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Supporting people with dementia and theircarers in health and social care Issued: November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42
guidance.nice.org.uk/cg42
NICE has accredited the process used by the Centre for Clinical Practice at NICE to produceguidelines. Accreditation is valid for 5 years from September 2009 and applies to guidelines producedsince April 2007 using the processes described in NICE's 'The guidelines manual' (2007, updated2009). More information on accreditation can be viewed at www.nice.org.uk/accreditation NICE clinical guideline 42 NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006


NICE clinical guideline 42 This NICE clinical guideline has been amended to incorporate (NICE technologyappraisal guidance 217), which published in March 2011. See sections 1.6.2, 1.6.3 and 1.7.2for the updated information. The rest of the guideline remains unchanged.
This guidance was produced in association with the Social Care Institute for Excellence.
Dementia is a progressive and largely irreversible clinical syndrome that is characterised by awidespread impairment of mental function. Although many people with dementia retain positivepersonality traits and personal attributes, as their condition progresses they can experiencesome or all of the following: memory loss, language impairment, disorientation, changes inpersonality, difficulties with activities of daily living, self-neglect, psychiatric symptoms (forexample, apathy, depression or psychosis) and out-of-character behaviour (for example,aggression, sleep disturbance or disinhibited sexual behaviour, although the latter is not typicallythe presenting feature of dementia).
Dementia is associated with complex needs and, especially in the later stages, high levels ofdependency and morbidity. These care needs often challenge the skills and capacity of carersand services. As the condition progresses, people with dementia can present carers and socialcare staff with complex problems including aggressive behaviour, restlessness and wandering,eating problems, incontinence, delusions and hallucinations, and mobility difficulties that can leadto falls and fractures. The impact of dementia on an individual may be compounded by personalcircumstances such as changes in financial status and accommodation, or bereavement.
This guideline makes specific recommendations on Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewybodies (DLB), frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia and mixed dementias, as well asrecommendations that apply to all types of dementia. Dementia in Parkinson's disease shares anumber of similarities with DLB. Although the evidence base for dementia in Parkinson's diseasewas not examined specifically in the context of this guideline, the recommendations for DLB maybe useful when considering treatments for dementia in Parkinson's disease.[] NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 This guideline makes recommendations for the identification, treatment and care of people withdementia and the support of carers. Settings relevant to these processes include primary andsecondary healthcare, and social care. Wherever possible and appropriate, agencies shouldwork in an integrated way to maximise the benefit for people with dementia and their carers.
[For other recommendations regarding the physical treatments for Parkinson's disease see theNICE clinical guideline on NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 This guideline offers best-practice advice on the care of people with dementia and on support fortheir carers. There is broad consensus that the principles of person-centred care underpin goodpractice in the field of dementia care and they are reflected in many of the recommendationsmade in the guideline. The principles assert: the human value of people with dementia, regardless of age or cognitive impairment, andthose who care for them the individuality of people with dementia, with their unique personality and life experiencesamong the influences on their response to the dementia the importance of the perspective of the person with dementia the importance of relationships and interactions with others to the person with dementia, andtheir potential for promoting well-being.
The fourth principle emphasises the imperative in dementia care to consider the needs of carers,whether family and friends or paid care-workers, and to consider ways of supporting andenhancing their input to the person with dementia. This is increasingly described as 'relationship-centred care'.
Capacity and dementia
Treatment and care should take into account patients' needs and preferences. People withdementia should have the opportunity to make informed decisions about their care andtreatment, in partnership with their healthcare professionals. If patients do not have the capacityto make decisions, healthcare professionals should follow the and the . In Wales,healthcare professionals should follow .
The views of people with dementia concerning who should and should not be involved in theircare are important and should be respected. With the permission of the person with dementia,carers and relatives should normally have the opportunity to be involved in decisions about careand treatment. If the person lacks the capacity to decide who should and should not be involved, NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 health and social care professionals must act in his or her best interests, bearing in mind theprovisions of the Mental Capacity Act 2005.
Health and social care staff should take account of the views of carers and relatives whodescribe behaviour that could be in keeping with dementia. This information, in conjunction withan assessment of the person concerned, will help with diagnosis and deciding on care. It will alsohelp in the estimation of the person's capacity to make decisions. People with dementia shouldcontinue to have the opportunity to make informed decisions about those aspects of their careand personal lives for which they retain capacity.
Good communication between care providers and people with dementia and their families andcarers is essential, so that people with dementia receive the information and support theyrequire. Evidence-based information should be offered in a form that is tailored to the needs ofthe individual. The treatment, care and information provided should be culturally appropriate andin a form that is accessible to people who have additional needs, such as physical, cognitive orsensory disabilities, or who do not speak or read English.
Carers and relatives should also be provided with the information and support they need, andcarers should be offered an assessment of their own needs.
[Kitwood TM (1997) Dementia Reconsidered: the Person Comes First. Buckingham: OpenUniversity Press; Brooker D (2004) What is person-centred care in dementia? Reviews in ClinicalGerontology 13: 215–22.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 Key priorities for implementation
People with dementia should not be excluded from any services because of their diagnosis,age (whether designated too young or too old) or coexisting learning disabilities.
Health and social care professionals should always seek valid consent from people withdementia. This should entail informing the person of options, and checking that he or sheunderstands, that there is no coercion and that he or she continues to consent over time. Ifthe person lacks the capacity to make a decision, the provisions of the Mental Capacity Act2005 must be followed.
Health and social care managers should ensure that the rights of carers to receive anassessment of needs, as set out in the Carers and Disabled Children Act 2000 and theCarers (Equal Opportunities) Act 2004, are upheld.
Carers of people with dementia who experience psychological distress and negativepsychological impact should be offered psychological therapy, including cognitivebehavioural therapy, conducted by a specialist practitioner.
Coordination and integration of health and social care
Health and social care managers should coordinate and integrate working across allagencies involved in the treatment and care of people with dementia and their carers,including jointly agreeing written policies and procedures. Joint planning should include localservice users and carers in order to highlight and address problems specific to each locality.
Care managers and care coordinators should ensure the coordinated delivery of health andsocial care services for people with dementia. This should involve: a combined care plan agreed by health and social services that takes into account thechanging needs of the person with dementia and his or her carers assignment of named health and/or social care staff to operate the care plan NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 endorsement of the care plan by the person with dementia and/or carers formal reviews of the care plan, at a frequency agreed between professionals involvedand the person with dementia and/or carers and recorded in the notes.
Memory assessment services (which may be provided by a memory assessment clinic or bycommunity mental health teams) should be the single point of referral for all people with apossible diagnosis of dementia.
Structural imaging for diagnosis
Structural imaging should be used in the assessment of people with suspected dementia toexclude other cerebral pathologies and to help establish the subtype diagnosis. Magneticresonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred modality to assist with early diagnosis and detectsubcortical vascular changes, although computed tomography (CT) scanning could be used.
Imaging may not always be needed in those presenting with moderate to severe dementia, ifthe diagnosis is already clear. Specialist advice should be taken when interpreting scans inpeople with learning disabilities.
Behaviour that challenges
People with dementia who develop non-cognitive symptoms that cause them significantdistress or who develop behaviour that challenges should be offered an assessment at anearly opportunity to establish the likely factors that may generate, aggravate or improve suchbehaviour. The assessment should be comprehensive and include: the person's physical health possible undetected pain or discomfort side effects of medication individual biography, including religious beliefs and spiritual and cultural identity psychosocial factors NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 physical environmental factors behavioural and functional analysis conducted by professionals with specific skills, inconjunction with carers and care workers.
Individually tailored care plans that help carers and staff address the behaviour thatchallenges should be developed, recorded in the notes and reviewed regularly. Thefrequency of the review should be agreed by the carers and staff involved and writtenin the notes.
Health and social care managers should ensure that all staff working with older people in thehealth, social care and voluntary sectors have access to dementia-care training (skilldevelopment) that is consistent with their roles and responsibilities.
Mental health needs in acute hospitals
Acute and general hospital trusts should plan and provide services that address the specificpersonal and social care needs and the mental and physical health of people with dementiawho use acute hospital facilities for any reason.
[Time periods for review of care plans are stipulated by Care Programme Approach guidance.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 1 Guidance
The following guidance is based on the best available evidence for the treatment and care ofpeople with dementia. However, there are limitations to the current evidence base. There arelimited data on the differential responses of individuals to specific treatments, on the long-termbenefits of both pharmacological and psychological interventions, and on quality of life and socialfunctioning for all interventions. The gives details of the methods and the evidenceused to develop the guidance (see section 5 for details).
The guideline makes evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis of dementia, and thetreatment and care of people with the condition. These approaches include psychological,pharmacological, service-level and self-help interventions.
1.1 Principles of care for people with dementia
1.1.1 Diversity, equality and language
1.1.1.1 People with dementia should not be excluded from any services because of their diagnosis, age (whether designated too young or too old) or coexistinglearning disabilities.
1.1.1.2 Health and social care staff should treat people with dementia and their carers with respect at all times.
1.1.1.3 Heath and social care staff should identify the specific needs of people with dementia and their carers arising from diversity, including gender, ethnicity, age(younger or older), religion and personal care. Care plans should record andaddress these needs.
1.1.1.4 Health and social care staff should identify the specific needs of people with dementia and their carers arising from ill health, physical disability, sensoryimpairment, communication difficulties, problems with nutrition, poor oral healthand learning disabilities. Care plans should record and address these needs.
1.1.1.5 Health and social care staff, especially in residential settings, should identify and, wherever possible, accommodate the preferences of people with NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 dementia and their carers, including diet, sexuality and religion. Care plansshould record and address these preferences.
1.1.1.6 People who are suspected of having dementia because of evidence of functional and cognitive deterioration, but who do not have sufficient memoryimpairment to be diagnosed with the condition, should not be denied access tosupport services.
1.1.1.7 If language or acquired language impairment is a barrier to accessing or understanding services, treatment and care, health and social careprofessionals should provide the person with dementia and/or their carer with: information in the preferred language and/or in an accessible format independent interpreters psychological interventions in the preferred language.
1.1.2 Younger people with dementia
1.1.2.1 Younger people with dementia have special requirements, and specialist multidisciplinary services should be developed, allied to existing dementiaservices, to meet their needs for assessment, diagnosis and care.
1.1.3 People with a learning disability
1.1.3.1 Health and social care staff working in care environments where younger people are at risk of developing dementia, such as those catering for peoplewith learning disabilities, should be trained in dementia awareness.
1.1.3.2 People with learning disabilities and those supporting them should have access to specialist advice and support regarding dementia.
1.1.4 Ethics, consent and advance decision making
1.1.4.1 Health and social care professionals should always seek valid consent from people with dementia. This should entail informing the person of options, andchecking that he or she understands, that there is no coercion and that he or NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 she continues to consent over time. If the person lacks the capacity to make adecision, the provisions of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 must be followed.
1.1.4.2 Health and social care professionals should inform people with dementia and their carers about advocacy services and voluntary support, and shouldencourage their use. If required, such services should be available for bothpeople with dementia and their carers independently of each other.
1.1.4.3 People with dementia should be given the opportunity to convey information to health and social care professionals involved in their care in a confidentialmanner. Professionals should discuss with the person any need for informationto be shared with colleagues and/or other agencies. Only in exceptionalcircumstances should confidential information be disclosed to others withoutthe person's consent. However, as dementia worsens and the person becomesmore dependent on family or other carers, decisions about sharing informationshould be made in the context of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and its Code ofPractice. If information is to be shared with others, this should be done only if itis in the best interests of the person with dementia.
1.1.4.4 Health and social care professionals should discuss with the person with dementia, while he or she still has capacity, and his or her carer the use of: advance statements (which allow people to state what is to be done if they shouldsubsequently lose the capacity to decide or to communicate) advance decisions to refuse treatment[] Lasting Power of Attorney (a legal document that allows people to state in writingwho they want to make certain decisions for them if they cannot make them forthemselves, including decisions about personal health and welfare)[] a Preferred Place of Care Plan (which allows people to record decisions aboutfuture care choices and the place where the person would like to die).[] 1.1.5 Impact of dementia on personal relationships
1.1.5.1 At the time of diagnosis and when indicated subsequently, the impact of dementia on relationships, including sexual relationships, should be assessed NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 in a sensitive manner. When indicated, people with dementia and/or theirpartner and/or carers should be given information about local support services.
1.1.6 Risk of abuse and neglect
1.1.6.1 Because people with dementia are vulnerable to abuse and neglect, all health and social care staff supporting them should receive information and trainingabout, and abide by the local multi-agency policy on, adult protection.
1.1.7 Management and coordination of care
1.1.7.1 Health and social care staff should ensure that care of people with dementia and support for their carers is planned and provided within the framework ofcare management/coordination.[] 1.1.7.2 Care managers and care coordinators should ensure that care plans are based on an assessment of the person with dementia's life history, social and familycircumstance, and preferences, as well as their physical and mental healthneeds and current level of functioning and abilities.
1.1.7.3 Care managers and care coordinators should ensure the coordinated delivery of health and social care services for people with dementia. This shouldinvolve: a combined care plan agreed by health and social services that takes into accountthe changing needs of the person with dementia and his or her carers assignment of named health and/or social care staff to operate the care plan endorsement of the care plan by the person with dementia and/or carers formal reviews of the care plan, at a frequency agreed between professionalsinvolved and the person with dementia and/or carers and recorded in the notes.[ 1.1.8 Funding arrangements for health and social care
1.1.8.1 Care managers/care coordinators should explain to people with dementia and their carers that they have the right to receive direct payments and individual NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 budgets (where available). If necessary, people with dementia and their carersshould be offered additional support to obtain and manage these.
1.1.8.2 People with dementia and their carers should be informed about the statutory difference between NHS care and care provided by local authority socialservices (adult services) so that they can make informed decisions about theireligibility for NHS Continuing Care.
1.1.9 Training and development of health and social care staff
1.1.9.1 Health and social care managers should ensure that all staff working with older people in the health, social care and voluntary sectors have access todementia-care training (skill development) that is consistent with their roles andresponsibilities.
1.1.9.2 When developing educational programmes for different health and social care staff, trainers should consider the following elements, combined according tothe needs of the staff being trained (if staff care for people with learningdisabilities, the training package should be adjusted accordingly).
Early signs and symptoms suggestive of dementia and its major subtypes.
The natural history of the different types of dementia, the main signs and symptoms,the progression and prognosis, and the consequences for the person with dementiaand his or her carers, family and social network.
The assessment and pharmacological treatment of dementia including theadministration of medication and monitoring of side effects.
Applying the principles of person-centred care when working with people withdementia and their carers; particular attention should be paid to respect, dignity,learning about each person's life story, individualising activities, being sensitive toindividuals' religious beliefs and spiritual and cultural identity, and understandingbehaviour that challenges as a communication of unmet need.
The importance of and use of communication skills for working with people withdementia and their carers; particular attention should be paid to pacing of NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 communication, non-verbal communication and the use of language that is non-discriminatory, positive, and tailored to an individual's ability.
Assertive outreach techniques to support people who may not be engaged withservices.
A clear description of the roles of the different health and social care professionals,staff and agencies involved in the delivery of care to people with dementia and basicadvice on how they should work together in order to provide a comprehensiveservice.
Basic introduction to local adult protection policy and procedures, including thereporting of concerns or malpractice and, in particular, who to contact.
The palliative care approach.
1.1.9.3 Managers of local mental health and learning disability services should set up consultation and communication channels for care homes and other servicesfor people with dementia and their carers.
1.1.9.4 Liaison teams from local mental health and learning disability services should offer regular consultation and training for healthcare professionals in acutehospitals who provide care for people with dementia. This should be plannedby the acute hospital trust in conjunction with mental health, social care andlearning disability services.
1.1.9.5 Evidence-based educational interventions, such as decision-support software and practice-based workshops,[] to improve the diagnosis and management ofdementia should be made widely available and implemented in primary care.
1.1.10 Environmental design for people with dementia
1.1.10.1 When organising and/or purchasing living arrangements or care home placements for people with dementia, health and social care managers shouldensure that the design of built environments meets the needs of people withdementia[] and complies with the Disability Discrimination Acts 1995 and 2005,because dementia is defined as a disability within the meaning of the Acts.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 1.1.10.2 When organising and/or purchasing living arrangements and/or care home placements for people with dementia, health and social care managers shouldensure that built environments are enabling and aid orientation. Specific, butnot exclusive, attention should be paid to: lighting, colour schemes, floorcoverings, assistive technology, signage, garden design, and the access toand safety of the external environment.
1.1.10.3 When organising and/or purchasing living arrangements and/or care home placements for people with dementia, health and social care managers shouldpay careful consideration to the size of units, the mix of residents, and the skillmix of staff to ensure that the environment is supportive and therapeutic.
1.1.11 Care for people with dementia in an acute hospital facility
1.1.11.1 Acute and general hospital trusts should plan and provide services that address the specific personal and social care needs and the mental andphysical health of people with dementia who use acute hospital facilities forany reason.
1.1.11.2 Acute trusts should ensure that all people with suspected or known dementia using inpatient services are assessed by a liaison service that specialises inthe treatment of dementia. Care for such people in acute trusts should beplanned jointly by the trust's hospital staff, liaison teams, relevant social careprofessionals and the person with suspected or known dementia and his or hercarers.
1.2 Integrated health and social care
1.2.1.1 Health and social care staff should use the Department of Health's publication in conjunction with this guideline as a frameworkfor the planning, implementation and delivery of: NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 mainstream and specialist day services sheltered and extra-care housing assistive technology and telecare mainstream and specialist residential care intermediate care and rehabilitation care in general hospitals specialist mental health services, including community mental health teams,memory assessment services, psychological therapies and inpatient care.
1.2.1.2 Health and social care managers should coordinate and integrate working across all agencies involved in the treatment and care of people with dementiaand their carers, including jointly agreeing written policies and procedures.
Joint planning should include local service users and carers in order tohighlight and address problems specific to each locality.
1.2.1.3 Health and social care professionals should ensure that people with dementia and their carers are given up-to-date information on local arrangements(including inter-agency working) for health and social care, including theindependent and voluntary sectors, and on how to access such services.
1.3 Risk factors, prevention and early identification
1.3.1 Risk factors, screening and genetic counselling
1.3.1.1 General population screening for dementia should not be undertaken.
1.3.1.2 In middle-aged and older people, vascular and other modifiable risk factors for dementia (for example, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, obesity,diabetes, hypertension and raised cholesterol) should be reviewed and, ifappropriate, treated.
1.3.1.3 Healthcare professionals working with people likely to have a genetic cause for their dementia (for example, familial autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 or frontotemporal dementia, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy withsubcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy [CADASIL], or Huntington'sdisease) should offer to refer them and their unaffected relatives for geneticcounselling.
1.3.1.4 Regional genetic services should provide genetic counselling to people who are likely to have a genetic cause for their dementia and their unaffectedrelatives.
1.3.1.5 If a genetic cause for dementia is not suspected, including late-onset dementia, genotyping should not be undertaken for clinical purposes.
1.3.2 Preventive measures
1.3.2.1 The following interventions should not be prescribed as specific treatments for the primary prevention of dementia: hormone replacement therapy non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
1.3.2.2 For the secondary prevention of dementia, vascular and other modifiable risk factors (for example, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, obesity,diabetes, hypertension and raised cholesterol) should be reviewed in peoplewith dementia, and if appropriate, treated.
1.3.3 Early identification of dementia
1.3.3.1 Primary healthcare staff should consider referring people who show signs of mild cognitive impairment (MCI)[for assessment by memory assessmentservices to aid early identification of dementia, because more than 50% ofpeople with MCI later develop dementia.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 1.3.3.2 Those undertaking health checks as part of health facilitation for people with learning disabilities should be aware of the increased risk of dementia in thisgroup. Those undertaking health checks for other high-risk groups, for examplethose who have had a stroke and those with neurological conditions such asParkinson's disease, should also be aware of the possibility of dementia.
1.3.3.3 Memory assessment services that identify people with MCI (including those without memory impairment, which may be absent in the earlier stages of non-Alzheimer's dementias) should offer follow-up to monitor cognitive decline andother signs of possible dementia in order to plan care at an early stage.
1.4 Diagnosis and assessment of dementia
1.4.1.1 A diagnosis of dementia should be made only after a comprehensive assessment, which should include: cognitive and mental state examination physical examination and other appropriate investigations a review of medication in order to identify and minimise use of drugs, including over-the-counter products, that may adversely affect cognitive functioning.
1.4.1.2 People who are assessed for the possibility of dementia should be asked if they wish to know the diagnosis and with whom this should be shared.
1.4.1.3 Clinical cognitive assessment in those with suspected dementia should include examination of attention and concentration, orientation, short and long-termmemory, praxis, language and executive function. As part of this assessment,formal cognitive testing should be undertaken using a standardised instrument.
The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been frequently used for thispurpose, but a number of alternatives are now available, such as the 6-itemCognitive Impairment Test (6-CIT), the General Practitioner Assessment ofCognition (GPCOG) and the 7-Minute Screen. Those interpreting the scores of NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 such tests should take full account of other factors known to affectperformance, including educational level, skills, prior level of functioning andattainment, language, and any sensory impairments, psychiatric illness orphysical/neurological problems.
1.4.1.4 Formal neuropsychological testing should form part of the assessment in cases of mild or questionable dementia.
1.4.1.5 At the time of diagnosis of dementia, and at regular intervals subsequently, assessment should be made for medical comorbidities and key psychiatricfeatures associated with dementia, including depression and psychosis, toensure optimal management of coexisting conditions.
1.4.2.1 A basic dementia screen should be performed at the time of presentation, usually within primary care. It should include: routine haematology biochemistry tests (including electrolytes, calcium, glucose, and renal and liverfunction) thyroid function tests serum vitamin B12 and folate levels.
1.4.2.2 Testing for syphilis serology or HIV should not be routinely undertaken in the investigation of people with suspected dementia. These tests should beconsidered only in those with histories suggesting they are at risk or if theclinical picture dictates.
1.4.2.3 A midstream urine test should always be carried out if delirium is a possibility.
1.4.2.4 Clinical presentation should determine whether investigations such as chest X- ray or electrocardiogram are needed.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 1.4.2.5 Cerebrospinal fluid examination should not be performed as a routine investigation for dementia.
1.4.3 Diagnosis of subtypes
1.4.3.1 A diagnosis of subtype of dementia should be made by healthcare professionals with expertise in differential diagnosis using internationalstandardised criteria (see table 1).
Table 1: Diagnostic criteria for dementia
Type of dementia
Alzheimer's disease Preferred criteria: NINCDS/ADRDA. Alternatives include ICD-10and DSM-IV Vascular dementia Preferred criteria: NINDS-AIREN. Alternatives include ICD-10 andDSM-IV Dementia with Lewy International Consensus criteria for dementia with Lewy bodies Lund-Manchester criteria, NINDS criteria for frontotemporal DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition; ICD-10,International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision; NINCDS/ADRDA, National Institute ofNeurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and RelatedDisorders Association; NINDS–AIREN, Neuroepidemiology Branch of the National Instituteof Neurological Disorders and Stroke–Association Internationale pour la Recherche etl'Enseignement en Neurosciences.
1.4.3.2 Structural imaging should be used in the assessment of people with suspected dementia to exclude other cerebral pathologies and to help establish thesubtype diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferredmodality to assist with early diagnosis and detect subcortical vascularchanges, although computed tomography (CT) scanning could be used.
Imaging may not always be needed in those presenting with moderate to NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 severe dementia, if the diagnosis is already clear. Specialist advice should betaken when interpreting scans in people with learning disabilities.
1.4.3.3 Perfusion hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) should be used to help differentiateAlzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and frontotemporal dementia if thediagnosis is in doubt. People with Down's syndrome may show SPECTabnormalities throughout life that resemble those in Alzheimer's disease, sothis test is not helpful in this group.
1.4.3.4 If HMPAO SPECT is unavailable, 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) should be considered to help differentiatebetween Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and frontotemporal dementiaif the diagnosis is in doubt.
(3-fluoropropyl) nortropane (FP-CIT) SPECT should be used to help establishthe diagnosis in those with suspected dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) if thediagnosis is in doubt.
1.4.3.6 Cerebrospinal fluid examination should be used if Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease or other forms of rapidly progressive dementia are suspected.
1.4.3.7 Electroencephalography should not be used as a routine investigation in people with dementia.
1.4.3.8 Electroencephalography should be considered if a diagnosis of delirium, frontotemporal dementia or Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease is suspected, or in theassessment of associated seizure disorder in those with dementia.
1.4.3.9 Brain biopsy for diagnostic purposes should be considered only in highly selected people whose dementia is thought to be due to a potentially reversiblecondition that cannot be diagnosed in any other way.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 1.4.4 Mixed dementias
1.4.4.1 Many cases of dementia may have mixed pathology (for example, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia or Alzheimer's disease and DLB). Unlessotherwise stated in this guideline, such cases should be managed according tothe condition that is thought to be the predominant cause of dementia.
1.4.5 Specialist services for dementia assessment
1.4.5.1 Memory assessment services (which may be provided by a memory assessment clinic or by community mental health teams) should be the singlepoint of referral for all people with a possible diagnosis of dementia.
1.4.5.2 Memory assessment services should offer a responsive service to aid early identification and should include a full range of assessment, diagnostic,therapeutic, and rehabilitation services to accommodate the needs of peoplewith different types and all severities of dementia and the needs of their carersand family. Memory assessment services should ensure an integratedapproach to the care of people with dementia and the support of their carers, inpartnership with local health, social care, and voluntary organisations.
1.4.6 Addressing needs that arise from the diagnosis of dementia
1.4.6.1 The experience of the diagnosis of dementia is challenging both for people with dementia and family members and for healthcare professionals, sohealthcare professionals should make time available to discuss the diagnosisand its implications with the person with dementia and also with familymembers (usually only with the consent of the person with dementia).
Healthcare professionals should be aware that people with dementia andfamily members may need ongoing support to cope with the difficultiespresented by the diagnosis.
1.4.6.2 Following a diagnosis of dementia, health and social care professionals should, unless the person with dementia clearly indicates to the contrary,provide them and their family with written information about: the signs and symptoms of dementia NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 the course and prognosis of the condition local care and support services sources of financial and legal advice, and advocacy medico-legal issues, including driving local information sources, including libraries and voluntary organisations.
Any advice and information given should be recorded in the notes.
1.4.6.3 Healthcare professionals who regularly diagnose dementia and discuss this with people with the condition and carers should consider mentoring orproviding clinical supervision to less experienced colleagues.
1.5 Promoting and maintaining independence of people with
dementia

1.5.1.1 Health and social care staff should aim to promote and maintain the independence, including mobility, of people with dementia. Care plans shouldaddress activities of daily living (ADLs) that maximise independent activity,enhance function, adapt and develop skills, and minimise the need for support.
When writing care plans, the varying needs of people with different types ofdementia should be addressed. Care plans should always include: consistent and stable staffing retaining a familiar environment minimising relocations flexibility to accommodate fluctuating abilities assessment and care-planning advice regarding ADLs, and ADL skill training froman occupational therapist NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 assessment and care-planning advice about independent toileting skills; ifincontinence occurs all possible causes should be assessed and relevanttreatments tried before concluding that it is permanent environmental modifications to aid independent functioning, including assistivetechnology, with advice from an occupational therapist and/or clinical psychologist physical exercise, with assessment and advice from a physiotherapist when needed support for people to go at their own pace and participate in activities they enjoy.
1.5.1.2 When developing a care plan for a person with a learning disability newly diagnosed with dementia, an assessment using the Assessment of Motor andProcess Skills (AMPS)[] should be considered. The Dementia Questionnairefor Mentally Retarded Persons (DMR)[and Dalton's Brief Praxis Test (BPT)should be considered for monitoring change in function over time.
1.6 Interventions for cognitive symptoms and maintenance
of function for people with dementia

1.6.1 Non-pharmacological interventions for cognitive symptoms and
maintaining function

1.6.1.1 People with mild-to-moderate dementia of all types should be given the opportunity to participate in a structured group cognitive stimulationprogramme. This should be commissioned and provided by a range of healthand social care staff with appropriate training and supervision, and offeredirrespective of any drug prescribed for the treatment of cognitive symptoms ofdementia.
1.6.2 Pharmacological interventions for the cognitive symptoms of
Alzheimer's disease

1.6.2.1 The three acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors donepezil, galantamine and rivastigmine are recommended as options for managing mild to moderateAlzheimer's disease under all of the conditions specified in 1.6.2.3 and 1.6.2.4.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 1.6.2.2 Memantine is recommended as an option for managing Alzheimer's disease moderate Alzheimer's disease who are intolerant of or have a contraindication toAChE inhibitors or severe Alzheimer's disease.
Treatment should be under the conditions specified in 1.6.2.3.
1.6.2.3 Treatment should be under the following conditions: Only specialists in the care of patients with dementia (that is, psychiatrists includingthose specialising in learning disability, neurologists, and physicians specialising inthe care of older people) should initiate treatment. Carers' views on the patient'scondition at baseline should be sought.
Treatment should be continued only when it is considered to be having a worthwhileeffect on cognitive, global, functional or behavioural symptoms.
Patients who continue on treatment should be reviewed regularly using cognitive,global, functional and behavioural assessment. Treatment should be reviewed by anappropriate specialist team, unless there are locally agreed protocols for sharedcare. Carers' views on the patient's condition at follow-up should be sought.
1.6.2.4 If prescribing an AChE inhibitor (donepezil, galantamine or rivastigmine), treatment should normally be started with the drug with the lowest acquisitioncost (taking into account required daily dose and the price per dose onceshared care has started). However, an alternative AChE inhibitor could beprescribed if it is considered appropriate when taking into account adverseevent profile, expectations about adherence, medical comorbidity, possibility ofdrug interactions and dosing profiles.
1.6.2.5 When using assessment scales to determine the severity of Alzheimer's disease, healthcare professionals should take into account any physical,sensory or learning disabilities, or communication difficulties that could affectthe results and make any adjustments they consider appropriate. Healthcareprofessionals should also be mindful of the need to secure equality of access NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 to treatment for patients from different ethnic groups, in particular those fromdifferent cultural backgrounds.
1.6.2.6 When assessing the severity of Alzheimer's disease and the need for treatment, healthcare professionals should not rely solely on cognition scoresin circumstances in which it would be inappropriate to do so. These include: if the cognition score is not, or is not by itself, a clinically appropriate tool forassessing the severity of that patient's dementia because of the patient's learningdifficulties or other disabilities (for example, sensory impairments), linguistic or othercommunication difficulties or level of education or if it is not possible to apply the tool in a language in which the patient is sufficientlyfluent for it to be appropriate for assessing the severity of dementia or if there are other similar reasons why using a cognition score, or the score alone,would be inappropriate for assessing the severity of dementia.
1.6.2.7 For people with learning disabilities, tools used to assess the severity of dementia should be sensitive to their level of competence. Options include: Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG)[ Modified Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly (CAMDEX)[ Dementia Scale for Down Syndrome (DSDS)[, which can be useful in diagnosis ofdementia in people with learning disabilities who do not have Down's syndrome.
1.6.3 Pharmacological interventions for the cognitive symptoms of non-
Alzheimer dementias and MCI

1.6.3.1 For people with vascular dementia, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine should not be prescribed for the treatment of cognitive decline,except as part of properly constructed clinical studies.
1.6.3.2 For people with MCI, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors should not be prescribed, except as part of properly constructed clinical studies.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 1.7 Interventions for non-cognitive symptoms and
behaviour that challenges in people with dementia

Non-cognitive symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, anxiety, marked agitationand associated aggressive behaviour. 'Behaviour that challenges' encompasses a wide range ofdifficulties that are often experienced by people with dementia and that may have an effect onthose who provide care. It may include aggression, agitation, wandering, hoarding, sexualdisinhibition, apathy and disruptive vocal activity such as shouting.
1.7.1 Non-pharmacological interventions for non-cognitive symptoms and
behaviour that challenges

1.7.1.1 People with dementia who develop non-cognitive symptoms that cause them significant distress or who develop behaviour that challenges should be offeredan assessment at an early opportunity to establish likely factors that maygenerate, aggravate or improve such behaviour. The assessment should becomprehensive and include: the person's physical health possible undetected pain or discomfort side effects of medication individual biography, including religious beliefs and spiritual and cultural identity psychosocial factors physical environmental factors behavioural and functional analysis conducted by professionals with specific skills,in conjunction with carers and care workers.
Individually tailored care plans that help carers and staff address the behaviour that challengesshould be developed, recorded in the notes and reviewed regularly. The frequency of the reviewshould be agreed by the carers and staff involved and written in the notes.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 1.7.1.2 For people with all types and severities of dementia who have comorbid agitation, consideration should be given to providing access to interventionstailored to the person's preferences, skills and abilities. Because people mayrespond better to one treatment than another, the response to each modalityshould be monitored and the care plan adapted accordingly. Approaches thatmay be considered, depending on availability, include: multisensory stimulation therapeutic use of music and/or dancing animal-assisted therapy These interventions may be delivered by a range of health and social care staff and volunteers,with appropriate training and supervision. The voluntary sector has a particular role to play indelivering these approaches. Health and social care staff in the NHS and social care, includingcare homes, should work together to ensure that some of these options are available, becausethere is some evidence of their clinical effectiveness. More research is needed into their costeffectiveness.
1.7.2 Pharmacological interventions for non-cognitive symptoms and
behaviour that challenges

1.7.2.1 People with dementia who develop non-cognitive symptoms or behaviour that challenges should be offered a pharmacological intervention in the firstinstance only if they are severely distressed or there is an immediate risk ofharm to the person or others. The assessment and care-planning approach,which includes behavioural management, should be followed as soon aspossible (see recommendation 1.7.1.1). If distress and/or agitation are lesssevere, the interventions described in recommendations 1.7.1.2, 1.8.1.2 and1.8.1.3 should be followed before a pharmacological intervention isconsidered.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 1.7.2.2 People with Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia or mixed dementias with mild-to-moderate non-cognitive symptoms should not be prescribedantipsychotic drugs because of the possible increased risk of cerebrovascularadverse events and death.[ 1.7.2.3 People with DLB with mild-to-moderate non-cognitive symptoms, should not be prescribed antipsychotic drugs, because those with DLB are at particular riskof severe adverse reactions.
1.7.2.4 People with Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, mixed dementias or DLB with severe non-cognitive symptoms (psychosis and/or agitated behaviourcausing significant distress) may be offered treatment with an antipsychoticdrug after the following conditions have been met.
There should be a full discussion with the person with dementia and/or carers aboutthe possible benefits and risks of treatment. In particular, cerebrovascular riskfactors should be assessed and the possible increased risk of stroke/transientischaemic attack and possible adverse effects on cognition discussed.
Changes in cognition should be assessed and recorded at regular intervals.
Alternative medication should be considered if necessary.
Target symptoms should be identified, quantified and documented.
Changes in target symptoms should be assessed and recorded at regular intervals.
The effect of comorbid conditions, such as depression, should be considered.
The choice of antipsychotic should be made after an individual risk–benefit analysis.
The dose should be low initially and then titrated upwards.
Treatment should be time limited and regularly reviewed (every 3 months oraccording to clinical need).
For people with DLB, healthcare professionals should monitor carefully for the emergence ofsevere untoward reactions, particularly neuroleptic sensitivity reactions (which manifest as thedevelopment or worsening of severe extrapyramidal features after treatment in the accepted NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 dose range or acute and severe physical deterioration following prescription of antipsychoticdrugs for which there is no other apparent cause).
1.7.2.5 People with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease who have non-cognitive symptoms and/or behaviour that challenges, causing significant distress orpotential harm to the individual, may be offered an acetylcholinesteraseinhibitor under all of the conditions specified in 1.6.2.3 and 1.6.2.4, provided: a non-pharmacological approach is inappropriate or has been ineffective, and antipsychotic drugs are inappropriate or have been ineffective.
1.7.2.6 People with moderate Alzheimer's disease who have non-cognitive symptoms and/or behaviour that challenges (as in 1.7.2.5 above) and are intolerant of orhave a contraindication to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, as well as peoplewith severe Alzheimer's disease, may be offered memantine under theconditions specified in 1.6.2.3, provided: a non-pharmacological approach is inappropriate or has been ineffective, and antipsychotic drugs are inappropriate or have been ineffective.
1.7.2.7 People with DLB who have non-cognitive symptoms causing significant distress to the individual, or leading to behaviour that challenges, should beoffered an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.
1.7.2.8 People with vascular dementia who develop non-cognitive symptoms or behaviour that challenges should not be prescribed acetylcholinesteraseinhibitors, except as part of properly constructed clinical studies.
1.7.3 Behaviour that challenges requiring urgent treatment
The control of behaviour that challenges becomes a priority if violence, aggression and extremeagitation threaten the safety of the person with dementia or others.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 1.7.3.1 Health and social care staff who care for people with dementia should identify, monitor and address environmental, physical health and psychosocial factorsthat may increase the likelihood of behaviour that challenges, especiallyviolence and aggression, and the risk of harm to self or others. These factorsinclude: lack of activities inadequate staff attention poor communication between the person with dementia and staff conflicts between staff and carers weak clinical leadership.
1.7.3.2 Health and social care staff should be trained to anticipate behaviour that challenges and how to manage violence, aggression and extreme agitation,including de-escalation techniques and methods of physical restraint.
1.7.3.3 Healthcare professionals who use medication in the management of violence, aggression and extreme agitation in people with dementia should: be trained in the correct use of drugs for behavioural control, specificallybenzodiazepines and antipsychotics be able to assess the risks associated with pharmacological control of violence,aggression and extreme agitation, particularly in people who may be dehydrated orphysically ill understand the cardiorespiratory effects of the acute administration ofbenzodiazepines and antipsychotics and the need to titrate dosage to effect NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 recognise the importance of nursing people who have received these drugs in therecovery position and of monitoring pulse, blood pressure and respiration be familiar with and trained in the use of resuscitation equipment undertake annual retraining in resuscitation techniques understand the importance of maintaining an unobstructed airway.
Principles of pharmacological control of violence, aggression and extreme
agitation

1.7.3.4 For people with dementia who are at significant risk to themselves or others because of violence, aggression and extreme agitation, immediatemanagement should take place in a safe, low-stimulation environment,separate from other service users.
1.7.3.5 Drug treatments for the control of violence, aggression and extreme agitation should be used to calm the person with dementia and reduce the risk ofviolence and harm, rather than treat any underlying psychiatric condition.
Healthcare professionals should aim for an optimal response in which agitationor aggression is reduced without sedation.
1.7.3.6 Violent behaviour should be managed without the prescription of high doses or combinations of drugs, especially if the person with dementia is elderly or frail.
The lowest effective dose should be used.
1.7.3.7 Drugs for behavioural control should be used with caution, particularly if the person with dementia has been restrained, because of the following risks: loss of consciousness instead of sedation over-sedation with loss of alertness damage to the relationship between the person with dementia, their carers and thehealth and social care team specific issues related to age and physical and mental health.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 1.7.3.8 People with dementia who have received involuntary sedation and their carers should be offered the opportunity to discuss their experiences and be providedwith a clear explanation of the decision to use urgent sedation. This should bedocumented in their notes.
Route of drug administration
1.7.3.9 If drugs are necessary for the control of violence, aggression and extreme agitation, oral medication should be offered before parenteral medication.
1.7.3.10 If parenteral treatment is necessary for the control of violence, aggression and extreme agitation, the intramuscular (IM) route should be preferred because itis safer than intravenous administration. Intravenous administration should beused only in exceptional circumstances.
1.7.3.11 Vital signs should be monitored after parenteral treatment for the control of violence, aggression and extreme agitation. Blood pressure, pulse,temperature and respiratory rate should be recorded at regular intervalsagreed by the multidisciplinary team until the person with dementia becomesactive again. If the person appears to be or is asleep, more intensivemonitoring is required.
Intramuscular agents for behavioural control
1.7.3.12 If IM preparations are needed for behavioural control, lorazepam, haloperidol or olanzapine should be used. Wherever possible, a single agent should beused in preference to a combination.
1.7.3.13 If rapid tranquillisation is needed, a combination of IM haloperidol and IM lorazepam should be considered.
1.7.3.14 IM diazepam and IM chlorpromazine are not recommended for the management of behaviour that challenges in people with dementia.
1.7.3.15 If using IM haloperidol (or any other IM conventional antipsychotic) for behavioural control, healthcare professionals should monitor closely fordystonia and other extrapyramidal side effects. If side effects become NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 distressing, especially in acute dystonic reactions, the use of anticholinergicagents should be considered. If using anticholinergic agents, healthcareprofessionals should monitor for deteriorating cognitive function.
1.8 Interventions for comorbid emotional disorders in
people with dementia

1.8.1 Psychological interventions for people with dementia with depression
and/or anxiety

1.8.1.1 Care packages for people with dementia should include assessment and monitoring for depression and/or anxiety.
1.8.1.2 For people with dementia who have depression and/or anxiety, cognitive behavioural therapy, which may involve the active participation of their carers,may be considered as part of treatment.
1.8.1.3 A range of tailored interventions, such as reminiscence therapy, multisensory stimulation, animal-assisted therapy and exercise, should be available forpeople with dementia who have depression and/or anxiety.
1.8.2 Pharmacological interventions for people with dementia with
depression

1.8.2.1 People with dementia who also have major depressive disorder should be offered antidepressant medication. Treatment should be started by staff withspecialist training, who should follow the NICE clinical guideline 'Depression:management of depression in primary and secondary care'] after a carefulrisk–benefit assessment. Antidepressant drugs with anticholinergic effectsshould be avoided because they may adversely affect cognition. The need foradherence, time to onset of action and risk of withdrawal effects should beexplained at the start of treatment.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 1.9 Inpatient dementia services
1.9.1.1 As far as possible, dementia care services should be community-based, but psychiatric inpatient admission may be considered in certain circumstances,including if: the person with dementia is severely disturbed and needs to be contained for his orher own health and safety and/or the safety of others (in some cases, this mightinclude those liable to be detained under the Mental Health Act 1983) assessment in a community setting is not possible, for example if a person withdementia has complex physical and psychiatric problems.
1.10 Palliative care, pain relief and care at the end of life for
people with dementia

1.10.1 Palliative care and end of life issues
Dementia care should incorporate a palliative care approach from the time of diagnosis untildeath. The aim should be to support the quality of life of people with dementia and to enablethem to die with dignity and in the place of their choosing, while also supporting carers duringtheir bereavement, which may both anticipate and follow death.
1.10.1.1 Health and social care professionals working with people with dementia and their carers should adopt a palliative care approach. They should considerphysical, psychological, social and spiritual needs to maximise the quality oflife of the person with dementia and their family.
1.10.1.2 Palliative care professionals, other health and social care professionals, and commissioners should ensure that people with dementia who are dying havethe same access to palliative care services as those without dementia.
1.10.1.3 Primary care teams should ensure that the palliative care needs of people with dementia who are close to death are assessed and that the resultinginformation is communicated within the team and with other health and socialcare staff.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 1.10.1.4 Health and social care staff should encourage people with dementia to eat and drink by mouth for as long as possible. Specialist assessment and adviceconcerning swallowing and feeding in dementia should be available. Dietaryadvice may also be beneficial. Nutritional support, including artificial (tube)feeding, should be considered if dysphagia is thought to be a transientphenomenon, but artificial feeding should not generally be used in people withsevere dementia for whom dysphagia or disinclination to eat is a manifestationof disease severity. Ethical] and legal[principles should be applied whenmaking decisions about withholding or withdrawing nutritional support.
1.10.1.5 If a person with severe dementia has a fever, especially in the terminal stages, a clinical assessment should be undertaken. Simple analgesics, antipyreticsand mechanical means of cooling the person may suffice. Antibiotics may beconsidered as a palliative measure in the terminal stages of dementia, but thisneeds an individual assessment.
1.10.1.6 Policies in hospitals and long-stay residential, nursing or continuing care units should reflect the fact that cardiopulmonary resuscitation is unlikely to succeedin cases of cardiopulmonary arrest in people with severe dementia.
1.10.1.7 In the absence of a valid and applicable advance decision to refuse resuscitation, the decision to resuscitate should take account of any expressedwishes or beliefs of the person with dementia, together with the views of thecarers and the multidisciplinary team. The decision should be made inaccordance with the guidance developed by the Resuscitation Council UK[]and, if the person lacks capacity, the provisions of the Mental Capacity Act2005. It should be recorded in the medical notes and care plans.
1.10.2 Pain relief
1.10.2.1 If a person with dementia has unexplained changes in behaviour and/or shows signs of distress, health and social care professionals should assess whetherthe person is in pain, using an observational pain assessment tool if helpful.
However, the possibility of other causes should be considered.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 1.10.2.2 The treatment of pain in people with severe dementia should involve both pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures. Non-pharmacologicaltherapies should be used with the person's history and preferences in mind.
1.11 Support and interventions for the carers of people with
dementia

1.11.1 Assessment of carers' needs
1.11.1.1 Health and social care managers should ensure that the rights of carers to receive an assessment of needs, as set out in the Carers and DisabledChildren Act 2000 and the Carers (Equal Opportunities) Act 2004,[] areupheld.
1.11.2.1 Those carrying out carers' assessment should seek to identify any psychological distress and the psychosocial impact on the carer. This shouldbe an ongoing process and should include any period after the person withdementia has entered residential care.
1.11.2.2 Care plans for carers of people with dementia should involve a range of tailored interventions. These may consist of multiple components including: individual or group psychoeducation peer-support groups with other carers, tailored to the needs of individualsdepending on the stage of dementia of the person being cared for and othercharacteristics support and information by telephone and through the internet training courses about dementia, services and benefits, and communication andproblem solving in the care of people with dementia involvement of other family members as well as the primary carer in familymeetings.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 1.11.2.3 Consideration should be given to involving people with dementia in psychoeducation, support, and other meetings for carers.
1.11.2.4 Health and social care professionals should ensure that support, such as transport or short-break services, is provided for carers to enable them toparticipate in interventions.
1.11.2.5 Carers of people with dementia who experience psychological distress and negative psychological impact should be offered psychological therapy,including cognitive behavioural therapy, conducted by a specialist practitioner.
1.11.3 Practical support and services
1.11.3.1 Health and social care managers should ensure that carers of people with dementia have access to a comprehensive range of respite/short-breakservices. These should meet the needs of both the carer (in terms of location,flexibility and timeliness) and the person with dementia and should include, forexample, day care, day- and night-sitting, adult placement and short-term and/or overnight residential care. Transport should be offered to enable access tothese services if they are not provided in the person's own home.
1.11.3.2 Respite/short-break care of any sort should be characterised by meaningful and therapeutic activity tailored to the person with dementia and provided in anenvironment that meets their needs. Providing this in the person's own homeshould be considered whenever possible.
[Under the provisions of the Mental Capacity Act 2005.
[Care management/care coordination involves four elements: the coordination of a fullassessment, agreeing a care plan, arranging action to deliver services, and reviewing changingneeds within the framework of the single assessment process.
[Time periods for review of care plans are stipulated by Care Programme Approach guidance.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 [See, for example, Downs M, Turner S, Bryans M et al. (2006) Effectiveness of educationalinterventions in improving detection and management of dementia in primary care: a clusterrandomized controlled study. British Medical Journal 332: 692–6.
[See, for example, Judd S, Marshall M, Phippen P (editors) (1997) Design for Dementia.
London: Hawker.
[] Mild cognitive impairment is a syndrome defined as cognitive decline greater than expected foran individual's age and education level, which does not interfere notably with activities of dailyliving. It is not a diagnosis of dementia of any type, although it may lead to dementia in somecases.
[The AMPS should be carried out by someone with formal training in its use.
[] Evenhuis HM, Kengen MMF, Eurlings HAL (1990) Dementia Questionnaire for Persons withMental Retardation (DMR). Zwammerdam, The Netherlands: Hooge Burch.
[] Dalton AJ, Fedor BL (1998) Onset of dyspraxia in aging persons with Down syndrome:longitudinal studies. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability 23: 13–24.
[] This section includes recommendations from the March 2011. Technology appraisal 217 updates and replaces Technology appraisal 111 and therecommendations on drug treatment of the cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease in NICEClinical guideline 42.
[] Hon J, Huppert FA, Holland AJ et al. (1999) Neuropsychological assessment of older adultswith Down's syndrome: an epidemiological study using the Cambridge Cognitive Examination(CAMCOG). British Journal of Clinical Psychology 38: 155–65.
[] Ball SL, Holland AJ, Huppert FA et al.(2004) The modified CAMDEX informant interview is avalid and reliable tool for use in the diagnosis of dementia in adults with Down's syndrome.
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 48: 611–20.
[] Gedye A (1995) Dementia Scale for Down Syndrome Manual. Vancouver: Gedye Researchand Consulting.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 [] In March 2004, the Committee onSafety of Medicines issued a safety warning about the atypical antipsychotic drugs risperidoneand olanzapine, advising that these drugs should not be used for the treatment of behaviouralsymptoms of dementia.
[] NICE Clinical Guideline 23 [Replaced by ] [] on good practice, resources, and tools to support end of life care.
[] See (2002) 'Withholding and withdrawing life-prolonging treatments:good practice and decision-making'.
[] See the Mental Capacity Act 2005.
[] See 'Implementing the Carers (Equal Opportunities) Act 2004.' SCIE practice guide no. 5(2005).
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 2 Notes on the scope of the guidance
NICE guidelines are developed in accordance with a scope that defines what the guideline willand will not cover. The is available.
This guideline is relevant to people with Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, DLB, dementiawith Parkinson's disease, subcortical dementia, frontotemporal dementias, and mixed corticaland subcortical dementia, as well as their families or carers, and all health and social care staffinvolved in the help, treatment and care of people with dementia and their families and carersincluding: health and social care staff who have direct contact with people with dementia in hospital,community, home-based, group-care, residential or specialist-care settings health and social care staff working in the NHS, integrated health and social care services,statutory social services, and the voluntary and independent sectors.
The guideline does not specifically address: the treatment and management of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease the physical treatments of organic disease sometimes associated with different forms ofdementia, such as the treatment of convulsions or motor disorders the treatment of physical ill health commonly encountered in elderly people, especially thosewith dementia, such as cardiovascular and neurological disorders, except where thetreatment of such conditions may alter the progress of dementia.
How this guideline was developed
NICE commissioned the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, in partnership with theSocial Care Institute for Excellence (SCIE), to develop this guideline. The Centre, with SCIE,established a Guideline Development Group (see appendix A), which reviewed the evidence anddeveloped the recommendations. An independent Guideline Review Panel oversaw thedevelopment of the guideline (see appendix B).
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 There is more information about on the NICEwebsite. A booklet, 'How NICE clinical guidelines are developed: an overview for stakeholders,the public and the NHS' is NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 The Healthcare Commission assesses the performance of NHS organisations in meeting coreand developmental standards set by the Department of Health in 'Standards for better health'issued in July 2004. Implementation of clinical guidelines forms part of the developmentalstandard D2. Core standard C5 says that national agreed guidance should be taken into accountwhen NHS organisations are planning and delivering care.
The Commission for Social Care Inspection (CSCI) uses SCIE practice guides to underpin anddevelop inspection standards.
and have developed tools to help organisations implement this guidance (listedbelow).
Slides highlighting key messages for local discussion Costing report to estimate the national savings and costs associated withimplementation Costing template to estimate the local costs and savings involved.
Implementation advice on how to put the guidance into practice and national initiatives thatsupport this locally.
Audit criteria to monitor local practice.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 4 Research recommendations
The Guideline Development Group has made the following recommendations for research, onthe basis of its review of the evidence, to improve NICE and SCIE guidance and the care ofpeople with dementia in the future. The effective care of people with dementia (included instandard 7 of the National Service Framework for older people) is of great importance, especiallybecause the proportion of people with dementia will rise in line with the aging population.
Therefore, further research is urgently needed to generate a better evidence base for the updateof this guideline.
4.1 Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for the
treatment of psychotic symptoms in dementia

For people with dementia who develop severe non-cognitive symptoms (psychosis and/oragitated behaviour causing significant distress), is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (donepezil,galantamine or rivastigmine) and/or memantine effective in improving quality of life and reducingnon-cognitive symptoms/behaviour that challenges when compared with placebo over 6 months,and is treatment cost effective in dementia and/or its subtypes? Why this is important
Up to 75% of people with dementia may be affected by non-cognitive symptoms/behaviour thatchallenges. They are a leading cause of distress to carers and often lead to theinstitutionalisation of the person with dementia. Several studies have shown thatacetylcholinesterase inhibitors may improve non-cognitive symptoms of dementia; however, thecost-effectiveness of these drugs in the treatment of people with dementia with severe non-cognitive symptoms has not been established.
4.2 Cognitive stimulation and/or acetylcholinesterase
inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease

For people with Alzheimer's disease, are cognitive stimulation (activities involving cognitiveprocessing; usually in a social context and often group-based, with an emphasis on enjoyment ofactivities), acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine or rivastigmine) or combined NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 treatment clinically and cost effective in terms of cognition, global functioning, ADLs and qualityof life when compared with placebo over 6 months? Why this is important
No randomised studies have directly compared cognitive stimulation with an acetylcholinesteraseinhibitor, and few randomised studies have compared the combination with anacetylcholinesterase inhibitor alone in people with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.
Evidence suggests that cognitive stimulation is effective in people with dementia, but it is difficultto compare the magnitude of the effect with that of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.
4.3 Psychological interventions for carers of people with
dementia

For carers of people with dementia, is a psychological intervention cost effective when comparedwith usual care? Why this is important
Those providing care for people with dementia are one of the most vulnerable groups of carersand often have high levels of stress, feelings of guilt, depression and other psychologicalproblems. They often ignore their own health needs in favour of those of the person for whomthey care. They may become exhausted, have poor physical health and feel isolated. Currentresearch suggests that psychological interventions may be effective, but there is insufficientevidence to establish cost effectiveness. The promotion of good mental health in older people(many carers are the spouses of people with dementia) – included in standard 7 of the NationalService Framework for older people – is vital, especially because the proportion of people withdementia will rise in line with our aging population. Support for carers in general has been givenpriority in England and Wales through Carers' Strategy documents. Further research is urgentlyneeded to generate a better evidence base for the update of this guideline.
4.4 The effect of staff training on behaviour that challenges
Does training of care staff in dementia-specific person-centred care lead to improvement inbehaviour that challenges and reduced prescription of medication to control such behaviour inpeople with dementia requiring 24-hour care when compared with current practice? NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 Why this is important
According to prescribing advice published by the Royal College of Psychiatrists, there is a historyof inappropriate use of antipsychotic drugs in people with dementia. The proportion of peoplewith dementia with behaviour that challenges tends to rise as the dementia progresses; thereforethis issue is of particular importance for people requiring 24-hour care.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 5 Other versions of this guideline
5.1 Full guideline
The full guideline, contains details of the methods and evidence used to develop the guideline. It ispublished by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health.
5.2 NICE pathway
The recommendations from this guideline have been incorporated into a .
5.3 Information for the public
NICE has produced explaining this guideline.
We encourage NHS and third sector, including voluntary organisations, to use text from thisinformation in their own materials about supporting people with dementia and their carers.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 6 Related NICE and SCIE guidance
NICE clinical guidelines
NICEclinical guideline no. 35 (2006).
Depression: management of depression in primary and secondary care. NICE clinicalguideline no. 23 (2004). Replaced by .
NICE clinical guideline no. 21(2002).
NICE technology appraisal
(review of NICE technology appraisal guidance 111). NICE technologyappraisal 217 (2011).
SCIE practice guides
. SCIE practice guide no. 3 (2006).
. SCIE practice guide no. 9 (2005).
SCIE research briefing
. SCIE research briefing no. 3 (2005).
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 7 Updating the guideline
NICE clinical guidelines are updated as needed so that recommendations take into accountimportant new information. We check for new evidence 2 and 4 years after publication, to decidewhether all or part of the guideline should be updated. If important new evidence is published atother times, we may decide to do a more rapid update of some recommendations.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 Appendix A: The Guideline Development Group
Dr Andrew Fairbairn (Chair)
Consultant in Old Age Psychiatry, Newcastle General Hospital, Northumberland, Tyne and Wear
NHS Trust
Professor Nick Gould (Deputy Chair)
Professor of Social Work, University of Bath, representing the Social Care Institute for
Excellence
Dr Tim Kendall (Lead Director and Guideline Facilitator)
Joint Director, National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health; Deputy Director, Royal College of
Psychiatrists Research and Training Unit; Consultant Psychiatrist and Medical Director, Sheffield
Care Trust
Mr Peter Ashley
Service user, Alzheimer's Society; former non-executive director, Warrington Primary Care Trust
Mr Ian Bainbridge
Deputy Director, Commission for Social Care Inspection, London
Ms Lizzy Bower
Health Economist, National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health
Professor Stephen Brown
Consultant Psychiatrist in Learning Disability, Cornwall Partnership NHS Trust; Honorary
Professor of Developmental Neuropsychiatry, Peninsula Medical School Developmental
Disabilities Research and Education Group, Bodmin
Mr Alan Duncan
Systematic Reviewer, National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health
Ms Gillian Garner
Lead Occupational Therapist, Mental Health for Older Adults, South London and Maudsley NHS
Trust
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 Professor Jane Gilliard
Change Agent, Care Services Improvement Partnership, London
Ms Karen Harrison
Senior Nurse, Mental Health Services for Older People, Leicestershire Partnership NHS Trust
Ms Sarah Hopkins
Research Assistant, National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health
Dr Steve Iliffe
Reader in General Practice, University College London
Professor Roy Jones
Director, Research Institute for the Care of the Elderly, Bath; Professor of Clinical Gerontology,
School for Health, University of Bath; Honorary Consultant Geriatrician, Avon and Wiltshire
Mental Health Partnership NHS Trust/ Bath and North East Somerset PCT
Professor Jill Manthorpe
Professor of Social Work, Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London
Dr Ifigeneia Mavranezouli
Health Economist, National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health
Dr Nick Meader
Systematic Reviewer, National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health
Ms Mary Murrell
Carer representative; Alzheimer's Society volunteer
Professor John O'Brien
Professor of Old Age Psychiatry, Wolfson Research Centre, Institute for Ageing and Health,
Newcastle University
Dr Catherine Pettinari
Senior Centre Project Manager, National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 Ms Sara Stockton
Information Scientist, National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health
Dr Clare Taylor
Editor, National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health
Ms Sophie Weithaler
Service Development Manager, Hillingdon Primary Care Trust
Dr Craig Whittington
Senior Systematic Reviewer, National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health
Ms Jacqui Wood
Carer representative; Alzheimer's Society volunteer
Professor Bob Woods
Professor of Clinical Psychology of Older People, University of Wales, Bangor
Dr Claire Young
Consultant in Old Age Psychiatry, Older Adult Mental Health Care Group, Sheffield
Advice on palliative care and medical ethics
Dr Julian Hughes
North Tyneside General Hospital, Northumbria Healthcare NHS Trust
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 Appendix B: The Guideline Review Panel
The Guideline Review Panel is an independent panel that oversees the development of theguideline and takes responsibility for monitoring adherence to NICE guidance developmentprocesses. In particular, the Panel ensures that stakeholder comments have been adequatelyconsidered and responded to. The Panel includes members from the following perspectives;primary care, secondary care, social care, lay, public health and industry.
Mr Peter Robb (Chair)
Consultant ENT Surgeon, Epsom & St Helier University Hospitals and The Royal Surrey County
NHS Trusts
Mr Mike Baldwin
Head of Health Technology Appraisals, Sanofi-Aventis
Mrs Jill Freer
Acting Director of Provider Services, Rugby Primary Care Trust
Dr Patricia Le Riche
Senior Lecturer in Social Care and Social Work, University of Sussex
Dr Roger Paxton
Director of Research and Development, Research and Clinical Effectiveness Department,
Northumberland, Tyne and Wear NHS Trust
Dr Paul Rowlands
Consultant Psychiatrist, Derbyshire Mental Health Services Mental Health Care Trust
Mr John Seddon
Patent representative
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 Changes after publication
April 2014: The wording of recommendation 1.4.3.2 has been changed to clarify the
circumstances when imaging is needed.
March 2013: Minor maintenance.
January 2013: Minor maintenance.
October 2012: Recommendation 1.7.2.5 has been updated, and a new recommendation 1.7.2.6
has been added, to incorporate recommendations from (NICE technology appraisal guidance 217).
Subsequent recommendation numbers in this section have changed accordingly. The rest of the
guideline remains unchanged.
December 2011: Minor maintenance.
March 2011: The clinical guideline has been amended to incorporate (NICE technology appraisal
guidance 217), which published in March 2011. See sections 1.6.2 and 1.6.3 for the updated
information.
October 2007: This guideline was amended to incorporate (NICE technology appraisal guidance
217), which published in March 2011. See sections and for the updated
information.
NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 About this guideline
NICE clinical guidelines are recommendations about the treatment and care of people withspecific diseases and conditions in the NHS in England and Wales.
The guideline was developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. TheCollaborating Centre worked with a group of healthcare professionals (including consultants,GPs and nurses), patients and carers, and technical staff, who reviewed the evidence anddrafted the recommendations. The recommendations were finalised after public consultation.
The methods and processes for developing NICE clinical guidelines are described in .
The recommendations from this guideline have been incorporated into a . Wehave produced explaining this guideline. Tools to help you put theguideline into practice and information about the evidence it is based on are also .
This guidance represents the view of NICE, which was arrived at after careful consideration ofthe evidence available. Healthcare professionals are expected to take it fully into account whenexercising their clinical judgement. However, the guidance does not override the individualresponsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances ofthe individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or guardian or carer, and informed bythe summary of product characteristics of any drugs they are considering.
Implementation of this guidance is the responsibility of local commissioners and/or providers.
Commissioners and providers are reminded that it is their responsibility to implement theguidance, in their local context, in light of their duties to avoid unlawful discrimination and to haveregard to promoting equality of opportunity. Nothing in this guidance should be interpreted in away that would be inconsistent with compliance with those duties.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence 2006. All rights reserved. NICE copyrightmaterial can be downloaded for private research and study, and may be reproduced for NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006 NICE clinical guideline 42 educational and not-for-profit purposes. No reproduction by or for commercial organisations, orfor commercial purposes, is allowed without the written permission of NICE.
Contact NICE
National Institute for Health and Clinical ExcellenceLevel 1A, City Tower, Piccadilly Plaza, Manchester M1 4BT NICE 2006. All rights reserved. Last modified November 2006

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ξ Mikrobi in antibiotiki 2006 Participation of Slovenia in the EARSS Project – Jana Kolman, Marija Gubina, Slovenska skupina za EARSS ω ξ Sodelovanje Slovenije v projektu EARSS – Jana Kolman, Marija Gubina, Slovenska skupina za EARSS What we know about Antibiotic Consumption in Slovene Hospitals – Milan i man, ESAC raziskovalna skupina ω ξ Kaj vemo o rabi antibiotikov v slovenskih bolni{nicah – Milan i man, ESAC raziskovalna skupina

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European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 2015; 19: 149-153 Treatment with icatibant in the managementof drug induced angioedema G. BERTAZZONI, E. BRESCIANI1, L. CIPOLLONE1, E. FANTE1, R. GALANDRINI Research Center on Evaluation and Promotion of Quality in Medicine (CEQUAM), "Sapienza"University of Rome, Rome, ItalyEmergency Medicine Unit, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Umberto I Polyclinic, Rome, Italy