a species-rich ground flora under an
open canopy of young Fraxinus excelsior and Alnus glutinosa.
Management
The eastwards extension has been coppiced in recent years, and there has been some
canopy thinning in the south-east. The coppicing creates ideal conditions for breeding
birds for several years after management. The belts of semi-natural woodland along
the north and south of the main part of the unit are managed by non-intervention. The
unit would benefit from gradual, partial clearance of alien conifers, allowing natural
regeneration of a native woodland canopy. Planting is unlikely to be necessary.
Unit 3. Milkmead Copse (part of 2).
This unit is situated in the north-east of the site, sloping gently down to the north-east.
The land is slightly undulating, giving a range of more or less inundated conditions
and consequent variation in the vegetation. While there are no major watercourses,
there is a broad, shallow valley running northwards across the centre of the unit (12),
and numerous drainage ditches, especially in the north. Public access is largely
restricted to the broad ride that runs in a semi-circle from the south-west corner to the
south-east corner (17).
The water table is close to the surface over much of the unit. In the north and centre
(10 & 11), it is sufficiently wet for Alnus glutinosa to form a significant if subsidiary
element of the canopy in stands of W7c with Fraxinus excelsior. Much of this has
been coppiced recently, with dense young regrowth, although there is a broad belt
along the north of the unit which has not been recently cut (11). The ground flora
here is species-rich but contains relatively few species normally considered indicative
of permanently wet conditions. The W7c grades into W8c (1, 15, 18), presumably
where slightly drier, although there are still wet drainage ditches in many places. This
typically has a canopy of young or old coppice Fraxinus excelsior, with a shrub layer
of Salix cinerea, Fraxinus excelsior saplings, Corylus avellana, Crataegus monogyna,
Prunus spinosa and locally Malus sylvestris. Where coppiced recently, the shrub
regrowth is dense. The ground flora in the north-east (18) is particularly species-rich,
although much less so in the west (1).
The shallow valley that bisects the southern part of the unit (7, 8, 12) had standing
water at the time of survey, with a stand of W7b woodland and a smaller area of W7c.
This is dominated by old coppice of Alnus glutinosa and large trees of Salix cinerea,
and a ground flora dominated by Carex remota and Poa trivialis.
Slightly raised ground in the centre of the unit (9) is drier, and has a stand of W8a.
This is dominated by old coppice of Fraxinus excelsior with occasional Acer
campestre
and Malus sylvestris but a very sparse shrub layer. The ground flora here
is particularly species-rich.
W10a is the major woodland type on slightly higher ground, probably where there are
deposits of better-drained, less base-rich gravels. In the south-east of the unit (21) this
has been recently coppiced, with dense regrowth of Salix cinerea and Corylus
avellana
in an impenetrable matrix of Rubus fruticosus and Pteridium aquilinum, with
abundant Hyacinthoides non-scriptus. There are areas of older coppiced W10a to the
west of this (16, 19), dominated by Corylus avellana, Ilex aquifolium and Betula
pubescens
. In the centre of the south of the unit (13, 14) is an area of W10a on
noticeably higher and drier ground than the rest of the unit. This is surrounded by a
dead hedge, and has been recently coppiced and cleared, although there are relatively
few coppice stools. This coup has several mature Quercus robur standards and single
trees of Prunus avium and Acer campestre. Part of the area was coppiced several
years ago, with considerable regrowth of Corylus avellana and Prunus spinosa.
Pteridium aquilinum, Anemone nemorosa and Hyacinthoides non-scripta are
abundant.
In the south-west corner of the unit are the partly restored remains of a Scotch brick
kiln, constructed in the mid-19th century. A substantial area surrounding this was
probably used for storing brick clay, and this has left a small, hummocky hill which
has been subsequently colonised by scrubby W10a woodland of Crataegus
monogyna, Betula pubescens, Quercus robur
and Prunus spinosa with a species-poor
ground flora.
Management

Much of this unit has been coppiced in recent years, one coup having been cut in
2007/8. Coppice regrowth has been good, with a range of stand ages and conditions.
The dense regrowth is ideal for many species of breeding birds. Some areas including
a broad belt along the northern edge and the very wet strip of W7b in the centre are
managed by non-intervention. The ride that bisects the compartment is regularly cut
for the maintenance of grassland and ride-side vegetation. Current management
appears ideal for the maintenance of this unit.
Unit 4. High Hill Row (part of 2).
This small triangular unit is separated from the adjacent Milkmead Copse by an open
ride forming part of Unit 5. It is situated on the gentle north-facing slope of High
Hill, and is bisected by a shallow valley. The whole compartment has been mapped
as ancient woodland, and there has been no replanting with alien species.
Most of the woodland has been coppiced recently, probably in 2006/7, the central part
longer ago. The coppiced area has been enclosed by a dead hedge. Coppice regrowth
throughout the unit has been good.
Woodland on the lower slopes on either side of the valley (1, 3) is W10a, although
there are small patches that approach W8. There are scattered Quercus robur
standards, with coppiced Corylus avellana, Fraxinus excelsior and Betula pubescens.
The ground flora is moderately species-rich, with abundant Hyacinthoides non-
scripta, Digitalis purpurea
and Cirsium palustre. Further south on the upper slopes,
the woodland is W8a (5, 6). Standard trees are Fraxinus excelsior, with coppiced
Fraxinus excelsior, Salix cinerea, Prunus spinosa and Corylus avellana. There is a
single large Malus sylvestris and a large clump of Ruscus aculeatus. The ground flora
here is species-rich
The wetter ground in the centre of the unit (2) has W8c. To the north this has been
coppiced in the past year, while to the south it was coppiced several years ago with
15m tall regrowth of Fraxinus excelsior and Salix cinerea. The species-rich ground
flora has several species typical of wet areas including Filipendula ulmaria,
Hypericum tetrapterum
and Carex pendula.

The southernmost extremity of the unit (7) has not been recently coppiced. The
woodland to the west (8) of the woodbank is outside the unit. It appears to be
secondary W8c dominated by Fraxinus excelsior, Crataegus monogyna and Prunus
spinosa
. There is a fringe of dense Prunus spinosa along the western margin of the
wood (9).
Management
Much of this unit has been coppiced, the majority in 2006/7. A small area in the
centre of the compartment was uncoppiced due to lack of time. Coppice regrowth has
been good, and has remained very open in contrast to some other units. Current
management appears ideal for the maintenance of this unit.
Unit 5. Hogwood Lane (part of 2).
This unit consists of the former drove road leading south from Willow Farm and
branching to the west between Milkmead Copse, Paynes Row and High Hill Row and
also to the east. All the woodland in the unit is secondary.
Much of the unit is a broad ride, widest at the eastern end (7) where Salix cinerea
scrub has been recently cleared. The vegetation is essentially M23a, but this was not
surveyed in detail.
The course of the old road in the northern branch of the unit is marked by low parallel
banks, with a further higher bank marking the boundary between Unit 5 and Unit 3 to
the west. The northern extremity is species-poor W8c, grading into W10a
southwards, dominated by Fraxinus excelsior with older Quercus robur on the banks
(2, 3, 4). In the south-west of the northern branch is a large clearing dominated by
Pteridium aquilinum. Woodland in the south-eastern corner is largely W8c, some of
which has been recently coppiced/cleared with dense regeneration of Salix cinerea,
Prunus spinosa, Rosa canina
and Rubus fruticosus.
To the south of the old road to the west is a dense fringe of dry W1 scrub dominated
by Salix cinerea, Prunus spinosa and Rubus fruticosus. Some of this has been cleared
recently. To the north is a fringe of Rosa canina, Salix cinerea and Pteridium
aquilinum
, grading into secondary W10a (8), dominated by Betula pubescens,
Fraxinus excelsior
and Corylus avellana with Hedera helix, Lonicera periclymenum
and Rubus fruticosus.
Management
Much of this compartment consists of a broad ride which is maintained by regular
cutting. There is also an area of dense post-coppice regrowth. Coppicing could be
introduced to the northern part of the unit, where the secondary woodland appears
unmanaged at present. Additional ride-edge coppicing could be carried out to
diversify scrub structure.
Unit 6. Hogwood Copse (part of 2).
This unit consists of a narrow strip of ancient woodland in the extreme north-eastern
corner of the Country Park. It is in the floodplain of a small stream that flows south
along the eastern edge of the unit, and the lowest-lying, southern part of the unit
floods regularly after heavy rainfall.
The whole unit is dominated by mixed-age Fraxinus excelsior, although none of the
trees appears to be older than c150 years. Quercus robur is also frequent as a canopy
tree. The shrub layer is a mixture of Corylus avellana, Ilex aquifolia and large
Crataegus monogyna. There appears to have been no recent coppicing. The ground
flora in the south is dominated by Allium ursinum almost to the exclusion of other
species. This becomes gradually more varied to the north. Along the eastern edge
Urtica dioica and Anthriscus sylvestris become frequent. There is a single clump of
Ruscus aculeatus near the northern edge of the unit. The whole unit is W8c apart
from near the west where drier where it is closer to W8a (3).
Management
Relatively little management is carried out in this small compartment. It is
nevertheless in good condition, and the only suggested modification might be to
reduce the numbers of small Fraxinus excelsior trees to open the canopy.


Unit 7. Payne's Row (part of 2).

This unit is divided into two by a broad ride running north to south (6). The
vegetation of this ride is largely M23a, but was not surveyed in detail. This is the
major public access to the unit. The whole woodland is ancient, and there has been no
obvious planting of alien species, although some Corylus avellana has been planted.
The area to the west of the track has all been coppiced recently (1, 2), with the
exception of the western edge. It is surrounded by a dead hedge and is further divided
by another dead hedge into two coups. The majority of this part of the woodland on
the well-drained upper slopes is W10a. The major canopy tree is Quercus robur,
although these are widely scattered, and there are a few large Crataegus monogyna,
Prunus avium and a single large Malus sylvestris (3). The major coppice species is
Corylus avellana with Prunus spinosa and some large Fraxinus excelsior stools.
Rubus fruticosus is abundant, and the ground flora is relatively species-poor although
typical of W10a. In the north-eastern corner of this coppiced area where the ground is
more low-lying and wetter, the woodland is W8c. The major canopy tree here is
Fraxinus excelsior, with coppiced Fraxinus excelsior and Corylus avellana. Rubus
fruticosus
forms a dense cover over a relatively species-rich ground flora with
abundant Anemone nemorosa. There is a narrow belt of W1 along the northern edge.
To the east of the ride (7, 9) there has been no recent coppicing. The major
community is W1, but this is variable, with wetness increasing to the east towards the
stream that runs along the edge, while to the west it grades into an intermediate with
W10a. Salix cinerea is dominant throughout, with Quercus robur, Corylus avellana
and Betula pubescens where drier, and Fraxinus excelsior where wetter. In the centre
of this part of the wood is a large pond surrounded by a raised bank (8).
Management
The entire western half of this unit has been coppiced recently, the westernmost coupe
in 2005/6 and the central part in 2004/5. Regrowth has been good. The eastern half
has not been coppiced recently, and consideration should be given to including this in
the coppice rotation.
Unit 8. Sunnyhill's Copse (part of 2).
This unit is situated on the east-facing slope of High Hill. The track that bisects Unit
7 continues into this unit (10), dividing it into unequal halves. The majority of the
unit is mapped as not ancient apart from the north-eastern corner; the south western
corner however has the greatest resemblance to ancient woodland of any part of this
unit.
To the east of the ride the woodland has not been coppiced recently. The majority of
this is W8c. In the north (11) tall Quercus robur standards dominate over a shrub
layer of Corylus avellana and Fraxinus excelsior with Prunus spinosa and Crataegus
monogyna
. Here, the ground flora is extremely sparse. Further south (8) the
woodland is more obviously secondary, with dense young Fraxinus excelsior and
occasional Quercus robur with a shrub layer of Prunus spinosa, Prunus domestica
(possibly suggesting nearby habitation in the past), Crataegus monogyna and Rubus
fruticosus
. The ground flora here is species-poor.
The eastern edge of the compartment is formed by a small stream, and in two places
here, Salix cinerea becomes dominant in W1 woodland over very wet ground (7).
A large part of the woodland to the west of the track has been coppiced recently.
Regrowth has been very vigourous, forming a dense impenetrable cover with Rubus
fruticosus
abundant throughout. In the north-west (14), the water table is evidently
high, and the woodland is is W8c, with few standard trees, but abundant Salix cinerea,
Corylus avellana and Rubus fruticosus over Carex pendula, Juncus effusus and
Deschampsia cespitosa. To the east of this where drier is a stand of W10a (13),
where Quercus robur forms an open canopy over coppiced Corylus avellana; there is
very little ground flora here. The southern part of this coppiced area (5) is W10c,
with occasional standards of Quercus robur and Fraxinus excelsior over regrowth of
Salix cinerea, Fraxinus excelsior and Betula pubescens with dense Rubus fruticosus
and locally Ulex europaeus. Between the northern and southern coppices is an area of
uncoppiced woodland of Quercus robur standards over Corylus avellana (9). The
ground flora here is generally poor, but there is a small patch of W8a.
Along the western edge of the unit on the upper slopes, and separated from the
coppiced areas by a flush line, is a belt of uncoppiced woodland (1, 3). This is W8c.
To the north this is dominated by young Fraxinus excelsior with Salix cinerea,
Prunus avium
and abundant Rubus fruticosus. Further south is a stand of old Corylus
avellana
coppice with a species-rich ground flora with abundant Melica uniflora,
Polygonatum multiflorum
and Hyacinthoides non-scripta.
Management
Much of this unit was coppiced in 2003/2004. Regrowth has been good, and there is
dense cover over much of the area that provides good habitat for a wide range of
breeding birds. A screen of uncoppiced woodland has been left along the east and
west, with a strip across the centre.
Unit 9. High Wood (12,14,15).
This is the largest woodland unit in the Country Park. Much of the western part of the
unit is used for car-parking and there is heavy recreational use, including a "play
trail". Much of the north-eastern part of the unit is a reservoir.
The western half of the unit is mapped as ancient woodland, while the eastern half is
mapped as non-ancient. The ancient and non-ancient parts could not be distinguished
in the field. The whole unit has been replanted with conifers, and there is little semi-
natural woodland cover present.
Much of the woodland is remarkably uniform W10c. Probably 80% of the area is
dominated by Pinus nigra, with a small area in the south-eastern corner dominated by
Thuja plicata (16). Betula pubescens, Fraxinus excelsior and Corylus avellana are
scattered throughout. There are a few trees of Malus sylvestris in the south-west.
Small areas in the north-west are dominated by Pinus sylvestris, Pseudotsuga
menziesii
and Fraxinus excelsior. The ground flora is species-poor with abundant
Rubus fruticosus, Lonicera periclymenum and Hedera helix.
The banks surrounding the reservoir have been planted with trees (6, 7, 12). These
form a dense thicket of Fraxinus excelsior, Thuja plicata, Pinus nigra and locally
Salix capraea and Quercus robur. The track that runs along the top of the reservoir
bank (11) is open, with grassland resembling U4b. There are cleared areas of bank to
the south of the reservoir (13), with W23 Ulex europaeus scrub and open ruderal
vegetation. The broad rides in the west have vegetation resembling M23a, but this
was not surveyed in detail.
Management

There has been recent thinning of trees in the west of this unit creating a more open
canopy. This should be extended to the rest of the unit with the eventual aim of
removing many of the conifers and allowing natural regeneration of a semi-natural
woodland cover. Retention of some conifers is desirable to increase habitat diversity
and for public amenity. Some of the dense cover on the south bank of the reservoir
has been cleared recently, and the resulting glades will probably be of benefit to
invertebrates. Further areas could be cleared. The clearance of bays in the major
rides would also be valuable for invertebrates.
Sewell's Copse (13).

This unit is the southern extension of High Wood, adjacent to the housing alongside
Allington Lane. It is bisected by a footpath, and another footpath passes through the
north of the unit. The central, western part is mapped as ancient, but the rest of the
woodland as non-ancient. Small streams drain from the western part of the unit, and
another small stream flows from the eastern part.
The drier woodland in the eastern part of the unit (1) is species-poor W10c similar to
that in unit 9 to the north with dominant Pinus sylvestris, Thuja plicata and Fraxinus
excelsior
. Along the southern edge is a small area of Salix cinerea and Fraxinus
excelsior
dominated W1 with standing water at the time of survey.
Drier slopes in the north (11, 12) and south (7) of the western part of the unit have
typical W10a. Quercus robur and Fraxinus excelsior are dominant canopy trees with
a sparse shrub layer and a relatively species-rich ground flora dominated by Rubus
fruticosus
and Lonicera periclymenum. Parts of the south-facing slope (11) are
particularly good with large patches of Anemone nemorosa and some large Malus
sylvestris
(10). Lower-lying ground (6) has a more unusual W10a with a canopy
including young Fraxinus excelsior, a shrub layer of Corylus avellana and Crataegus
monogyna, and abundant Carex pendula and Fraxinus excelsior seedlings in the
ground flora. Some areas of this approach W8, and ALnus glutinosa is present along
the main stream (9).
Management
There has been relatively little management in this unit recently. The species-rich
woodland in the west remains in good condition however. The conifer-dominated
woodland to the east should be returned to semi-natural woodland if possible by
gradual removal of conifers and natural regeneration of broad-leaved tree cover.
There has been recent rubbish dumping and encroachment from adjacent properties
next to the fence in the east, and this should be discouraged.
References
Rodwell J. (1990). British Plant Communities, 1, Woodlands and Scrub. Cambridge
University Press. Rowe J. (1996). Surveys of Itchen Valley Country Park woodlands. Hampshire Biodiversity Information Centre, Eastleigh. Wilson PJ & Bealey C. (2007). A Phase II Survey of the Itchen Valley Country Park SSSI. Report to Hampshire Biodiversity Information Centre, Eastleigh.

Acknowledgements

Thanks are due to David Payne, Itchen Valley Country Park site manager, Sarah
Callegari and Cressida Wheelwright of Hampshire Biodiversity Information Centre.
Thanks are also due to Peter Morton for permitting access to Hogwood Copse.
Appendix 1

Target Notes

Unit 1 River Copse

1
Good quality W8, open Fraxinus excelsior canopy with coppiced Acer campestre and Corylus avellana. Ground flora has dense Hyacinthoides non-scriptus and Allium ursinum. 2 W10a, Quercus robur canopy with some Fraxinus excelsior and Corylus avellana. Hyacinthoides non-scripta dominant under underscrub of Pteridium aquilinum and Rubus fruticosus. 3 Dry woodland with Alnus glutinosa. Flush system along the base of the slope with iron oxide-rich springs. W7b Small patches of W6a flood-plain woodland on the insides of meanders. Planted with Populus sp. Shrub layer largely Salix cinerea and Cornus sanguinea. Species-poor ground flora with Carex riparia and Urtica dioica. 6 W10a woodland largely planted with Pseudotsuga menziesii. Scattered Fraxinus excelsior and Salix capraea. Hyacinthoides non-scripta abundant. 7 Dense belt of Rubus fruticosus along ride edge. W10a woodland largely planted with Tsuga heterophylla. Hyacinthoides non- scripta abundant. 9 Low bank and ditch along the eastern boundary with a few larger Quercus robur. 10 Malus sylvestris on bank. Eroding river cliff. Band of W8 along lower slopes. Allium ursinum dominant at the southern end. POlygonatum multiflorum at the north. 14 Flood-scoured W8c woodland in flood-plain. Large Quercus robur pollard. Broad, fenced ride used for cycling. Very muddy, little vegetation. Unit 2. Vocus Copse.
1.
Large Fraxinus excelsior stool. Tsuga heterophylla plantation with some young Fraxinus excelsior. W10a, species-poor ground layer dominated by Rubus fruticosus and Hyacinthoides non-scripta. 4. Broad strip of W8a along the southern side of the plantation. Probably all clear-felled, but with regenerated Fraxinus excelsior, a few older trees and some Corylus avellana and Acer campestre coppice. 5. Denser Tsuga heterophylla plantation with much less young Fraxinus excelsior than in 3. Very sparse ground flora. 6. Narrow strip of W7c in floodplain. Species-rich ground flora under a canopy of young Fraxinus excelsior and Alnus glutinosa. 7. Thuja plicata plantation. Cleared or coppiced W8c. Dense impenetrable regeneration of Salix cinerea and Rubus fruticosus. Allium ursinum abundant in patches to the south-west. 9. Belt of Thuja plicata and Fraxinus excelsior. Belt of Thuja plicata and Pinus nigra. Woodland of young Fraxinus excelsior, possibly recently thinned. Rubus fruticosus abundant. 12. Wet W8c woodland along the valley of a small stream. Carex strigosa Scrubby secondary W8 between bank and fence. Corylus avellana, Salix cinerea and Fraxinus excelsior abundant. Rubus fruticosus, Salix cinerea and Prunus
spinosa
along the edge of the field.
Unit 3.
Milkmead Copse
Recently coppiced W8c, Fraxinus excelsior and Salix cinerea dominant, species-poor ground flora. 2. Bank and fence along the western margin of the unit. Strip of dry woodland including Acer campestre along the western margin. Scrubby young Corylus avellana and Fraxinus excelsior. Allium ursinum locally present. 5. Undulating, raised area. Probably clay intended for 19th century brickmaking. Species-poor, scrubby Crataegus monogyna, Betula pubescens, Quercus robur and Prunus spinosa. 6. 19th century brick kiln. Very wet W7b Alnus glutinosa woodland along stream with Chrysosplenium oppositifolium and Carex strigosa. 8. Drier Alnus glutinosa woodland. Carex strigosa present. Drier W8a woodland, slightly raised above the level of the surrounding land. Recently coppiced Fraxinus excelsior with occasional Malus sylvestris and Acer campestre. Very species-rich ground flora. 10. Recently coppiced Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior. Variable density, generally species-rich. 11. Broad strip of dry Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior woodland along the northern edge of the unit. Not recently coppiced. 12. Very wet Alnus glutinosa and Salix cinerea woodland in a shallow valley. Dry W10a in an area slightly raised above the surrounding land. Cleared and coppiced in 2007/2008. Few coppice stools. Quercus robur is the most frequent standard tree, single Acer campestre and Prunus avium. Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Anemone nemorosa and Pteridium aquilinum abundant. Polygonatum multiflorum present. All dead-hedged. 14. Rather older coppice within the larger area described as 13. Coppiced Salix cinerea, Fraxinus excelsior and Corylus avellana. Not recently coppiced W10a. Betula pubescens dominant with Corylus avellana, Ilex aquifolium and Hyacinthoides non-scripta. 17. Open ride. Recently widened. Wet W8c woodland with ditches. Mid-aged coppiced W10a. Ground flora dominated by Hyacinthoides non- scriptus. 20. Mature, open scrub with very large Crataegus monogyna and Salix cinerea. Very species-poor ground flora. Large area of W10a, recently cleared/coppiced. Very dense and impenetrable regrowth of Salix cinerea, Corylus avellana and Rubus fruticosus with abundant
Pteridium aquilinum and Hyacinthoides non-scriptus.
Unit 4.
High Hill Row
W10a coppiced in 2006/7. Quercus robur standards with Corylus avellana Wet W8c woodland. Northern part coppiced 2006/7. Southern part coppiced several years ago, and with a good c15m tall regrowth of Fraxinus excelsior and Salix cinerea. 3. Good quality coppiced W10a with patches approaching W8c. Drier W8a on higher ground. A single large Malus sylvestris present. Dry W8a. Quercus robur and Fraxinus excelsior standards, coppiced Corylus avellana. 6. A large clump of Ruscus aculeatus. Uncoppiced woodland outside dead hedge. Betula pubescens, Corylus avellana and Hedera helix. Species-poor ground flora. 8. Outside dead hedge and unit boundary. Appears to be secondary woodland dominated by Fraxinus excelsior with Corylus avellana and Prunus spinosa. 9. Fringe of dense Prunus spinosa. Hogwood Lane
Wood-bank along the western edge of the compartment. W8c woodland grades into W10a southwards on drier soils. The woodland on the old track appears secondary. 3. Low bank and ditch along the western side of the old track. W10a, Quercus robur dominant. Open area dominated by Pteridium aquilinum. Recent coppicing or clearance with dense and impenetrable regrowth of Salix cinerea, Rubus fruticosus, Prunus spinosa, Corylus avellana and Rosa canina. Probably W8c. 7. Cleared open ride. W10a woodland dominated by Betula pubescens, Fraxinus excelsior and Corylus avellana with dense underscrub of Rubus fruticosus and Lonicera periclymenum. 9. Open ride with M23a. Margins of the ride have dense Salix cinerea, Prunus spinosa, Rubus fruticosus and Rosa canina. 11. Open ride with M23a between coppiced areas. Hogwood Copse
Fraxinus excelsior canopy, ground flora dominated by continuous Allium ursinum. This area floods after high rainfall. 2. Seasonally wet ditch, occasional Alnus glutinosa. Drier woodland, Quercus robur frequent, Hyacinthoides non-scripta locally Deeply-cut stream, Urtica dioica and Anthriscus sylvestris near woodland Drier woodland with a more varied ground flora. Single clump of Ruscus aculeatus. Payne's Row
Recently coppiced, the whole area surrounded by a dead hedge. W8c on lowest ground to the north, grading into W10a on the better-drained slope to the south. Scattered standards of Quercus robur with young Fraxinus excelsior and Crataegus monogyna. Coppice dominated by Corylus avellana with Prunus spinosa and Salix cinerea in W8c. Rubus fruticosus is dense, and the ground flora sparse. 2. Well-grown Corylus avellana coppice regeneration. Divided from the coup to the east by a dead hedge. 3. Large Malus sylvestris. Bank along southern edge of the unit. Uncoppiced strip along the western edge of the unit. Broad open ride. M23a dominated by Agrostis capillaris. Dry woodland dominated by Salix cinerea, Quercus robur and Corylus avellana. 8. Large pond surrounded by a raised bank. Wet Salix cinerea-dominated W1 woodland. Sunnyhill's Copse.
Not recently coppiced. Young Fraxinus excelsior with Salix cinerea, Prunus avium and abundant Rubus fruticosus. 2. Bank along the western edge. Some large Acer campestre. Old Corylus avellana coppice. Rich ground flora with abundant Melica uniflora. 4. Flush line at the break of slope. Salix cinerea becomes abundant below this. Dense and impenetrable coppice regrowth. Rubus fruticosus dominant with Salix cinerea, Fraxinus excelsior and Betula pubescens. Occasional Quercus robur and Fraxinus excelsior standards. 6. Fringe of more open W10. Not recently coppiced. Very wet W1 near stream. Dense young Fraxinus excelsior with Prunus domestica and Rubus fruticosus. Looks secondary. 9. Open woodland of standard Quercus robur and not recently coppiced Corylus avellana. 10. Open ride with abundant Holcus lanatus, Juncus effusus and Carex pendula. Species-poor and shady W8c. Not recently coppiced. Tall Quercus robur standards with Corylus avellana and Fraxinus excelsior, Prunus spinosa and Crataegus monogyna. Very little ground flora. 12. Former pond. Now dense Carex riparia and Juncus effusus. Dry W10 woodland. Quercus robur standards with coppiced Corylus avellana. Abundant litter but very little ground flora. 14. Recently coppiced Salix cinerea and Corylus avellana, very dense regrowth with abundant Rubus fruticosus, Carex pendula, Juncus effusus and Deschampsia cespitosa. High Wood
Pseudotsuga menziesii plantation. Pinus sylvestris canopy with Quercus robur, Corylus avellana and Betula pubescens. 3. Tall Pinus nigra over spindly Corylus avellana and dense Rubus fruticosus underscrub. Poor ground flora. This area is used as a "play trail". 4. Car parking areas. Clump of Populus tremula. Outer face of the bank surrounding the reservoir has dense young Pinus nigra and Thuja plicata with Quercus robur and Salix capraea. 7. Dense young Pinus nigra. Belt of Salix capraea along the base of the bank. Glade with M23a including Carex pendula. Top of the bank has open grassland resembling U4b with abundant Agrostis capillaris, Festuca rubra, Hypochoeris radicata, Luzula campestris, Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus and Plantago lanceolata. 12. Species-poor W10. Thuja plicata and Pinus nigra dominant. Open W23 scrub dominated by Ulex europaeus with Salix cinerea and Rubus fruticosus. Recent clearance here. 14. Dry W1 with planted Quercus robur. Pinus nigra and Fraxinus excelsior dominant over dense low Rubus fruticosus. 16. Pinus nigra and Thuja plicata dominant over dense low Rubus fruticosus. Very low bank along the southern edge of the unit. Pinus nigra dominant over Corylus avellana and Betula pubescens. 4 Malus sylvestris beside the path. Broad, shady ride with M23a. Stone surfaced area at the western end of the ride. Several larger Quercus robur on bank. Cleared area of bank with open grassland and ruderal vegetation. Sewell's Copse
Species-poor plantation woodland continuous with that in Unit 9 to the north. Pinus sylvestris, Thuja plicata and Fraxinus excelsior dominant in the canopy. 2. Low bank runs along the northern edge of the compartment. Small area of very wet W1 woodland dominated by Salix cinerea and Fraxinus excelsior. 4. Rubbish dumped presumably from the adjacent housing. Row of planted Populus sp to the west of the path. W10a on unusually wet soil where water collects, approaching W8c locally. The canopy has mature Quercus robur with younger Fraxinus excelsior and a shrub layer of Corylus avellana and Crataegus monogyna. Carex pendula is abundant with much regenerating Fraxinus excelsior in the ground flora. 7. Dry W10a on well-drained slopes. Relatively species-rich, good-quality W10 on dry south-facing slope. Coppiced Alnus glutinosa along the stream. Very large coppiced Malus sylvestris. Frequent large stools of Corylus avellana, a few large Malus sylvestris, a single Acer campestre and large clumps of Anemone nemorosa. 12. Canopy dominated by young Fraxinus excelsior and Salix capraea. Appendix 2.
Index to photographs on CD
1
Unit 6 Hogwood Copse Unit 5 Hogwood Lane Unit 5 Hogwood Lane Unit 7 Paynes Row Unit 7 Paynes Row Unit 9 High Wood W10c/Pinus nigra Unit 9 High Wood Unit 9 High Wood Thuja/Pinus nigra Unit 10 Sewell's Copse Unit 10 Sewell's Copse Anemone nemorosa Unit 10 Sewell's Copse Unit 1 River Copse Unit 1 River Copse Unit 1 River Copse Unit 1 River Copse Unit 1 River Copse Unit 2 Vocus Copse Unit 2 Vocus Copse Unit 2 Vocus Copse Unit 2 Vocus Copse W8c coppice regeneration Unit 4 High Hill Row Unit 4 High Hill Row Unit 7 Sunnyhills Copse Dense coppice regrowth Unit 7 Sunnyhills Copse Dense coppice regrowth Unit 7 Sunnyhills Copse Unit 7 Paynes Row Unit 3 Milkmeads Copse Unit 3 Milkmeads Copse Species-rich W8c Unit 3 Milkmeads Copse Unit 3 Milkmeads Copse Unit 3 Milkmeads Copse W10a 2008 coppice Unit 3 Milkmeads Copse Unit 3 Milkmeads Copse Species-rich W8a Appendix 3.
Maps
Map 1.
Management units Ancient woodland Unit 1 River Copse Unit 2 Vocus Copse Unit 3 Milkmead Copse Unit 4 High Hill Row Unit 5 Hogwood Lane Unit 6 Hogwood Copse Unit 7 Payne's Row Unit 8 Sunnyhill's Copse Unit 9 High Wood Unit 10 Sewell's Copse Unit 1 River Copse Unit 2 Vocus Copse Unit 3 Milkmead Copse Unit 4 High Hill Row Unit 5 Hogwood Lane Unit 6 Hogwood Copse Unit 7 Payne's Row Unit 8 Sunnyhill's Copse Unit 9 High Wood Unit 10 Sewell's Copse Appendix 4.
Species lists for each unit.

Unit 1 River Copse
Canopy
Ground flora
Ground flora
Tsuga heterophylla Adoxa moschatellina Hypnum cupressiforme Quercus robur Agrostis stolonifera Iris pseudacorus Fraxinus excelsior Alliaria petiolata Isopterygium elegans Pinus sylvestris Betula pendula Anemone nemorosa Lonicera periclymenum Pseudotsuga menziesii Angelica sylvestris Lysimachia nemorum Alnus glutinosa Mercurialis perennis Acer campestre Atrichum undulatum Populus sp Brachypodium sylvaticum Brachythecium rivulare Oenanthe crocata Ilex aquifolium Brachythecium rutabulum Oxalis acetosella Sambucus nigra Corylus avellana POlygonatum multiflorum Lonicera periclymenum Primula vulgaris Crataegus monogyna Pteridium aquilinum Malus sylvestris Digitalis purpurea Ranunculus ficaria Cornus sanguinea Dryopteris dilatata Ranunculus repens Euonymus europaeus Dryopteris filix-mas Salix cinerea Euphorbia amygdaloides Hedera helix Eurhynchium praelongum Rubus fruticosus Rumex sanguineus Glechoma hederacea Hyacinthoides non-scriptus Veronica Montana
Unit 2. Vocus Copse.
Canopy
Ground flora
Ground flora
Tsuga heterophylla Adoxa moschatellina Glechoma hederacea Fraxinus excelsior Anemone nemorosa Betula pubescens Hyacinthoides non-scriptus Atrichum undulatum Brachypodium sylvaticum Brachythecium rutabulum Lonicera periclymenum CAlliergon cuspidatum Mercurialis perennis Carex acutiformis Oxalis acetosella Corylus avellana Lonicera periclymenum Crataegus monogyna POlygonatum multiflorum Circaea lutetiana Primula vulgaris Fraxinus excelsior Cirsium palustre Crataegus monogyna Ranunculus ficaria Deschampsia cespitosa Ranunculus repens Digitalis purpurea Rubus fruticosus Dryopteris dilatata Rumex sanguineus Dryopteris filix-mas Scriphularia nodosa Euphorbia amygdaloides Eurhynchium praelongum Eurhynchium striatum Veronica hederifolia Filipendula ulmaria Veronica Montana Geranium robertianum
Unit 3. Milkmead Copse.
Canopy
Ground flora
Ground flora
Fraxinus excelsior Hyacinthoides non-scriptus Betula pubescens Anemone nemorosa Lamiastrium galeobdolon Atrichum undulatum Brachypodium sylvaticum Lonicera periclymenum Brachythecium rivulare Lophocolea bidentata Shrub layer
Brachythecium rutabulum Cardamine flexuosa Mercurialis perennis Corylus avellana Carex acutiformis Lonicera periclymenum Crataegus monogyna Malus sylvestris POlygonatum multiflorum Cornus sanguinea POtentilla sterilis Circaea lutetiana Primula vulgaris Cirriphyllum piliferum Ranunculus ficaria Clematis vitalba Cirsium palustre Rubus fruticosus Deschampsia cespitosa Rumex sanguineus Digitalis purpurea Sanicula europaea Dryopteris filix-mas Scriphularia auriculata Euphorbia amygdaloides Eurhynchium praelongum Eurhynchium striatum Thamnobryum alopecurum Filipendula ulmaria Thuidium tamariscinum Fraxinus excelsior Veronica Montana Viola reichenbachiana Glechoma hederacea
Unit 4. High Hill Row
Canopy
Ground flora
Ground flora
Agrostis capillaris Heracleum sphondylium Fraxinus excelsior Betula pubescens Anemone nemorosa Hyacinthoides non-scriptus Hypericum tetrapterum Atrichum undulatum Hypochoeris radicata Betula pubescens Malus sylvestris Brachypodium sylvaticum Lonicera periclymenum Brachythecium rivulare Mercurialis perennis Shrub layer
Calliergon cuspidatum Cardamine hirsute Myosotis arvensis Corylus avellana Plagiomnium affine Lonicera periclymenum Betula pubescens POlygonatum multiflorum Crataegus monogyna Primula vulgaris Malus sylvestris Cirriphyllum piliferum Ranunculus ficaria Cornus sanguinea Cirsium palustre Ranunculus repens Dicranella varia Rubus fruticosus Digitalis purpurea Rumex sanguineus Dryopteris dilatata Clematis vitalba Euphorbia amygdaloides Scriphularia nodosa Fraxinus excelsior Eurhynchium praelongum Euonymus europaeus Eurhynchium striatum Stachys sylvatica Filipendula ulmaria Thuidium tamariscinum Veronica Montana Glechoma hederacea Viola reichenbachiana
Unit 5. Hogwood Lane
Canopy
Ground flora
Ground flora
Fraxinus excelsior Anemone nemorosa Hyacinthoides non-scriptus Shrub layer
Isopterygium elegans Atrichum undulatum Lamiastrium galeobdolon Corylus avellana Brachypodium sylvaticum Lonicera periclymenum Lonicera periclymenum Brachythecium rutabulum Crataegus monogyna Primula vulgaris Crataegus monogyna Pteridium aquilinum Deschampsia cespitosa Ranunculus repens Euphorbia amygdaloides Eurhynchium praelongum Rubus fruticosus Fraxinus excelsior Stellaria holostea Veronica Montana
Unit 6. Hogwood Copse
Canopy
Ground flora
Ground flora
Fraxinus excelsior Anemone nemorosa Lonicera periclymenum Anthriscus sylvestris Mercurialis perennis Shrub layer
Atrichum undulatum Corylus avellana Brachypodium sylvaticum PLagiomnium undulatum Crataegus monogyna Polytrichum formosum Deschampsia cespitosa Primula vulgaris Dryopteris filix-mas Ranunculus ficaria Euphorbia amygdaloides Rubus fruticosus Ground flora
Eurhynchium praelongum Ruscus aculeatus Geranium robertianaum Stachys sylvatica Stellaria holostea Glechoma hederacea Veronica Montana Hyacinthoides non-scriptus Unit 7. Paynes Row
Canopy
Ground flora
Ground flora
Fraxinus excelsior Agrostis capillaries Malus sylvestris Anemone nemorosa Hyacinthoides non-scriptus Hypericum pulchrum Shrub layer
Atrichum undulatum Brachythecium rivulare Lamiastrium galeobdolon Corylus avellana Brachythecium rutabulum Lonicera periclymenum Lophocolea bidentata Fraxinus excelsior Oenanthe crocata Circaea lutetiana POlygonatum multiflorum Cirsium palustre Polytrichum formosum Crataegus monogyna Primula vulgaris Deschampsia cespitosa Digitalis purpurea Dryopteris dilatata Rubus fruticosus Stachys officinalis Euphorbia amygdaloides Stellaria holostea Eurhynchium praelongum Thuidium tamariscinum Eurhynchium striatum Veronica Montana Veronica officinalis
Unit 8. Sunnyhills Copse
Canopy
Ground flora
Ground flora
Adoxa moschatellina Fraxinus excelsior Betula pubescens Hyacinthoides non-scriptus Angelica sylvestris Iris pseudacorus Atrichum undulatum Lonicera periclymenum Brachypodium sylvaticum Shrub layer
Brachythecium rutabulum Mercurialis perennis Corylus avellana Oenanthe crocata Lonicera periclymenum Crataegus monogyna Circaea lutetiana POlygonatum multiflorum Cirsium palustre Polystichum setiferum Cornus sanguinea Deschampsia cespitosa Polytrichum formosum Dryopteris dilatata Primula vulgaris Ranunculus ficaria Prunus domestica Eupatorium cannabinum Rubus fruticosus Euonymus europaeus Eurhynchium praelongum Rumex sanguineus Eurhynchium striatum Thuidium tamariscinum Filipendula ulmaria VAleriana officinalis Veronica Montana Unit 9. High Wood.
Canopy
Ground flora
Ground flora
Hyacinthoides non-scripta Fraxinus excelsior Brachythecium rutabulum Hypericum androsaemum Betula pubescens Lonicera periclymenum Circaea lutetiana Pinus sylvestris Deschampsia cespitosa Oxalis acetosella Digitalis purpurea Pseudotsuga menziesii Dryopteris dilatata Primula vulgaris Dryopteris filix-mas Pteridium aquilinum Shrub layer
Euphorbia amygdaloides Rubus fruticosus Eurhynchium praelongum Corylus avellana Scriphularia nodosa Lonicera periclymenum Betula pubescens Crataegus monogyna hispanicusXnon-scripta
Unit 10. Sewell's Copse
Canopy
Ground flora
Ground flora
Fraxinus excelsior Anemone nemorosa Betula pubescens Hyacinthoides non-scripta Brachypodium sylvaticum Brachythecium rutabulum Lonicera periclymenum Pinus sylvestris Oxalis acetosella Malus sylvestris Shrub layer
Crataegus monogyna Ranunculus ficaria Dryopteris dilatata Corylus avellana Eurhynchium praelongum Rubus fruticosus Crataegus monogyna Fraxinus excelsior Rumex sanguineus Sorbus aucuparia Appendix 5.
Plant species recorded in Itchen Valley Country Park woodlands in 2008. Species typical of long established woodlands in bold (n=34).
Acer campestre
Isopterygium elegans Adoxa moschatellina
Agrostis capillaries Lamiastrium galeobdolon
Allium ursinum
Lonicera periclymenum Lophocolea bidentata Anemone nemorosa
Luzula pilosa
Angelica sylvestris Malus sylvestris
Anthriscus sylvestris Melica uniflora
Mercurialis perennis Atrichum undulatum Milium effusum
Betula pubescens Myosotis arvensis Brachypodium sylvaticum Oenanthe crocata Brachythecium rivulare Orchis mascula
Brachythecium rutabulum Oxalis acetosella
Calliergon cuspidatum Cardamine hirsuta Pinus sylvestris Carex acutiformis Plagiomnium affine Carex pendula
PLagiomnium undulatum Carex remota
POlygonatum multiflorum
Carex strigosa
Polystichum setiferum
Carex sylvatica
Polytrichum formosum Chrysosplenium oppositifolium
Populus tremula
Circaea lutetiana POtentilla sterilis
Cirriphyllum piliferum Primula vulgaris Prunus avium
Cirsium palustre Prunus domestica Clematis vitalba Cornus sanguinea Pseudotsuga menziesii Corylus avellana Pteridium aquilinum Crataegus monogyna Deschampsia cespitosa Ranunculus ficaria Dicranella varia Ranunculus repens Digitalis purpurea Ribes nigrum
Dryopteris dilatata Ribes rubrum
Dryopteris filix-mas Rubus fruticosus Euonymus europaeus Eupatorium cannabinum Rumex sanguineus Euphorbia amygdaloides
Ruscus aculeatus
Eurhynchium praelongum Eurhynchium striatum Sanicula europaea
Filipendula ulmaria Scriphularia nodosa Fraxinus excelsior Sorbus aucuparia Stachys officinalis Geranium robertianaum Stachys sylvatica Geum rivale
Stellaria holostea Glechoma hederacea Thamnobryum alopecurum Thuidium tamariscinum Heracleum sphondylium Hyacinthoides hispanicusXnon-scripta Hyacinthoides non-scripta
VAleriana officinalis Hypericum androsaemum
Veronica Montana
Hypericum pulchrum
Veronica officinalis Hypericum tetrapterum Viburnum opulus
Hypochoeris radicata Viola reichenbachiana
Ilex aquifolium
Iris pseudacorus Appendix 6.
Quadrat data. In all tables, canopy trees are listed first, then shrubs and finally ground flora. Grid reference all SU Canopy height (m) Alnus glutinosa Salix cinerea Corylus avellana Ribes rubrum Hedera helix Poa trivialis Glechoma hederacea Eurhynchium praelongum Mnium hornum Hedera helix Brachythecium rivulara Urtica dioica Oenanthe crocata Chrysosplenium oppositifolium Galium aparine Carex riparia Brachythecium rutabulum Fissidens sp Dryopteris dilatata Pteridium aquilinum Rubus fruticosus Carex remota Carex sylvatica Deschampsia cespitosa Rosa canina Ranunculus ficaria Carex strigosa Grid reference all SU Canopy height (m) Populus sp Crataegus monogyna Salix cinerea Cornus sanguinea Corylus avellana Urtica dioica Mercurialis perennis Arum maculatum Carex riparia Oenanthe crocata Glechoma hederacea Galium aparine Adoxa moschatellina Iris pseudacorus Rubus fruticosus Agrostis stolonifera Carex remota Ranunculus repens Angelica sylvestris Hedera helix Arctium sp Ranunculus ficaria Grid reference all SU Canopy height (m) Alnus glutinosa Fraxinus excelsior Thuja plicata Crataegus monogyna Prunus spinosa Corylus avellana Fraxinus excelsior Rubus fruticosus Rosa canina Lonicera periclymenum Anemone nemorosa Brachypodium sylvaticum Eurhynchium praelongum Galium aparine Geum urbanum Glechoma hederacea Arum maculatum Carex sylvatica Circaea lutetiana Crataegus monogyna Deschampsia cespitosa Hedera helix Hyacinthoides non-scriptus Lamiastrum galeobdolon Mnium hornum Poa trivialis Ranunculus ficaria Rumex sanguineus Cirsium palustre Holcus lanatus Juncus effusus Lophocolea bidentata Melica uniflora Mercurialis perennis Polygonum multiflorum Taraxacum sp Thamnobryum alopecurum Viola reichenbachiana Veronica montana Silene dioica Adoxa moschatellina Urtica dioica Primula vulgaris Geranium robertianum Prunus spinosa Brachythecium rutabulum Carex remota Atrichum undulatum Veronica hederifolia Carex strigosa Grid reference all SU Canopy height (m) Fraxinus excelsior Quercus robur Betula pubescens Prunus avium Salix cinerea Corylus avellana Crataegus monogyna Rosa canina Prunus spinosa Euonymus europaeus Fraxinus excelsior Betula pubescens Prunus domestica Rubus fruticosus Arum maculatum Eurhynchium praelongum Brachythecium rutabulum Carex sylvatica Deschampsia cespitosa Galium aparine Thuidium tamariscinum Ajuga reptans Anemone nemorosa Cirsium palustre Eurhynchium striatum Hedera helix Primula vulgaris Ranunculus ficaria Rumex sanguineus Veronica montana Atrichum undulatum Brachypodium sylvaticum Carex pendula Euphorbia amygdaloides Glechoma hederacea Hedera helix Hyacinthoides non-scripta Lonicera periclymenum Mercurialis perennis Polygonatum multiflorum Juncus effusus Agrostis capillaris Brachythecium rivulare Calliergon cuspidatum Circaea lutetiana Cirriphyllum piliferum Filipendula ulmaria Holcus lanatus Malus sylvestris plagiomnium affine Poa trivialis Silene dioica Thamnobryum alopecurum Viola reichenbachiana Viola riviniana Pulicaria dysenterica Salix cinerea Galium palustre Urtica dioica Eupatorium cannabinum Milium effusum Dryopteris filix-mas Lophocolea bidentata Polytrichum formosum Agrostis canina Grid reference all SU Canopy height (m) Fraxinus excelsior Quercus robur Acer campestre Malus sylvestris Corylus avellana Crataegus monogyna Acer campestre Salix capraea Rosa canina Fraxinus excelsior Salix cinerea Prunus spinosa Rubus fruticosus Anemone nemorosa Arum maculatum Eurhynchium praelongum Hyacinthoides non-scripta Hedera helix Poa trivialis Ranunculus ficaria Glechoma hederacea Mercurialis perennis Allium ursinum Brachypodium sylvaticum Galium aparine Geum urbanum Primula vulgaris Rubus fruticosus Veronica montana Silene dioica Eurhynchium striatum Carex sylvatica Circaea lutetiana Dryopteris filix-mas Prunus spinosa Stachys sylvatica Milium effusum Salix cinerea Taraxacum sp Cirsium palustre Scrophularia nodosa Betula pubescens Hypericum tetrapterum Galium palustre Viola reichenbachiana Lonicera periclymenum Polygonatum multiflorum Grid reference all SU Canopy height (m) Quercus robur Fraxinus excelsior Salix capraea Lonicera periclymenum Betula pendula Pseudotsuga menziesii Tsuga heterophylla Corylus avellana Crataegus monogyna Salix capraea Prunus spinosa Fraxinus excelsior Ilex aquifolium Betula pubescens Salix cinerea Sambucus nigra Hyacinthoides non-scriptus Rubus fruticosus Eurhynchium praelongum Hedera helix Milium effusum Lonicera periclymenum Anemone nemorosa Dryopteris dilatata Brachythecium rutabulum Pteridium aquilinum Carex sylvatica Holcus lanatus Crataegus monogyna Juncus effusus Galium aparine Fraxinus excelsior Digitalis purpurea Deschampsia cespitosa Polytrichum formosum Hypnum cupressiforme Agrostis canina Thuidium tamariscinum Epilobium sp Luzula pilosa Carex pendula Ranunculus ficaria Carex strigosa Carex remota Arum maculatum Brachypodium sylvaticum Prunus spinosa Rosa canina Polygonatum multiflorum Cirsium palustre Betula pubescens Hypochoeris radicata Poa trivialis Dicranella varia Silene dioica Dryopteris filix-mas Oxalis acetosella Grid reference all SU Quercus robur Pinus nigra Betula pubescens Fraxinus excelsior Thuja plicata Betula pendula Salix cinerea Corylus avellana Betula pendula Lonicera periclymenum Crataegus monogyna hedera helix Ilex aquifolia Ulex europaeus Rubus fruticosus Hedera helix Eurhynchium praelongum Deschampsia cespitosa Lonicera periclymenum Milium effusum Thuidium tamariscinum Brachythecium rutabulum Rubus fruticosus Eurhynchium striatum Fraxinus excelsior Carex pendula Ajuga reptans Geum urbanum Circaea lutetiana Cirsium palustre Carex sylvatica Atrichum undulatum Grid reference all SU Fraxinus excelsior Salix cinerea Corylus avellana Crataegus monogyna Rosa canina Carex sylvatica Hedera helix Arum maculatum Viburnum opulus Eurhynchium striatum Eurhynchium praelongum Rubus fruticosus Viola riviniana Lonicera periclymenum Deschampsia cespitosa Anemone nemorosa Brachythecium rivulare Stachys sylvatica Geum urbanum Galium palustre Dryopteris dilatata Thuidium tamariscinum Carex remota

Source: https://www.eastleigh.gov.uk/media/49896/IVCP-Woods-2008-Report.pdf

Pii: s0149-7634(98)00040-2

Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 23 (1999) 359±389 Neuropharmacology of brain-stimulation-evoked aggression Allan Siegela,*, Thomas A.P. Roelingb, Thomas R. Gregga, Menno R. Krukc aDepartment of Neurosciences, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, USA bDepartment of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nijmegen, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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Thursday, May 2, 2013 The Spring 2013 Medallion Ceremony at 10:30 a.m. Harriet L. Wilkes Honors College Florida Atlantic University The Lifelong Learning Society Auditorium Elinor Bernon Rosenthal Lifelong Learning Complex 5353 Parkside Drive Jupiter, Florida 33458 The Spring 2013 Commencement Ceremony at 5:00 p.m. Florida Atlantic University