Nativeamericanprograms.org








GLOSSARY FOR
BASIC CANCER TERMINOLOGY
IN THE NAVAJO LANGUAGE
A TRANSLATED GUIDE FOR CULTURALLY SENSITIVE EXPLANATIONS
FOR MEDICAL CLINICIANS, EDUCATORS, INTERPRETERS,
RESEARCHERS AND STUDENTS
Martha A. Austin-Garrison, Lead Translator
Edward R. Garrison, General Editor
DINÉ COLLEGE IN ASSOCIATION WITH MAYO CLINIC
FUNDED BY THE NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE
Photo Credits for the Front Cover Marie Brown-Wagner, MD, Georganna Baca participating in Fourth of July Celebration / Rodeo Chief of Otolaryngology, Avon 10 K Walk for Breast Cancer, at Kayenta, Arizona, July 4, 2009. Head and Neck Surgery, Winslow, Arizona, September Photo by Linda Cothron. Northern Navajo Medical Center, Shiprock, NM, speaking at "Breast Health and the Navajo Woman" conference, Shiprock Chapter House, Shiprock, New Mexico, August 27, 2009. Photo by Edward R. Garrison. Parade Float by Navajo Nation Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention Program (NNBCCPP), Daniel Costello, CAPT, PA-C, Navajo Nation Fair Parade, San Juan Oncology Associates, Window Rock, Arizona, Farmington, New Mexico, speaking Fourth of July Celebration / September 10, 2005. at "Breast Health and the Navajo Rodeo at Kayenta, Arizona, Woman" conference, Shiprock July 4, 2009. Photo by Linda Chapter House, Shiprock, New Mexico, August 27, 2009. Photo by Edward R. Garrison. Avon 10 K Walk for Breast Cancer, Winslow, Arizona, September 2008. INTRODUCTION AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This "Navajo Cancer Glossary" represents the work of one of the major activities sustained under a P20 collaborative planning grant awarded to Diné College and Mayo Clinic by the Minority Institution / Cancer Center Partnership (MI/CCP) program of the National Cancer Institute. Established by an Act of Congress in 1968, Diné College is "The Institution of Higher Education of the Navajo Nation" and operates eight campuses across the 27,000 square miles of the Navajo Indian Reservation. Mayo Clinic partners included colleagues from both the Rochester, Minnesota and Scottsdale, Arizona campuses of Mayo Clinic. Beginning in the Fall of 2006, Navajo Cancer Glossary "working group" meetings were held on nearly a monthly basis at the Shiprock, New Mexico campus of Diné College. The original thinking was that this resource would be focused for use among the Navajo public, but participating Navajo professionals advocated that a resource of this nature was also critically needed by clinicians and educators due to the facts that: (a.) there had never been a standardization and codification of cancer terminology in the Navajo language, and further that (b.) existing commonly used translations in the Navajo language, which had become entrenched after decades of use, were both inaccurate and misleading. The most notable example is that the most commonly used translation in Navajo for "cancer" is [óód doo nádziihii or "the sore that does not heal." This is not only technically inaccurate but it also tends to defeat the goals of screening and early detection and treatment, and tends to foster a fatalistic attitude that nothing can be done for the Navajo patient diagnosed with cancer. The working group that has produced this "Navajo Cancer Glossary" was comprised mostly of Navajo health professionals employed either by the Navajo Area Indian Health Service (U. S. Public Health Service) or by the Navajo Division of Health of the Navajo Nation government (most notably the Navajo Nation Breast and Cervical Center Prevention Program, the Navajo Health Education Program and the Kayenta Public Health Nursing Program). As word of this work spread through the provider and health educator community, additional participants continued to join the working group for as long as the working group remained active. By 2009, meetings were being held on a more frequent basis, sometimes as many as three times per month, in a concerted effort to complete the Glossary. By the Fall of that year the last series of revisions were being entered into the working draft, and the document was being prepared for production and dissemination. Among the Navajo professionals who participated in the working group that produced this "Navajo Cancer Glossary," a group of ladies at the Northern Navajo Medical Center (the Indian Health Service hospital at Shiprock, New Mexico) took on a special sense of ownership and convened their own meetings (especially during the summers of 2007 and 2008) so as to report back to the larger group on their thoughts, as clinicians and health educators, regarding the clinical and community appropriateness of the various translations being considered for different terms. We owe an extra debt of gratitude to these "Five Famous Ladies" for their special contributions to this effort. Major Contributors to the Working Group
that Produced this "Navajo Cancer Glossary"
Northern Navajo Medical Center, Navajo Area Indian Health Service Susie John, MD, MPH, Pediatrician and Medical Officer at the Teen Life Center Carmelita Sorrelman, RN, MPH, Health Promotion / Disease Prevention Program Margaret Lee, BA, HP/DP Specialist, Health Promotion / Disease Prevention Program Winona N. Begay, MS, RN, CPUR, Patient Care Coordinator Ida C. Bradley, RN, BSN, Uranium Outreach and Case Manager and Clinic Coordinator for Radiation Exposure Screening and Education Program (RESEP) Marie Brown-Wagner, MD, Chief of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Navajo Nation Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention Program Sally Ann Joe, Director Willa Mae Jones, Case Manager, Kayenta Service Unit Navajo Nation Public Health Nursing Program Linda Cothron, RN, MS, ARNP, OCN, Dir. of Public Health Nursing, Kayenta Service Unit Ellen Choyou, SCHW, CNA, Inscription House Health Center, Kayenta Service Unit Navajo Nation Health Education Program Laverne Lane, AA, Kayenta Service Unit Southwest Research and Information Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico Sarah Henio-Adeky, Navajo Community Liaison and Sandy Ramone, Envir. Health Specialist Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington Teresa Garrett Hill (formerly Guthrie), RN, MN, Program Manager – Spirit of EAGLES, NCI's Cancer Information Service, Northwest Region Edward R. Garrison, PhD, MPH, Faculty and PI for the NCI grant at Diné College Mark C. Bauer, PhD, Faculty and Co-PI for the NCI grant at Diné College Martha A. Austin-Garrison, MA, Faculty in the Center for Diné Studies Frank Morgan, BS, Independent Consultant to Diné College We began our work by consulting the "Cancer 101" curriculum which was previously developed by the Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board in collaboration with Spirit of EAGLES and the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service – Northwest Region. At the end of each of the seven modules in this curriculum, a Glossary is presented that is focused on the content of that module. We aggregated all of these Glossary entries to form the beginning body of terms for our endeavor, and then added additional terms that we felt would be useful for a general purpose Glossary to serve the providers and public of the Navajo Nation community. We extend our appreciation and recognition for this previous work completed by the Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board and their collaborators. Special thanks to Linda Cothron and Teresa Garrett Hill for providing especially extensive contributions to the English texts of this Glossary. This guide containing Navajo language translations of medical terminology for cancer is intended for clinical practitioners, medical interpreters, researchers and students. It is to be used with understanding and respect for the Navajo language. The Navajo language, as are all languages, is powerful. In the Navajo tradition, the spoken word is powerful and becomes a reality and therefore they say be mindful and careful of what you say. It is our responsibility to use these terminologies carefully. Our elders teach us that we should never joke or tease each other about diseases and abnormal conditions that affect the body, mind, and spirit. Disease, diagnosis, treatment and medicines are to be handled with great care. These traditions and beliefs are the background to translation and interpretation in all cases. Interpretations should be in the context of positive thinking, hope and compassion. Whenever possible, include the use of kinship terms. Using the Navajo language appropriately gives a person great joy, satisfaction, and sense of pride. And Navajo people appreciate proper expression of concepts. Dominant societal concepts and terminology cannot be explained well by mere use of literal translations by looking at constructs from the dominant society's perspective. An interpreter should also be familiar with the Navajo way of thinking and understanding. The Navajo people who live out there near the mountains and mesas are the greatest teachers of semantics and expressions. When you need help, rely on these people and they will show you categories of meaning, the "corn pollen" language, and ways to help a person with your words. Keep learning the language and how to use it in different situations. – Frank Morgan, Consultant, July 2006 Health care providers who use this Glossary should please remember that English is a second language for many Navajos. Much of the information and terminology that appears in this Glossary is specialized and esoteric even for native English speakers. Navajos who speak English sometimes do not understand the intended meaning of oncology disease and oncology screening information that is shared in English by health care providers, and they may be reluctant to say that they do not understand. We request that when giving explanations or education on these sensitive topics, that all health care providers request their client to repeat back the understood information in the client's own words. This Glossary for Basic Cancer Terminology in the Navajo Language is the product of one of the activities supported through a P20 planning grant from the Minority Institution / Cancer Center Partnership (MI/CCP) program of the National Cancer Institute – Grant Number P20 CA119013 at Diné College and Grant Number P20 CA118774 at Mayo Clinic. We gratefully acknowledge this support and encouragement that we received which enabled us to provide this resource for the Diné (Navajo) people and for the health care providers who attend to their needs and interests.
The Basic Characteristics of Cancer Cells May be Described as Follows:
Ats'77s bit['00l 11t'ee[gi 1t'4.
Ats'77s bit['00l yichx--h d00 ba'1t'e' haleeh, k0t'88hgo [ahda: Body cells, damaged, and, dangerous, becomes, when this happens, sometimes: • doo hazh0'0 ahii' h11hinoos4e[da does not, very much, multiply/grow • [ahda at7t'88hgo doo b44h0zing00 dah d7n7is44h sometimes, injured, unknown direction, it grows • [ahda t'11 bi[ ooch7i[ [eh sometimes, just, hereditary/you are born with it • haniy44hgo na'n7[t['ah yileeh growing into a big lump, difficulty, becomes • doo ahee[t'44g00 nidahinis44h does not mature to become a normal cell • binaag00 ats'77s bit['00l hadaa[t'4h7g77 y22h a'9 yileeh surrounding it, it takes the nutrients before the healthy cells have their share • doo hazh0'0 nida'ahidlo'da they do not work together, they lose connections • ats'77s bit['00l hadaa[t'4h7g77 doo y7dad7n4eln1ada yileeh they have no connections with the healthy cells • ats'77s bitah n11n1 [ahdida dah n11d7n7is44h it spreads to another area
To aid Navajo-speaking users of this Glossary, Navajo translations are shown in brown
and word-for-word back-translations into English are shown in red.
Adherence to Treatment Program – When a patient follows the instructions for treatment
given by the health care provider, it is said that he or she "adheres" to the treatment which
will help the patient become well again. In medical settings, use of the word "adherence" is
replacing the less respectful use of the word "compliance."
Nahodi'nitin7g77 bik'eh hoj7['98go. Nidi'n7n7gi 1t'4ego bik'ehgo 7'7['98 doo. Receiving the instruction, following it, adhere to it. What you are told, follow the instruction. Lack of Adherence to Treatment Program – When a patient does not adhere to
the treatment program, it means that the patient is not following through with taking
the medicine (treatment) provided by the doctor to help the patient become well
again. Many things could influence the behavior of the patient, such as barriers or
challenges to care.
Nahodi'neest3'7g77 doo [a' bik'eh hoj7['99g00. H22h 7'dooln7[7g77 doo [a' bi'ji['99g00 47 doodago bich'8' ni' j7l98go. Receiving the instruction, not following some of it, adhere to it. Receiving treatment, not following it through, or, hesitate on treatment.
Anesthesia –
An anesthesia is a medicine that causes the patient not to feel pain or
to not have pain. Some anesthesias make the patient temporarily unconscious or drowsy
so that the patient may not remember what has happened.
Temporarily makes the body numb or unable to feel pain. Local anesthesia – numbing only the area involved in the treatment Regional anesthesia – The patient remains awake but usually will receive medication to help relax. Regional anesthesias interfere with the feeling in a part of the body larger than the spot where the treatment is going to take place, without causing the patient to become unconscious. Azee' bi[ haa e'etsihgo hats'77s doo aniihda yileeh, doo neezgaig00 hona'anish, d00 [a' 47 doo ajiniihg00 hona'anish [eh. Medicine that causes, one's body, does not feel it, not, aware of pain during surgery, one does not feel anything, then surgery is done. Antibodies and Antigens – An antigen is a substance (usually a type of a protein) that
causes a reaction of the immune system. Antigens are normally present on the surface of
all cells, and help the body keep track of its own cells as well as cells (such as bacteria) that
may have invaded the body. When the body detects an antigen that does not belong, such
as on the surface of a bacterial cell, the body makes another protein called an antibody that
attaches to that antigen so that the body can detect and attempt to destroy
the cell where that antigen was found.
Ats'77s doo b1 y1'1t'44h7g77 47 doodago at7bidool77[7g77 bitah yileehgo 47 hats'77s yee bits'3hon7y4'7g77 haidil'99h. !k0t'88hgo 47 ats'77s7g77 bee bich'33h naabaah7g77 1yii['88hgo 47 dah yiyiit['00h [ahda di[ [igai7g77 yin4jahgo dei[d44h. Antigen : Body, not good stuff, or what will harm it, comes into the body,
that, one's body, with it, immune system, marks it. When that happens, the body,
antibodies, marks it, with it, sticks on, sometimes, white cell will destroy it. Barriers to Care – (Barrier) – Something that gets in the way or obstructs or impedes.
Something that separates or holds apart. Intolerance is a barrier to understanding.
Binahj8' bik'izhdi'doot99[7g77 bich'33h h0l0onii. To understand it, obstruction, exists/is there.
Barium Enema A liquid with barium (tiny metal particles) is put through the anus into
the rectum and colon so that an x-ray can be taken. Barium swallow – the patient drinks
a mixture that contains barium so that x-rays can be taken that will show the esophagus,
stomach and small intestine. An enema is a substance that enables the doctor to be able to
see an outline. A contrast medium (that will show up on an x-ray) is pushed through a tube
into the rectum and x-rays are taken to look for places where an unusual growth may be
present in that part of the intestine.
Hach'77' nitsxaaz7g77 biyi'di bee yit'98go bigh1d7ldla' biniiy4 hach'77' biih yik11h. Large intestines, inside it, with it, visible to see it, an x-ray it is done, reason for, one's intestines, inner side, it is placed. Basal Cells of the Skin – cells from the deepest of the five layers of the skin
Hak1g7 bit['1ahdi sikaad7g77. One's skin, at the bottom of it, that is spread out.
Behavior / Aggressiveness of Cancer – The manner in which the disease behaves.
Aggressiveness – Hostile or destructive behavior or actions. One disease may be more
or less aggressive than another.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hazh00'0go noos44[ 47 doodago tsx98[go ba'1t'e' h0l=-go noos44[. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, among one's body it works, very slowly, it grows, or, faster, that grows.
Benign Tumor – See the entry under "Tumor" on page 48 of this Glossary.

Biopsy – A biopsy is the removal and examination of a sample of flesh from a person
to determine if a disease is present. This may be done by using surgery (cutting) or by
using a needle to remove (withdraw) a small amount of the flesh from the area involved.
Ats'77s k0n7sh47h7go haalgishgo 47 doodago tsah bee haalts'ihgo d00 haalt'0odgo binahj8' ats'77s bohodiit'i'gi naalkaah. Body, very small, cut out, or, needle with it, pinched out or sucked out, from it, body, affected are, examined in the lab. • Excisional biopsy – surgical removal by cutting, as of a tumor or a portion
of a structure or organ Hats'77s biyi'di t'1adoo 1t'44g00 d7n4es1n7g77 a[tso nahg00 haalgish. One's body, inside it, not in the right way/abnormal growth/tumor, all of it, out, cut away. Incisional biopsy – a cut into a body tissue (flesh) or organ (inside body part),
especially one made during surgery. The purpose is to make an opening.
Hats'77s biyi'di doo b44h0zing00 d7n4es1n7g77 haash99 n7[tsogo t'47 nahg00 haalgish d00 t'11 22'1t'4ego 1l'88h. One's body, inside it, not known of its growth/abnormal growth, to some amount/size, only, out, cut away/partial removal of tumor. • Needle biopsy – removal of a sample of flesh for testing by withdrawing it
through a needle or piece of equipment that pierces the skin or the surface of a body part and continues into the underneath flesh to be examined. This is done without causing the outside of the body to have a large cut. This may also be called "aspiration biopsy." Hats'77s bihodiit'i'7g77 tsah bee haalt'0odgo naalkaah. One's body, affected area, needle, by means of it, sucked out, examined in the lab. • Surgical biopsy – In addition to needle biopsy, there are two types of
surgical biopsy: excisional and incisional (which were described above). Hats'77s bihodiit'i'7g77 1[ts'77s7go haalgish. One's body, affected area, small, cut out.
Blood – The blood is made up of plasma (which is the fluid or liquid portion of blood)
along with several different kinds of blood cells that are carried in the blood. The plasma
contains nutrients from the food that has been eaten, along with many other dissolved
substances such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones and antibodies. The plasma makes
up about 55% of the volume of the blood. All of the different kinds of blood cells are made
in the bone marrow.
Di[ t0 t'47 1t'4 d00 ats'77s bit['00l bii' h0l=-go hatah nidaazl9. Di[ bitoo' 47 ch'iy11n jiy1n7g77 bitoo' d00 n7dadeez'4l7g77 bi[ a[tahgo hatah nidaazl9. A[n77'd00 bil1ahgo di[ bitoo' hadi[ bitah h0l=. Ats'77s bit['00l di[ biyi'7g77 47 hawol biyi'di nihwiileeh. Blood is mostly water, and, body cells, are in the blood, as it flows in the body. Plasma, that, nutrients from the food, one eats, and, other dissolved substances, flows in the body. Over half, plasma, among the blood, exist. Body cells in the plasma, that, in one's marrow, inside, they are made. Red Blood Cells – Red blood cells are also called erythrocytes. When they pass
through the lungs, they pick up oxygen from the fresh air that has been breathed in.
They then carry this oxygen to all parts of the body. At the same time, they help
pick up carbon dioxide from throughout the body and carry it to the lungs where it
is breathed out. In a normal healthy person, red blood cells make up about 45%
of the volume of the blood.
Di[ [ich77'7g77 biyi'di ats'77s bit['00l h0l=. Hadi[ [ich77' 47 n7[ch'ih y1'1t'4ehii bi[ ajoodz7'7g77 n47yiil11h. $7 haj47yilz0lii bii'd00 hats'77s bitahg00 neheleeh. T'11 1ko n7[ch'ih chooz'88d7g77 hats'77s bitahdi n7deiyiil11h d00 haj47yilz0lii bii'j8' nehe'ee[ d00 nahg00 bi[ hajiidziih. Red blood, inside it, body cells, exist. Red blood cells, that, good air (oxygen), the one you breathed in, picks it up. That lungs, inside it, flows throughout body.
Just about the same time, used up air (carbon dioxide), collected and carried, to the lungs, and it is breathed out. White Blood Cells – White blood cells are also called leukocytes. There are five
major kinds of white blood cells (one kind is called lymphocytes). They all help in
protecting the body from bacteria, viruses and other organisms that sometimes get into
the body and cause infections. Cancers of the white blood cells include leukemias and
lymphomas. Altogether, the white blood cells and platelets (which help in making
blood clots) make up less than 1% of the blood in a normal healthy person.
Di[ [igaa7g77 biyi'di ats'77s bit['00l h0l=. Hadi[ [igaa7 bii' ats'77s bit['00l ashdla' a['22 1daat'4. $7 t'11 1t'4 hats'77s yaa 1dahaly3 1ko doo ay0o ts'77hniid00h d00 ch'osh doo yit'7inii d00 naa[niih hwein7t'98da. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 47 hadi[ [igaii [ahda yein7t'88h. White blood cells, inside it, body cells, exist. White blood cells, five, different types. All of them, protect the body, thus, one does not get diseases, germs or viruses too often. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, that, white blood cells, sometimes affects it.
Bone Marrow – The bone marrow is the soft, fatty substance or tissue that fills the cavity
(hollow area) in the inside of a bone. It contains fibers and cells that are needed by the
body to make red blood cells and white blood cells, and to allow red blood cells and
white blood cells to grow and mature.
Awol – 47 ak'ah yilzh00l7 ats'in biyi'di dan7t'i'. Awol 47 adi[ [ich77'7 d00 adi[ [igaa7 77['99 d00 yee nanise'. Bone marrow – that, soft fatty tissue, bone, inside it, extends out. Marrow, red blood, and, white blood cells, makes it, and helps it to mature. Breast Cancer – Cancer of the breast tissue (flesh) that may start as a small tumor.
Worldwide, it is the most common form of cancer in women. Because the breast is
made up of identical type of flesh in males and females, breast cancer can also occur
in men, but in men it happens very rarely – less than 1% of breast cancer cases).
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 47 habe' bii' d7n7s44h. D77 doo asdz1n7 t'47 beid7n0ot'88[da. Hast07 neezn1diin yilt'4ego t'11[1'7da beid7n0ot'88[. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, one's breast, it grows in it. This, not just women, can get it, too. Men, 100 of them, one may get it, too. Breast Self Examination ( BSE ) – A Breast Self Examination is when
a woman checks her own breasts to detect any lumps that might indicate
an abnormality in the breast tissue.
Asdz1n7 t'11 b7 b7l1din7bin7 yee bibe' yik'ih nidilniihgo, nit['izgo bii' nidoolts'i[7g77 yee nei[kaah. Women, just, themselves, their breasts, feeling with their fingers, for lumps that might indicate, from having it, they do self examination. Clinical Breast Examination ( CBE ) – A Clinical Breast Examination is
an annual breast examination performed by a health care provider.
Asdz1n7 t'11 nin1h1h11h bik'eh azee'77['7n7 yaa n1d1ahgo, bibe' b1 nin1lkah. Women, every year, health care provider, visit, do clinical breast examination. Cancer – Cancer is the uncontrolled / undisciplined growth of some cells in the body.
Cancer is actually a group of diseases (more than 100) that can be recognized because they
all have the behavior of uncontrolled growth of cells resulting in the invasion of healthy
flesh in the same area or throughout the body. Cancer cells show the unwanted behavior of
growing directly into other types of nearby tissue (flesh) and also of spreading to other
areas of the body (a process called metastasis) which makes it difficult for the other areas
to function as they should.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh, doo b44h0zing00 d7n7s44h. Hats'77s biyi'di [ahgo hazh0'0 hats'77s noos44[ d00 hasht'e n11'n77[ y65 t'00 bitahjig00 d7n7s44h. Bee hats'77s nizh0n7go h11doo'n77[ y65 doo hazh0'0 naalnishda sil99'. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, undisciplined growth. One's body, inside it, at one point, well, one's body growing again, and, becoming well again, just, merely growing/abnormal. By means of it, one's body, good/well, normal growth, but, not, well, works, it became. • Cancerous – Relating to or affected with cancer, such as in the description of a
"cancerous growth." A growth that has cells that have cancer. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably. • Cancerous Tumor – A growth that contains cells that have cancer. The tumor
is the growth itself, which may be a lump or extra flesh somewhere in or on the body. Hats'77stahdi haa'7da d7n4es32go, hats8' bii' ni'alts'i'go ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh. Among one's body/inside one's body, somewhere, when it starts to grow, flesh, lump growth, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably.
Cancers are divided into five main groups:
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 ashdla' 1['22 1t'4ego dah naazhjaa': Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, five, different, types, in groups: • Carcinoma – A carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin and other "coverings"
(epithelium). It is an unwanted spreading growth that comes from the flesh of the skin
that tends to spread to other areas of the body. A carcinoma may begin growing in the
skin or in the coverings and linings of most organs (inside body parts). Carcinomas are
divided into two main subtypes which are named according to the type of cell
where they start to grow: adenocarcinoma, which develops from the cells of a gland,
and squamous, which refers to a cancer that begins in the flat cells that cover the
surface of the skin, the mouth, the cervix, and several other body parts.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hak1g7 d00 hats3 sil4ii bik'7daasti'7g77 biyi' d7n7s44h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, one's skin and internal organs, its covering, inside it grows.
Sarcoma – A sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone, fat, muscle, nerve, joint,
blood vessel, or deep skin. It is a spreading cancer that grows from tissues (flesh) that connect different parts of the body together, such as bones, tendons (which attach muscles to bones), cartilage (found in the joints and in other places), muscle and fat. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hats'in biyi'di, hak'ah bitahdi, hadoh bitahdi, hats'00z bee ajiniih7g77 biyi'di, ah2dazhdit'32gi, hats'oos biyi'di, 47 doodago hak1g7 a[k'ih sikaad7g77 biyi'di d7n7s44h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, one's bone, inside it, one's fat, among it, one's muscle, among it, one's nerves one feels with, inside it, at one's joints, in one's blood vessels, or, deep inside one's skin, it grows. There are five basic types of Sarcoma. These are described in the Appendix.

Leukemia – Cancer of white blood cells (which are formed in the bone marrow).
There are different types of leukemias, but they all result in either a sudden or a long lasting cancer of the bone marrow in which uncontrolled production of white blood cells occurs and in which the person usually has anemia (a low number of red blood cells) and also has problems related to blood clotting and unusual enlarging of the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hadi[ daalgaa7g77 hawol biyi'di d7n7s44h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, one's blood, the white ones from the bone marrow, grows inside it. • Lymphoma – Cancer that begins in lymph nodes. A lymphoma may also be
called a malignant lymphoma which develops in the cells of the lymph tissue,
which are collections of immune system cells (cells that fight disease and infection)
that are found in the lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are located throughout the body
but are located especially under the arms and in the groin.
(See the several entries under "Lymphatic System" in this Glossary.)
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hak11z biyi'di d7n7s44h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, one's tonsils/lymph nodes, it grows inside it.
Myeloma – A myeloma is a cancer that originates in the white blood cells that are
called "plasma cells." These cells are made in the bone marrow. Awol biyi'di ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 di[ [igaigo bee w0j7h7g77 bii' d7n7s44h. In the bone marrow, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, white blood, that is called, it grows inside it. Multiple Myeloma – Multiple myeloma is a myeloma cancer that is present
in more than one location in the marrow of a bone or in more than one bone.
Awol biyi'di ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 di[ [igaigo bee w0j7h7g77 bii'di d7kw7igo sh99 a['22 nahaz'32di dad7n7s44h. In the bone marrow, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, white blood, that is called, several places, those areas, it grows inside it. Cancer Rates – Cancer statistics are most often given either as a "rate" or as a "ratio."
These are mathematical calculations that are used to describe the frequencies of disease
(such as cancer) that are occurring in a population, such as how many people out of a
thousand people in a population might be expected to be at risk for a certain disease,
or that actually have that disease.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 b7la'ashdla'ii haash99 n4el33' yee y22h dahoo['aah. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, five fingered people, so many of them, harms them with that disease.
Cancer Screening – Tests that are carefully provided to certain groups of people
for the detection of early disease that has not yet caused symptoms of illness, such as
women having breast exams and mammograms to check for early breast cancer.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 t'11 b7ts4edi bee 1daa 1h1y32go naho'dilkaah. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, from it, prevention, one goes through lab/screening. • Colon – Colonoscopy, Sigmoidoscopy, Fecal Occult Blood Test
The colon is the portion of the large intestine that extends from the cecum (near the end of the small intestine) all the way to the rectum. Colonoscopy – Colonoscopy is the examination of the entire large intestine
(colon) using a small camera on a flexible tube that is brought in through the
rectum. It allows the doctor to see the flesh inside the large intestine. If an area
suspected to have disease is found, it also allows the doctor to remove a small
part to examine it (biopsy). Colonoscopy is similar to but not the same as
sigmoidoscopy. The difference between colonoscopy screening and sigmoid-
oscopy screening is related to which parts of the colon can be examined.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 h1'd4est'98'go ach'77d77l t'11 1t'4 biyi'di naalkaah. Bee d7n0ol'88[7g77 d00 bee nidoolkah7g77 ach'77d77l t'11 1t'4 d00 bee ajich8'7g77 biyi'di n4l'9. D77 binahj8' a[d0' ach'77d77l [a' haalts'ihgo naalkah. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, looking for it, large intestine, all of it, inside it, screening it. With it, one looks, and, instrument, large intestine, all of it, rectum, inside, it is looked at. This, with it, is also used, large intestine, part of it, pinched out/taken out, lab/they study it. Sigmoidoscopy – Sigmoidoscopy is the examination of the large intestine
from the rectum through the last or lower part of the colon (large intestine).
This section is not difficult to reach with the equipment. The doctor uses a
thin lighted tube and a little camera to see inside the colon and rectum and
may decide to remove (cut out) one or more small pieces to do lab tests for
cancer. Sigmoidoscopy is used for screening for colon and sigmoid cancer.
Sigmoidoscopy is similar to but not the same as colonoscopy.
Sigmoidoscopy only examines up to the sigmoid, which is the lowest part of
the colon, while colonoscopy examines the entire large intestine.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 h1'd4est'98'go bee d7n0ol'88[7g77 d00 bee nidoolkah7g77 bee ajich8'7 g0ne' iilt'ih. Ach'77d77l h0yahd00 nineel'1n7gi d00 ajilchii'gi bee n4l'9. Yii' di[dla' d00 yida'ale'go 47 bee ach'77d77l d00 ajilchii' bii'd00 n4l'9. D77 binahj8' a[d0' n44l'9'32gi haalts'ihgo naalkah. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, looking for it, with it one sees, and instrument, rectum, extend into it. Large intestine, the lower end and, at the rectum, it is examined. The light enters and it takes pictures, inside the colon and rectum, it is examined. This, with it, also, that part examined, pinched out/taken out, lab/they study it. o Fecal Occult Blood Test ( FOBT ) Fecal occult blood is a term for
hidden (unseen) blood that may be present in the feces. In medical services, a fecal occult blood test is a check for hidden (occult) blood in the stool (feces). If hidden blood is found, it means that the person is bleeding farther up in the intestine where it is more difficult to see. (There is another longer description of FOBT on page 27 of this Glossary.) Hachaan di[ biyi' doo yit'7n7g77 bee naalkaah. One's feces, blood, inside it, not visible, with it, examined in the lab. Mammogram – A mammogram is an x-ray of the breast.
(There is a more detailed description of mammogram on page 34 of this Glossary.) Habe' bigh1'd7ldla'go bee naalkaah. One's breast, x-ray light going through it, with it, lab/screening. • Pap Test – A Pap Test involves using a swab to remove cells from the opening
of a woman's cervix. The cells are then sent to the lab to be examined under the microscope to see if there are any abnormal (cancerous) cells that might be present. Hwiishch'id bid1a'gi ats'77s bit['00l 1l'88h. !l'88h7g77 nidoolkahg00 bi[ 4'4l'88h 1adi bee da'd4est'9'7 ay0o bee yit'7n7g77 bee naalkaah, ats'77s bit['00l doo hadaa[t'4h7g77 [a' hadeidil'98hgo 47 hazh0'0 h1 nidei[kaah doo. Body cells, on one's uterus, at the tip of it/cervix, taken out. It is sent, to a lab, under a powerful microscope, lab work is done, abnormal cells, looking for it, carefully examined. Prostate Exam (Digital Rectal Exam) – The male patient is placed in a position
where the doctor can have access to the anus (rectum) and the patient is relaxed
(lying on his side, somewhat curled up on the examination table). The doctor
inserts a gloved and lubricated finger into the rectum through the anus and feels
the insides to search for unusual growth (enlargement) of the prostate gland.
Halizh bik11z hajilchii' biyi'd0ogo y7l1 tsosts'id7 bee b7'd7lnihgo naalkaah. !kwe'4 dah nitsaago ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 ho[ naw0ln7. One's prostate, from inside rectum, when pressed with index finger, screening done. Here, big, it becomes, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, one might have it. o Prostate – The prostate is a part of the male reproductive (sexual) system.
Its main function is to store until needed a clear fluid that carries sperm (semen) out of the body. A healthy human prostate is slightly larger than a walnut. It surrounds the urethra (the tube through which semen and urine come out of the body), just below the bladder (where urine is stored) and can be felt during a digital rectal exam. It is common for the prostate gland to get larger as a man gets older, but sometimes this enlargement results from cancer cells that have started to grow in the prostate gland. Alizh bik11z 47 din4j7 yee b1 ni'iich7ihgo yee had7t'4. Alizh bik11z biyi'di din4 bik'eely47, b77g2sh bits'77s biyi'd66' ch'4h4'ee[. Alizh bik11z dah si'1n7g77 bin1k11h g0ne' [izh b1 n7t'i'7g77 ch'7n7t'i', [izh bee dah si[tsooz7g77 biyaagi y7l1 tsosts'id7 bee hajilchii' biyi'd0ogo b7'd7nihgo bee naalkaah [eh. Hast07 t'11 [3 bin11haigo bilizh bik11z nitsaa yileeh, [ahda t'11 47 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 bilizh bik11z bii'd00 d7n7s44h. Prostate gland, that, male/man, with it, reproductive, sexual make up. Prostate gland, inside it, male sperm, semen, his body, from inside, flows out. Prostate gland, that, in place, through it, urethra, extends out of it, below urinary bladder, and, index finger, with it, rectum, inside, felt, with it, examine. Men, older ones, their prostate gland, large, becomes, sometimes, that, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, from the prostate gland, it grows. • PSA Test – The PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) Test is a blood test that is used to
detect the amount of a certain type of substance (antigen) that is dissolved in a man's blood. This substance is made in a man's prostate gland and is not present in women. If the PSA result is higher than normal, it may mean that the patient has a problem with his prostate gland, which could be prostate cancer or it could simply be that his prostate gland has become enlarged (called benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH). A high PSA level is commonly caused by enlargement of the prostate gland or by an infection or prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate), so a higher PSA test result may not always mean that a man has prostate cancer. However, it is important to monitor the PSA level in men, since prostate cancer may cause a high PSA level. The PSA Test is also used to monitor the status of disease or the possibility of recurrence of disease in men that have been previously treated for prostate cancer. Hast07 bilizh bik11z bits'77s bit['00l bee b44h0zin7g77 bidi[ biyi'di h0l0n7g77 naalkaah. Men, his prostate gland, cells, identifying, in his blood, inside it, that substances, test/measured. Antigen – An antigen is a substance (usually a type of a protein) that
causes a reaction of the immune system. Antigens are normally present
on the surface of all cells, and help the body keep track of its own cells as well as cells (such as bacteria) that may have invaded the body. When the body detects an antigen that does not belong, such as on the surface of a bacterial cell, the body makes another protein called an antibody that attaches to that antigen so that the body can detect and attempt to destroy the cell where that antigen was found. (See the entry on"Antibodies and Antigens" on page 5 of this Glossary.) Cancer Survival – surviving any of the group of diseases known as cancer, usually stated
as "5-year survival." It is similar to a percentage, indicating what proportion of people who
are treated for that type of cancer are likely to live for at least the next 5 years.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 t'11 bii' h11'iild44h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, from it, to survive. • Improved Cancer Survival – Having a better chance of surviving cancer.
Any person will have better chances of surviving cancer if they have adequate access to health care, including access to culturally appropriate cancer care, early detection of any cancer that may develop (such as by having recommended Mammograms, Pap Tests, Prostate Exams, etc.) and prompt treatment for any cancer that may be found in the body. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 [a' h1ida bits'77stah d7n7s44h 11d00 bee bik'ihj8' na'anishgo yii' h11dood1a[go 1t'4. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, someone, among their body, growth, and then, with it, working/treatment against it, one can survive from it. Good ways that are known to improve cancer survival include: Receiving education / training Bee ho[ h00ne'go b7nahodi'niltin d00 hazh0'0 bik'izhdiit32go. After being told about the illness, receive training and, able to understand the illness. Adhering to treatment Azee' hazh0'0 chojoo['98go. Medicine, well, using it. Transportation to cancer treatment centers Azee'1l'9 t'11 47 biniiy4 bi[ nahaz'33g00 bee hodoot'ih7g77 h0l=-go. Hospital, for that, reason for, treatment centers, with it, transportation, available. Taking care of any other health conditions @2h dahaz'3 [a' hain7t'7n7g77 a[d0' baa 1hojily3. Illness/health conditions, no, other, affecting one. Continuing to follow the path to recovery H0zh=-go n11jood1a[ doo biniiy4 azee' h22h 1l'99 d00 n7j7dziih, hadaa[t'4 n7j7sdl99' doo.
In a beautiful way, one will live, reason for, medical treatment,
recovery, getting well again.
Living in harmony and having beliefs H0zh=-go iin1 d00 hwe'oodl2' h0l=. In a beautiful way, living, and using cultural belief. Get adequate rest. H11'1y99h bee 1daa 1hojily3. Resting, with it, take care of self. Encouraging others Saad bee ha'ah0n7inii bee y1j7[ti'. Words of encouragement, with it, one talks. Cancer Treatment – Medical treatment of the cancer itself or management of
the symptoms that result either (a.) from the cancer or (b.) from effects of the treatment.
Symptoms that result from the cancer may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or pain.
Symptoms that result from the treatment may also include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
or pain, as well as other effects such as loss of hair.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 bik'ihj8' adinishgo bits'33d00 hatah haash99 h0sin7g77 47 jizkwih, n7j7kwih, hachaan t0go hagh1n7l9 47 doodago jidiniih [eh. Hatsii' d0' b4t'ood doo. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, working against it or management of the symptoms, from it, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or pain. Loss of hair. Symptom Management (Managing the Effects of Treatment)
Azee' h22h 1l'88h7g77 a[d0' ba'1t'e' dah0l=. {ahda doo 1k0h0sinda [eh. Treatments, one gets, also, have negative side effects. Sometimes, one does not feel well from it. Goal of Treatment – The goal of cancer treatment is to restore the
body to a healthy condition with no remaining disease being present.
For a cancer patient, sometimes the goal of treatment will be to control the
disease so that the patient does not have continuing illness or the symptoms
of illness, even though the cancer might still be present in the body.
Y1'1t'44h n7zhdoodlee[ biniiy4 h22h 4'4l'88h. {ahda azee' h22h 1l'98go n7j7dziih ndi hats'77s biyi'di t'11 h0l0n7g77 biniinaa t'11 ah33h n1hodi'n4l'88h doo. Well/good, to become, reason for, getting treatment. Sometimes, getting medical treatment, getting well, but, in his/her body, it is still in the body, because of it, regular check ups. • Biological Therapy (or Immunotherapy) – The use of natural biological materials
to strengthen the body's own cancer-fighting abilities. Substances from the body's immune system may be used to "teach" the body to fight the cancer (similar to the way that vaccines work). These are given to the patient in the form of medicine. (See the separate entries for "Interferon" and "Interleukin-2," both of which are examples of biological therapy or "biological response modifiers.") Hats'77s t'11 b7 yee 1daa 1h1ly1n7g77 d00 bee bits'1hon7y4e'gi bidziilgo 1l'88hgo bee ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 yik'ihj8' naalnish. One's body, just, itself, with it, taking care of, and one's defense, its strength, keeping it, with it, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, against it, works. Brachytherapy – Brachytherapy is a form of radiation treatment in which
a radioactive source (seeds or implants) is placed inside or next to the area
that needs treatment. (See also the entry for "Radiation Therapy.")
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7gi sh1n7d77n bee adidlid7g77 7l1stsii' nahalingo 1daa[ts'77s7 b7ighahgi niit'11h/nii'ni[da. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, radioactive / x-ray, small seed, that small, next to, is placed/are placed. • Chemotherapy – Chemotherapy is the use of medications to treat (or work against)
the disease. It refers primarily to medicines used to treat cancer – medicines that are poisonous to the cancer cells. The purpose of these medicines is to kill the cancer while causing as little harm as possible to the patient. Chemotherapy medicines can be in the form of pills, liquids that are taken by mouth or given into the veins, or they can be creams that are applied to the skin. There are different side effects from the medications depending on the ways that they work. When cells grow, they go through different growth periods (or cycles), just like people. Some of the chemotherapy medicines act during one specific part of the growth period or cycle more than in others. Many patients receive more than one medicine so that the medicines can attack the cancer in several different periods of the cancer cell growth cycle. Chemotherapy medicines are classified according to the ways that they work. Azee' hwiih n1k1ahgo ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 bee naatseed. {a' azee' yildee[, [a' daadl3, [a' bi[ haa'e'etsih, d00 [a' bee 1d7lt[ah7 1daat'4. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 t'11 a['22h 1t'4ego bik'ihj8' na'anish. Medicine, into one's inside, pouring, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, with it, it is killed/destroyed. Some medicines are pills, some you drink it, some given as shots, and some apply like creams. The cells, different effects, the medications, works against it. Adjuvant Chemotherapy – Medicines that are used to work against cancer.
An "adjuvant" therapy is an "additional" therapy that aids another therapy.
Adjuvant therapy means giving a second treatment after the primary treatment,
such as radiation or chemotherapy that is given after the surgery.
Azee' ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 bee bik'ij8' na'anish. D77 azee' ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 bik'ihj8' adinishgo a[d0' choo'9. Medicine, that is used to work against, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably. This medicine, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, that is used to work against, also, used. o Neo-Adjuvant Therapy – Neo-adjuvant therapy is treatment that is given
before the main or "primary" treatment but with the primary treatment still being necessary. For example, chemotherapy that is given before surgical removal of a breast cancer would be considered "neo-adjuvant chemo-therapy." Sometimes both adjuvant and neo-adjuvant therapy are used, in which case they would be given both before and after the primary (main) cancer treatment. For example: if a patient has surgery, followed by chemotherapy, followed by radiation, then the chemotherapy would be considered to be the primary treatment, the surgery would be considered neo-adjuvant (before) and the radiation would be considered adjuvant (after). Examples of neo-adjuvant therapy include chemotherapy, radiation therapy and hormone therapy. The goal of all of these treatments is still to kill the cancer. T'ah doo 7iyis77 hona'nishg00 t'11 b7ts4edi azee' h22h 1dooln77[. {ahda naaki a['22 1t'4ego azee' d77 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 a[ch'ihd66' azee' b22h 1dooln77[ 47 doodago bigh1n11'd7ldla'go bee didlid. Not yet, real surgery, before it, medicine, on one, it is applied/treated. Sometimes two types of medicine are used, this, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, from both sides, medicine is applied/treated or radiation is done.
Chemotherapy Classifications: Types of Chemotherapy Medicines (Drugs)
The chemicals that are used to treat different types of cancer work in different ways
and they also have different effects on the body of the person being treated. The
healthcare provider should explain these different types of medicines and their
effects before beginning to treat the patient with one of these medicines.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 t'11 a['22h 1t'4ego bik'ihj8' na'anish. Azee' t'11 a['22h 1daat'4ego bee bik'ij8' adinish. {a' azee' daaldee[, [a' daadl3, [a' bi[ aa'ada'atsih, d00 [a' bee 1dadilt[ah. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, just different kinds, use to treat it. Different types of medication, used to treat it. Some medicines are pills, some you drink it, some given as shots, and some apply like creams.
A classification of types of Chemotherapy Medicines is presented in the Appendix.

The Goals of Chemotherapy are to cure the cancer, control the disease, or control
the effects of the symptoms of the disease, while causing as little damage as
possible to the normal healthy cells in the person's body.
Cryosurgery / Cryotherapy – This is the use of extremely cold temperatures to
freeze and thereby destroy cancer on a certain area of the body, so that the cancer can be safely removed. Cryosurgery is often used to remove some types of skin cancer. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileehgo n1lt98hgo naatseed. Hak1a'gida hak1g7 n1lt98hgo ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 bee naatseed. Cells on the body that grow uncontrollably, freezing it, it is killed. One's skin, freezing it, cells on the body that grow uncontrollably, with it, it is killed. • Hormone Therapy – Hormone therapy involves the treatment of diseases with
hormones taken from endocrine glands (thyroid, pituitary, pineal and adrenal) or by using substances that increase the normal hormone effects. Some cancers are sensitive to hormones in the body. The hormones can be used to change the environment inside the body where the cancer is growing, causing the cancer to be weakened or even to become unable to continue to grow. The doctor may give a medicine that stops the production of certain hormones or prevents the hormones from working in the normal way. Alohk'e' d00 ak11z dah yikahj7 bitoo' 47 hayaay11k11z, hatsiigh22' biyi'di hak11z, d00 hats3'1sk'azh7 bik1a'gi hak11z bitoo' 47 alohk'e' d00 ak11z dah yikahj7 bitoo' nil98go 47 bee ts'77hniid00h d00 naa[niih bik'ihj8' na'anish. Alohk'e' d00 ak11z dah yikahj7 bitoo' ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 [a' yik'ihj8' naalnish. Alohk'e' d00 ak11z bitoo' dah yikahj7 bitoo' [ahda ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 doo hin11g00 1yii['88h, [ahda doo nanise'g00 1yii['88h. Pancreas and lymph nodes/hormones gland, its juice/fluid, that, thyroid, pituitary, pineal and adrenal gland, it is, with it, diseases, against, it works. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, hormones, works against it. Pancreas and lymph nodes/hormones, this, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, weakened it, sometimes, does not grow on. Tamoxifen – Tamoxifen is a medcine that is used to treat certain types
of breast cancer in both women and men. It is also used to prevent breast
cancer in women who have had ductal carcinoma in situ (abnormal cells in
the ducts of the breast) and are at a high risk of developing breast cancer.
Tamoxifen blocks the effects of the hormone estrogen in the breast.
Tamoxifen belongs to the family of drugs called anti-estrogens.
It is also called tamoxifen citrate and Nolvadex™.
Surgery – Surgery can also be used in one form of hormone therapy.
The surgeon may remove organs such as the ovaries or testicles that make
hormones. The side effects of hormone therapy depend on the type of therapy.
In women, the side effects may include weight gain, hot flashes, nausea and
other changes similar to those that usually occur during menopause. In men,
hormone therapy may cause impotence, loss of sexual desire and breast growth
or tenderness.
Radiation Therapy – Radiation therapy is usually a local treatment (given to a
small portion or area of the body). A precise dose of radiation is targeted to a specific tumor or area of the body to destroy the cancer cells while not harming the surrounding flesh. It is like a strong x-ray that is used to get rid of the cancer. Bee agh1'deeldlaad biziil7g77 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 bee didlidgo naatseed. A strong x-ray, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, with it, it is burned and destroyed. Surgery – Surgery is a procedure during which the body is cut to remove or repair some-
thing. This may also be done to find out if cancer is present in the body or if it has spread.
Hona'anishgo ats'77s haa'7da b22h dahoo'a'7g77 nahg00 haalgish 47 doodago naalgizhgo bee hasht'e n1l'9. {ahda ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 haan7zahg00 n11s d7n4es1n7g77 biniiy4 na'algizh doo. Operation, body, something goes wrong with it, cut it out, or surgery, to repair something. Sometimes, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, how far it has grown, reason for, surgery is done. o Laparoscopic surgery – The tumor can be seen through a small camera
attached to a tube and then inserted into the body through a very small cut. If a cancerous growth is seen, a small amount of the flesh where the cancer is found can be cut out and removed, as in a biopsy. This method can be used to examine and to rule out the possibility that the cancer has spread to other organs. It only requires a small cut in the skin and avoids the need for a large surgical wound. Habid t'11 1[ts'77s7go bik1a'gi yiigishgo 1k0ne' bee ida'alne'7 bi[ e'elt'ihgo naat'1ago hats3 sil4ii bee n4l'99 d00 t'88hd7go haalts'ihgo 47 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 h1'd4est'98'go naalkaah. One's stomach, just small size, on it, surgically cut, into it, with it, small camera, moved around to various internal organs, observe, a biopsy / pinched out, the cells in the internal organs that grow uncontrollably, looking for it, lab study is done. • Treatment
o Local Treatment – Local treatment is a treatment or medicine that is
applied only to the area of the body where the disease is present. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hats'77s 7iyis77 b22h d7n7s4ehgi d00 binaagi t'47 bina'anish. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, only on one's body, where it grows on it, at that area, only that part, treatment. o Systemic Treatment Systemic treatment is a treatment that will reach
and affect the entire body even if the disease cannot be seen everywhere. Hats'77stahg00 t'11 1t'4 azee' b22h 1l'9. Throughout one's body / among one's body, just all of it, medicine, on it, applied to / treated. Carcinogen – Something such as cigarette smoke, uranium, or other substances
(such as certain kinds of chemicals) that may cause cells to change so that they grow
and multiply uncontrollably. Carcinogens may cause them to change into cells which
become diseased and develop into cancer.
Kind66' n1t'oh niji[t'ohgo, [eetso, d00 ha'1t'77 sh99 bits'33d00 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh. Smoking store-bought tobacco, uranium, and, something, from it, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, starts growing.
Cell – Cells are the basic "units" of life or "building blocks" of all living things.
Some living things are made up of only one cell, such as a bacterial cell. The human body
is made up of many millions of cells. We grow new cells all the time. Some cells normally
die every day and are removed from our bodies. Each cell is supposed to develop or
"grow up" into a particular kind of cell, such as a muscle cell, a nerve cell, or a bone cell.
Cancer cells grow uncontrollably and do not "grow up" to become a normal kind of a cell
in the body.
Dahin1anii t'11 1t'4 ats'77s bit['00l yee hadad7t'4. {a' dahin1anii bits'77s bit['00l t'11[1'7 yee dahin1 47 ch'osh doo yit'7inii 1k0t'4. B7la'ashdla'ii 47 miiltsoh bil1ahgo yee had7t'4. Ats'77s bit['00l ahii' h11hinoos44[ t'11 1[ahj8'. {a' ats'77s bit['00l a[tso choo'88hgo danin4 d00 nahg00 k0daane'. Ats'77s bit['00l t'11 bahat'aad7 a['22h 1daat'4ego nidahinis44h, [a' ats'77s bit['00l d77 adoh, ats'00z, 47 doodago ats'in yee hadad7t'4 yileeh. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 47 doo t'11 n77t'4ej8' hazh0'0 nanise'da. Body, cells, all of it, are alive, with it, it grows. Some, life, its body cells, only one, exist, with it, there is life, as bacteria, it is like that. People, they have millions, over, their body cells, have. Body cells, multiply by growing all the time, every day, skin and blood, and some body cells, when all used up, die, every day, and they are removed from the body. These body cells, all of it, are growing, some are muscle cells, some nerve cells, or bone cells, they become. Cancer cells, do not "grow up," are not normal cells. Body, with it, it is made of (cells). • Abnormal Cell Growth – (Abnormality) – Cells may become damaged as a
result of the effects of certain chemicals or from radiation or other causes. If the cell is not able to repair itself, then it should die (called "apoptosis") before it reproduces to make more cells that have the same damage. Abnormal cells are not able to repair themselves but continue to reproduce and make more damaged cells that may result in cancer. "Abnormal" means that the cells are out of control, undisciplined. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h d00 t'1adoo le'4 ba'1t'e' 1daat'4ii 47 doodago sh1 bits'33d00 bits'1ziil7g77 1t7deile'. !ko doo t'11 b7 hadaa[t'4 n1dleehg00 47 t'00 nidahini[n44h. Ats'77s bit['00l doo hadaa[t'4h7g77 47 yich--hgo doo hadaa[t'4 n1dleehda, ndi t'00 b0h0ln77hg00 h11hinoos44h, 47 [a' ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh. Body cells, grows, and something, chemical that kind, or, sun rays, radiation, damages them. Thus, not, by itself, repair to healthy one, that, dies. Body cells, abnormal ones, that, damaged, not able to repair itself, but, grows out of control, that, sometimes, becomes, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably. Death of Cells – Death of cells results when cells are not able to continue the normal
life cycle of cells. They cannot continue to grow and make more cells. Many of the
cells in the body normally reach "old age" and die so that they can be replaced by new
cells. Cancer cells lose the ability to reach "old age" and so they just continue growing
uncontrollably but they do not "grow up" to become a normal kind of a cell in the body.
Ats'77s bit['00l 1niid7g77 t'11 1[ahj8' n1hoodlee[. A[tso binaanish [a' dayiilaa7g77 47 danin4. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 47 doo nidahini[n4ehda, t'11 b0h0ln77hg00 had7n7s44h. Body, cell, new ones, all the time, they are made/grow. The ones that have completed their work, they die. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, do not die, they grow uncontrollably. Cancer cells do not die, but just keep growing uncontrollably. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 47 doo nidahini[n4ehda, ndi t'11 b0h0ln77hg00 had7n7s44h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, do not die, just anywhere, they grow uncontrollably. Dividing Cells – Dividing cells are living cells that grow (multiply) to make more
new cells in the body. This is a normal process that occurs inside the body's tissues
and organs. During this process, cells may undergo changes (damages) that cause
the new cells to act or "grow" differently (or uncontrollably). These changes in the
cells may lead to cancer.
Ats'77s bit['00l ahii' h11hinoos44[7g77 47 ats'77s bit['00l 1niid7g77 hats'77s biyi' dan4es4ehgo 1y0sin. K0t'4ego hats'77s bit['00l danil98go hwii' sil4ii biyi'di nizh0n7go dan4es44h. Nizh0n7go hats'77s noos4e[go haa'7sh99 hoolzhishgo 1niid han11n7s4h7g77 [ahgo 1t'88h, 47 [ahda ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh. Dividing cells, that, new ones, one's body, inside it, grows, keeps it that way. This way, one's body, cells, they are, one's organs, inside them, well/normal, grows. Beautifully, one's body, somewhere in time, it changes, new cells, differently, may change to, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably. Poorly Differentiated Cells – All cells in the body are supposed to "grow up"
to become a specific type of mature cell, such as a skin cell or a blood cell or a liver
cell or a nerve cell. One of the characteristics of cancer cells is that they do not
"grow up" or differentiate properly to become a specific kind of normal mature cell,
but instead they remain as undeveloped or immature poorly differentiated cells.
Poorly differentiated cells are often cancer tumor cells that may only slightly
resemble the normal tissue that they came from. This type of tumor may tend to be
more aggressive in how it "behaves" or spreads and it may be more difficult to treat
or cure. This is because the cells have become very unlike the normal original cells
due to the effects of the disease on them (that is, they have become poorly
differentiated). The presence and condition of poorly differentiated cells may tell
the doctor more about the aggressiveness of the disease.
Ats'77s biyi'di ats'77s bit['00l t'11 bahat'aad7 a['22h 1daat'4ego nidahinis44h, [a' ats'77s bit['00l d77 ak1g7, adi[, azid, d00 ats'00z yee hadad7t'4 nidahaleeh. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 47 doo nizh0n7go hadaa[t'4ego nidahinis4ehda, ndi t'1adoo 44h0zing00 noos44[ yileeh. Body, inside it, its cells, specific type, different ones, grow to maturity, these, skin, blood, liver, and nerve cells, they grow to be. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, that, not, good normal healthy, grows to maturity, but, not, just without known direction, it grows, it becomes. Well Differentiated Cells – Well differentiated cells are cells that have "grown up"
or matured to become a normal type of cell in the body. Cancer cells do not mature
into normal "well differentiated" cells, but become "poorly differentiated." When
cells from a biopsy are examined under a microscope, the doctor who examines those
cells is looking to see if the cells are no longer "well differentiated" but are instead
becoming "poorly differentiated," which would be an indication of the cells becoming cancer cells. Ats'77s bit['00l t'11 bahat'aad7 a['22 1daat'4ego nidahinees1n7g77 nizh0n7go hadaa[t'4ego hats'77s bitahdi nidanise'. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 47 doo hadaa[t'44g00 nidahinis4ehda, ndi doo hazh0'0 b44h0zing00 nidanise'. !ko ats'77s bit['00l haalts'ihgo 47 ats'77s bit['00l doo hazh0'0 b44h0zing00 noos4[7g77 nidei[kaah [eh. Body cells, well differentiated, grow to maturity, well/healthy, among the body, grows. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, that, are not well differentiated, grows, but poorly differentiated, it grows. Thus, body cells, biopsy, not, well differentiated, growth, they examine it.
Cell Migration
– When cells move from one area of the body to another, it is called
cell migration. They can be carried in the blood through blood vessels or in the lymph
through the lymph system. This is a method that cancer cells use to spread from one area
of the body to another. When cancer cells spread in this manner, the process is called
metastasis. (See also the description of "Metastasis" on page 35 of this Glossary.)
Ats'77s bit['00l hadi[ biyi'di d00 n11n1 [ahdi nii'o[go d7n7s44h. Ats'77s bit['00l 47 adi[ biyi'go hats'oos biyi' nidaazl9 47 doodago hak11z dah yikahj7 bii' dah0l=. Body cells, in one's blood, at another place, it migrates/flows, it grows. Body cells, that, carried in the blood, through the blood vessels, or in the lymph system, they exist.
Cervical Cancer – Cervical cancer is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the cervix.
This is also called cancer of the cervix. The cervix is the opening that provides the passageway
into the uterus (womb). It is also known as the birth canal, since the baby passes through
the cervix on the way out of a woman's body during birth. Cancer that starts to grow here
can be detected in an early, curable stage by the Pap Test.
(See also the description of "Pap Test" under "Cancer Screening" on page 12 of this Glossary.)
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 asdz1n7 biishch'id bid1a'gi/b7l1tahgi d7n7s44h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, woman, uterus, at the edge/at the tip, it grows. Clinical Trials – Clinical trials are research tests that are done to evaluate and decide
if certain treatments are effective and safe when used to treat a disease. There are three
primary phases or types of clinical trials for medications, with an additional fourth phase
for follow-up studies after the new treatment has already been approved.
Bee 22h 7'dooln7[7g77 47 doodago azee' id7d0o[nih7g77 hazh0'0 naalkaah. T11' a['22h 1daat'4ego bee 22h 7'dooln7[7g77 47 doodago azee' id7d0o[nih7g77 naalkaah. Most effective treatment, or, effective medicine, carefully, tests/studies. Three, different types, most effective treatment, or, effective medicine, tests/studies.
A description of the four phases of Clinical Trials is provided in the Appendix.

Colonoscopy – Colonoscopy is the examination of the large intestine (also called the colon)
using a small camera on a flexible tube that is brought in through the rectum. It allows the
doctor to see the flesh inside the intestine. If an area suspected to have disease is found, it also
allows the doctor to remove a small part to examine it (a biopsy). Colonoscopy is similar to
but is not the same as sigmoidoscopy. The difference between colonoscopy screening and sigmoidoscopy screening is related to which parts of the colon can be examined. (There is more information on both Colonscopy and Sigmoidoscopy in the section on "Cancer Screening" in this Glossary.) Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 h1'd4est'98'go hach'77d77l biyi'di naalkaah. Bee d7n0ol'88[7g77 d00 bee nidoolkah7g77 ach'77d77[ biih yilt'ihgo bee ach'77d77l d00 bee ajich8'7g77 biyi'di bee n4l'9. Ach'77d77l [a' haalts'ihgo naalkah. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, one looks for it, large intestine, inside it, lab/screening it. With it, one looks/instrument, large intestine, inside it, extending it, with it, large intestine, and, rectum, it is studied, inside it. Large intestine, part of it, pinched out, examined in the lab.
Colony-Stimulating Factors – Colony stimulating factors are medicines that stimulate
the cells in the bone marrow to multiply and mature at a faster rate. When a person receives
cancer treatment they may experience a decrease in the number of red cells, white cells, and
platelets in the blood. Colony stimulating factors cause the body to make more of these
blood cells at a faster rate than normally and helps the person recover more quickly.
Azee' [a' 47 hawol biyi'di tsx98[go hats'77s bit['00l [2'7go ahii' h11hinoos4e[go 1yii['88h. Medicine, that, one's marrow, stimulate faster, cells, growth in multiples, stimulates/makes.
Colorectal Cancer – Colorectal cancer is cancer of the large intestine, often recognized
by a change in bowel habits and the passing of blood (melena) in the bowel movement.
The blood may not be easily visible but may be noticed as causing a black tarry stool (feces).
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 ach'77d77l 47 doodago bee ajich8'7g77 bii' d7n7s44h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, large intestine, or, with it, one's rectum, on it, it grows inside it.
Cultural Beliefs about Cancer – The Diné (Navajo People) believe in each person
taking care of himself or herself so as to live a good long life by living in a harmonious way.
A Navajo person will have these thoughts about taking care and living a good long life when
seeing a doctor to have a checkup or to have a screening test for the early detection of cancer.
Din4 47 h0zh==j7k'ehgo (Si'2h Naagh17 Bik'eh H0zh00n) 1daa 1h1y1n7g77 yee siz98go binahj8' n7zaadg00 iin1 y1'1t'4ehii yoo[t'ih. D77 yee bidziilgo 47 bits'77s yaa 1h1ly32go 47 azee' 1l'98di yah an1d1ahgo bits'77s b1 naalkaahgo 1ko d77 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= doolee[7g77 t'11 b7ts4edi yee 1daa 1h1ly3. Navajo people, in harmonious way (Long Life, Beautiful Life) taking care of self, by it, he/she stands, with it, long life good, living it. With these thoughts, taking care of his/her body, that, visit the doctor, checks, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, early detention, taking care of self.
Culturally Relevant Programs – Programs that specifically address the culture
of the people (such as the Diné or Navajo People) for whom they are presented or offered.
Culturally relevant programs on cancer will address the traditions and beliefs of the patient
in a respectful manner. Navajo people have a positive value about health, so it is more
culturally appropriate to think about "wellness" and actions that may lead to better health instead of thinking about things that may threaten or harm one's health. B7la'ashdla'ii (Din4/Naabeeh0) be'iina' d00 bibee'4'4l'8' binahj8' bee b7k1'an1'1lwo'go bee oonish. Din4 47 h0zh==j7k'ehgo iin1 dah yily44[ yaa nits7daakees, 47 hadaa[t'4ego ood11[ h0zh=-go iin1 dah yily44[ yee naaz9. Five fingered people (Diné or Navajo) their lives, and, their cultural beliefs, with it, they may get help, working with them. Navajo, beautiful way of life, they have it in their hands, they think about it, healthy or wellness, living a beautiful life, have firm belief.
Diagnosis of Cancer – A diagnosis of cancer is a detailed medical description of any of
the group of diseases known as "cancer." When a person is diagnosed with a cancer disease,
information has been found (usually as a result of a "biopsy" followed by examination of the
cells through a microscope) that determines that the person has the illness.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hats'77s bii' d7n7s4ehgi haalts'ihgo bii' da'd4est'9'7 ay0o bee yit'7n7g77 bin1k11 g0ne' h1 b44hooz88h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, one's body, growth in it, pinched out, through microscope, for one, it is known/diagnosed.
Diagnostic Procedures and Tests for Cancer – A doctor may suspect that cancer
may be present after examining a patient or after the patient has had an abnormal screening
result from a mammogram, Pap test, colonoscopy, prostate exam, etc. In order to arrive at a
more certain diagnosis, the patient will be asked to participate in additional tests, such as a
biopsy and/or one or more methods of taking a picture (image) of the part of the body where
the doctor thinks that cancer may be present.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l0n7g77 ho[ naaw0ln7igo t'11 a[k44' hon7'32go naho'dilkaah d00 n1hodi'n4l'88hgo hazh0'0 h1 b44hooz88h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, with one, suspect, one after another, test, and examine, until it is diagnosed. Biopsy – A biopsy is the removal and examination of a sample of flesh from a
person to determine if a disease is present. This may be done by using surgery
(cutting) or by using a needle to remove (withdraw) a small amount of the flesh
from the area involved. (There is a section that describes different ways in which
biopsies are done, in the separate main entry for "Biopsy" that begins on page 6.)
Ats'77s k0n7sh47h7go haalgishgo, haalts'ihgo d00 haalt'0odgo binahj8' ats'77s bohodiit'i'gi naalkaah. Body, very small, cut out, pinched out, and sucked out from it, body, affected are, examined in the lab. Bone Marrow Biopsy – In a bone marrow biopsy, a needle is used
to remove a sample of tissue from a bone marrow so that it can be
examined under a microscope.
Hayid ts'in7g77 47 doodago hak'aashjaa' ts'in7g77 tsah bee baa e'etsihgo ts'in biyi'di hawol [a' haalt'oh d00 n4l'98go h1 naalkaah. One's breast/chest area, the bone, or, at one's hip, the bones, needle, with, stick into it, bone, inside it, bone marrow, some, sucked out, and, examined in the lab. The doctor removes some bone marrow from the hipbone or another large bone. A pathologist examines the sample using a microscope. The removal of tissue to look for cancer cells is called a biopsy. Local anesthesia is used during a biopsy so that the patient may be more comfortable. A biopsy is the only sure way to find out whether cancer cells are present. There are two ways that the doctor can obtain a bone marrow sample. Some patients will have both procedures:  Bone Marrow Aspiration – The doctor uses a needle to remove (suck out) samples of bone marrow.  Bone Marrow Biopsy – The doctor uses a very thick needle to remove a small piece of bone and bone marrow. • Imaging Study – Imaging studies allow health care providers to take pictures
of areas inside the body. ("Imaging" refers to making an image or a picture.) Ats'77s baa 1h1y33j7 nidaalnish7g77 e'alyaa yee nida'a[kaah. Health care workers, picture/images, with it, studies done. Examples include: CT Scan ( Computed Tomography ) – CT scan is a series of pictures that
are taken by an x-ray machine which is connected to a computer. The computer
shows the pictures in sequence so that detailed pictures of different parts of the
body can be studied. A contrast material, such as a dye, may be used so that
different organs will show up more clearly in the x-ray pictures.
Ats'77s bihodiit'i'gi t'47 yida'ale', kind66' b11h neheeshgizh nahalingo hahinid44h. Body, something is wrong, only, takes pictures of it, from the store, sliced bread, like that, each picture is processed. o MRI ( Magnetic Resonance Imaging ) – A strong magnet linked to a
computer is used to make detailed pictures of areas inside a person's body. The health care provider can view these pictures on a computer and can print them on a sheet of photographic film. T0shjeehtso biih ho'dilzho' d00 b44sh n1'iil1ahii bee hats'77s naalkaah d00 yida'ale'. Big barrel, while inside it, sliding, and magnetic, with it, body, study done and pictures are taken. PET Scan ( Positron Emission Tomography ) – A small amount of
radioactively labeled glucose (sugar) is injected into the bloodstream while
a machine takes pictures that show which cells in the body are using the
glucose at the highest rate. Cancer cells sometimes show up in the PET scan
because they usually use glucose at a higher rate than other cells.
Ch'iy11n n11lk22d bee na'alkaah. Glucose, with it, studies done.
Radionuclide Scan – A small amount of radioactive material is injected
into the bloodstream and collects (concentrates) in certain bones or organs.
A machine called a scanner detects and measures the amount of radioactivity in different places in the body. The scanner provides pictures of bones or organs on a computer screen or on a sheet of photographic film. Afterward, the body gets rid of the radioactive substance quickly. Sh1 bee na'alkaah. Radiation, with it, studies done. Ultrasound – An ultrasound device makes sound waves that people
cannot hear. The sound waves bounce off tissues inside the body like an echo.
A computer interprets these echoes to provide a picture called a sonogram.
N11s hosiyoolts'88[ doo diits'a'g00 bee na'alkaah. D7igi 1t'4ego 47 ahilkeed. Sound waves, cannot be heard, with it, studies done. In this way, it takes pictures/movies. X-rays – X-rays are the most common way to view organs and bones
inside the body.
Bee 1gh1'd7ldlaad. With it, shine the light through it.
Early Detection of Cancer
– Early detection of cancer is finding a cancer and stopping it
before it can spread to other parts of the body. Early detection of cancer can save many
patient's lives and improve the chances of successful treatment and survival. Examples of
tests used to detect cancer early are Mammograms for detecting breast cancer, Pap smears
(Pap Tests) for detecting cervical cancer, Prostate Exams for detecting prostate cancer and
Colonoscopy used for detecting cancer of the colon.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileehgo t'ahgo h1 b44hooz88h, 47 bee ni' 1dooln7i[go doo hats'77stahg00 n11s din0os4e[da. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, early growth, when known, that, with it, to stop it, not, among one's body, forward, will not advance/grow. Early Warning Signals (or Signs) – Early warning signals are signs that something
is not right with the body (or not right inside the body). As cancer starts to grow in the
body, it may produce certain warning signals or symptoms. (See the list of "Symptoms
of Cancer" beginning on page 44 of this Glossary.) It is important to see the doctor or
other health care provider right away about any symptoms or physical changes in the body,
in order to determine the cause of the symptoms or changes.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 d7n7s4ehgo hats'77s [ahgo 1t'4h7g77 baa 1kozhniiz88h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, when it grows, when it becomes, one's body, changes, one may notice it.
Endoscopy – An endoscopy is the examination of the inside of a body area or a
hollow body part by means of an endoscope (small camera) that is attached to a tube
that makes it possible to place it inside the area so that that area can be seen. If a
suspicious growth is found when using an endoscope, the doctor may remove the growth
so that it can be examined in the laboratory (a biopsy). Colonoscopy is one kind of
endoscopy, in which the part of the body being examined is the colon (large intestine).
Sigmoidoscopy is another kind of endoscopy, in which the part of the body being examined
is the sigmoid (which is the lowest part of the large intestine.)
Hats'77s biyi'di bee ad4est'99' adin7[d7ingo naat'1ago bee n4l'9. Hats'77s biyi'di bee n4l'99 d00 [ahda hats'77s haalts'ihgo naalkaah. Sometimes, inside the colon, by means of it, scope / to see it, giving light, inside one, carried around, by it, one sees it. One's body, inside it, with it, examined, and sometimes one's body, pinched out, examined in the lab.
Epidermis – The epidermis is the outer toughened layer of the skin, which protects the
more delicate layers of the skin that are underneath it.
Hak1g7 bik11'd00. One's skin, from the top.
Epithelium – Epithelium is the thin layer of tissue that lines the internal organs, glands,
and other structures of the body. This includes the inner linings of the air tubes that bring
air into and out of the lungs, the inner linings of the arteries and veins that carry blood, the
inner linings of the stomach and intestines where the food goes through, the inner linings
of the reproductive organs, and the inner linings of the tubes that carry urine out of the
body. A cancer that develops in this type of tissue is called a "carcinoma."
(See the description of "Carcinoma" under the types of "Cancer" in this Glossary.)
Hats'77s biyi'di bik'7daasti'ii d00 hak11z. Hazoo[ bii' n7[ch'ih naazhch'ihgo haj47yilz0lii yee naalnish, hats'oos [ich77'7g77 d00 hats'oos doot['izh7g77, habid d00 hach'77' bik'4sti'ii biyi'di, hwiishch'id bik'4sti'7g77 biyi'di d00 halizh b1 ch'7n7l7n7g77 bik'4sti'7g77 biyi'di bi[ haz'1anii. One's body, inside it, linings, and, glands. Air tubes that bring air in and out of the lungs, that make it function, arteries, veins, one's stomach and intestines, its inner linings, uterus, linings, inside it, linings of the tube carrying urine out, its linings, inside it, these areas.
Fecal Occult Blood Test ( FOBT ) This is a test that screens for cancer of the colon.
The word "occult" means "hidden" and the word "fecal" refers to "stool." A person places
a small amount of feces on a paper card that is then sent to a laboratory to be tested for
blood. A patient can take this paper card home and then prepare and send the sample to a
laboratory through the mail, or the sample can be taken by a doctor or nurse in a clinic.
Blood in the feces may be an early signal or sign of cancer in the colon. Sometimes
cancers or polyps bleed, and the FOBT can detect tiny amounts of blood that are too small
to be seen with the eyes. If blood is detected in the stool through this test, other tests will
be needed to find the source and cause of the bleeding. Benign conditions (conditions that
are not dangerous) such as hemorrhoids also can cause blood to be present in the stool.
Achaan di[ biyi' doo yit'7n7g77 naalkaah. Ats32di ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 naalkaah. Naaltsoos bik1a'gi hachaan bee jidlishgo 47 azee'77['7n7 h1 nideii[kaahgo deiin4['88h. Hachaan di[ bitahgo 47 hazh0'0 h1 nideii[kaah. Fecal, blood, hard to see, examined in the lab. Abdominal area, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, test/screening. Paper, on it, one's feces, on it, one puts, that, medical doctor, for one, they do test, they look at it. One's feces, blood, among it, that, very well, examined in the lab.
Genetic Risk Factors – Genetic information is information that is contained within the
genes inside the cells which is passed on from parents to their children. Many cancers
develop as a result of changes or mutations in genes. A normal cell may become a cancer
cell after a series of gene changes occur. Store-bought tobacco, certain viruses, or other
factors in a person's lifestyle or environment (such as alcohol or other chemicals in the air
or water) may cause such changes in certain types of cells. Some gene changes that
increase the risk of cancer are passed from parent to child. These changes are present at
birth in all cells of the body. It is these gene changes that are passed from parent to child
that may be genetic risk factors for the development of cancer.
Iin1 bit['00l bik'ehgo n11s ooch7i[7g77 [ahda n11s ooch7i[go [ahgo 1t'88h. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 [ahda yileeh. $7 kind66' n1t'oh n7j7[t'ohgo 47 doodago hanaa 1dahoot'4iida, [eetsoda bits'33d00 hohodii[t'ih. Genetics of cell, following it, future births, sometimes, may change from it. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, will become, from changes in the genes passed to offspring. Smoking store-bought tobacco, or from environment, as uranium, from it, one may be harmed.
Hormones
– Hormones are substances that are made in small amounts in different parts
(organs) of the body. They are carried in the blood to all parts of the body, and guide and
control what other parts of the body do. Hormones help control the actions of cells and
keep certain cells and organs working properly. Some cancers need hormones to grow.
Ats'77s bitoo' t'00 ahay07 a['22h 1daat'4. Alohk'e' d00 ak11z dah yikahj7 bitoo' ats'77s bit['00l 11t'88[gi neilo' d00 hazh0'0 naalnishgo 1y0sin. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 47 alohk'e' d00 ak11z dah yikahj7 bitoo' [a' yee nidanise'. Body fluid, many types, are different, they are. Pancreas/glands and lymph node/hormone that group, its fluid body cells, controls it and keeps it working right. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, that, hormone/gland, with it, it grows. Hormone Therapy – Hormone therapy is used to keep cancer cells from getting
or using the hormones that they need. Hormone therapy is "systemic therapy,"
since the hormone therapy medication goes through the blood to all parts of the body.
Alohk'e' d00 ak11z dah yikahj7 bitoo' hadi[ biyi' nidaazl9. T'11 47 azee' 1n1lyaago hadi[ biyi'di hazh0'0 b7neel'32go 1y0sin d00 hazh0'0 ahi[ nidaalnish. Pancreas/glands and lymph node/hormone that group, its fluid, blood, flows about. Just that, hormone therapy, it is, one's blood, with it, well, balance, keeps, and, well, they work together. Examples of hormones that are normally present in the body include the following: • Estrogen – Estrogen is a type of hormone made in the woman's body that helps
develop and maintain female body characteristics and helps the body grow to maturity. Estrogens can also be made in the laboratory. Ats'77s bitoo' bee asdz1n7 7dl7n7g77 t'11 47 bits'77s yee had7t'4 d00 yee nanise'. {a' azee' 1n1lyaago asdz1n7j7 bits'77s yee had7t'4 d00 yee nidanise'. Body fluid, with it, female, being, just that, her body, develops and with it, she grows. Some, hormone therapy, the woman, her body, with it, body characteristics, and, grows by it to maturity. Progesterone – Progesterone is a type of hormone made in the woman's body that
plays a role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Progesterone helps the woman's body adjust to pregnancy and support the growth of the unborn baby inside of her. Ats'77s bitoo' bee asdz1n7 7dl7n7g77 t'11 47 bits'77s yee had7t'4 d00 yee nanise' 47 22hdii d00 oots32gi yee naalnish. D77 asdz1n7 bits'77s yee neilo'go i'niilts22hgo aw44' t'ahdoo yich77hg00 yee d7n7s44h. Women, hormone, with it, being a woman, she is, that, menstrual cycle and pregnancy, with, it works. This, woman's body, with, controls/supports, becomes pregnant, baby/fetus, with it, grows. • Testosterone – Testosterone is a hormone that is made in the man's body that
promotes the development and maintenance of male body characteristics such as a deep voice and more coarse body hair. Ats'77s bitoo' bee hastiin 7dl7n7g77 t'11 47 bits'77s yee had7t'4 d00 yee nanise'. Body fluid, with it, male, being, just that, his body, develops and with it, he grows.
Human Papillomavirus ( HPV ) – HPV is the name of a group of more than one hundred
different viruses. More than thirty of these viruses can be passed or transmitted from one
person to another through sexual contact and can infect the genital area affecting the skin of
the penis, vulva, vagina, rectum and anus. Many people who become infected do not have
symptoms and will get better on their own.
Some of these viruses are "high risk" and may cause certain kinds of cancers including cancer of the cervix. Pap Tests can detect changes in the cells that are pre-cancerous and may be caused by the HPV. Over time, if these changes in the cells of the cervix go undetected and untreated, they can become cancerous. In 2006, a new vaccine called Gardasil™ was approved to provide protection from four of the most common forms of HPV. It is recommended to be given as a series of three injections over a 6-month period to girls and young women who are between 9 and 26 years of age. Ch'osh doo yit'7inii 22h dahwiidoo['aa[ii t'11[1h7di neezn1diin a['22h 1daat'4. Asdz1n7 d00 din4 yisht44zh yaa naa'aashgo bit['ehgi a[ch'ihj7 ch'osh doo yit'7inii yee ah22h dahool'aah. {a' d77 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 nidahaleeh. Virus that is not visible, may harm one, one hundred, different kinds. A woman and a man, have sexual relations, on their sexual organs, both of them, virus that is not visible, may harm one another. One might be, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, it may become.
Immunity Immunity refers to the body's natural defenses that help the body to
stay strong and to fight off things (such as bacteria and viruses) that may cause harm.
Immunity refers to the condition of being protected against an infectious disease.
Immunity can develop as a result of previous exposure to the substances in a vaccine, from a previous infection with bacteria or viruses, or by transfer of immune substances from another person (such as the antibodies that a mother provides to her baby in her breast milk). Hats'77s yee bits'3hon7y44' 47 hats'77stah y7k1'an1lwo'go yee ts'77hniid00h d00 naa[niih 1daat'4ii yik'eh didl9. Hats'77s yee bits'1h0n7y44' 47 atah honiig11h 1daat'4ii hats'32j8' kw77['98 [eh. Hats'77s bee bits'3hon7y44'7g77 47 ha'1t'77sh88 b44j7y1h7g77, bi[ haa'i'ootsihgoda, 1[ts44d33' naa[niih hatah honii[gaii n7t'65'goda, 47 doodago aw44' j7l98go ham1 ji[t'o'go bee bits'77s bits'3hon7y44'7g77 haa yil44h nahalin. One's body's natural defenses, that, among one's body, it helps/fight, diseases and viruses, those kinds, fights it. One's body's natural defenses, that, infectious disease, those kinds, away from you, fights it. One's body's natural defenses, that, something, exposed to, from a vaccine, from previous infection viruses that got you sick, or from when being a baby, drinking mother's breast milk, her body's natural defenses, gives/transfers it to you.
Impotence – In medicine, impotence refers to a man's inability to have an erection of the
penis adequate for sexual intercourse. Impotence is also called "erectile dysfunction."
Some types of medicine and some types of surgery (such as for prostate cancer) may result
in impotence as a side effect of the treatment.
Azee'1l'99d65'go, 47 din4 doo na'alcha'da yileeh, bicho' doo k'4j77[g00 asdz1n7 yaa nidooghaa[gi doo y7ighahda yileeh. Din4 bicho' doo k'4j77[g00 bee bich'8' an1h00t'i' yileeh. Azee' haash99 yit'44 sh99 d00 bilizh bik1azda ats'77s dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= sil98'go b1 naashgizhgo 1ko doo na'alcha'da yileeh. From the medicine, a man is unable to perform sex, his penis, has no erection, unable to have intercourse with a woman. Man, his penis, has no erection, becomes a problem. Some types of medicine and prostate cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, surgery, unable to perform sex. Incidence of Cancer – The number of new cases of a disease that are diagnosed
during a specific period of time. For example, the number of new cases of cancer
that are diagnosed during one year.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 b7la'ashdla'ii dan7jaa'go 1niid bee b22h dahoo'a'7g77 y44lta'. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, five fingered people, in groups, newly affected ones, they are counted.
Interferon – Interferon is a kind of medicine that helps the body's natural defenses to
stop or slow the growth of cancer. Interferon is a biological response modifier, meaning
that it is a substance that can improve the body's immune system response to fight off
infections and other diseases such as cancer. Interferon interferes with the development
of more cancer cells and can thereby slow the growth of a cancerous tumor. There are
several types of interferon, including interferon alpha, beta, and gamma. The body
normally produces these substances in the blood, but the body may not make enough
interferon to stop the growth of a cancerous tumor. Interferons are also made in the
laboratory so that extra amounts can be provided to the patient to help treat cancer
(or other diseases).
Ats'77s yee bits'3hon7y44'7g77 azee'go 47 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileehgo yik'ihj8' naalnishgo ni' 1yii['88h 47 doodago hazh00'0go noos44[ yileeh. Ats'77s yee bits'3hon7y44'7g77 azee'go 47 naa[niih d00 ts'77hniid00h t'11 47 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 yik'ihj8' naalnish. Body's natural defenses, as a medicine, that, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, against it, it will work/fight, stop it or slows down the growth. Body's natural defenses, as a medicine, that, infections and diseases as, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, works against it/fights it.
Interleukin-2 – Interleukin-2 is a kind of medicine that helps the body's natural defenses
to stop or slow the growth of cancer. Interleukin-2 is a biological response modifier,
meaning that it is a substance that can improve the body's immune system response to
fight off infections and other diseases such as cancer. The body normally produces these
substances in the blood, but the body may not make enough interleukin-2 to stop the
growth of a cancerous tumor. Interleukin-2 is also made in the laboratory so that extra
amounts can be provided to the patient to help treat cancer (or other diseases).
Ats'77s yee bits'3hon7y44'7g77 azee'go 47 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileehgo yik'ihj8' naalnishgo ni' 1yii['88h 47 doodago hazh00'0go noos44[ yileeh. Ats'77s yee bits'3hon7y44'7g77 azee'go 47 hats'77s yee bits'3hon7y44'7g77, bidziilgo 1y0sin 1ko ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileehgo yik'ihj8' naalnish. Ats'77s yee bits'3hon7y44'7g77 azee'go 47 hadi[ biyi' 77['9. D77 azee' a[d0' t'1adoo le'4 naalkaah g0ne' 1daalne'go azee'go hwiih deik1ahgo 47 bee naa[niih 47 doodago ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileehgo yik'ihj8' naalnish. Body's natural defenses, a kind of medicine, that, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, against it, it will work/fight, stop it or slows down the growth. Body's natural defenses, a kind of medicine, that body's natural defenses, stronger, it makes, thus, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, against it, it will work/fight. Body's natural defenses, a kind of medicine, that, in one's blood, it makes. This medicine, in a lab, it is made, as a medicine, put into one's body, with that, diseases or cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, against it, it works/fights.
Late Detection of Cancer – Late detection of cancer refers to finding a cancer in
someone after the cancer has been present for a long time and has had a chance to grow
larger or to spread. If the cancer is found when it is still small (see "Early Detection of
Cancer" in this Glossary), then there is a much better chance of removing the cancer
from the body and stopping the spread of cancer to other parts of the body.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 n7zaadg00 bi[ nihoolzhiizhgo 7inda h1 b4n1lk11' d00 nitsaago 47 doodago a[ts'33'g00 dad7n7s44h. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 t'ahdii 1[ts'77s7go 47 nahg00 hadoolgishgo 1ko doo nitsaa yileehda d00 doo a[ts'33'g00 dad7n0os4e[da. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, the ones that became, long ways, with it, time has extended, finally, detected/finding it, and, large or spread, growth. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, still small, that, removing it, thus, not big or spread, no further growth of it. Life Expectancy – Life expectancy is an estimate or a prediction as to how long a person
is expected to live. It is a statistical measure defined as the expected or average survival of
people who are similar to each other (in age, sex, ethnicity, current health condition including having a disease of the same type, etc.). When doctors are treating a patient with an advanced case of caner, they may tell the patient that they think the patient has a certain amount of time left to live, based on their experience of treating other patients with similar cancer conditions. D7kw77 sh99 n11haij8' da'iin1. B7la'ashdla'ii dah naazhjaa'g00 t'11 ahee[t'4ego iin1 deiy7[t'44h (b44d11hai, asdz1n7/din4 danil9, bik1g7 bee a['22 1t'4h7g77, bits'77stahdi 1daat'4h7g77 bee b22h dah nahaz'1n7g77 bee w0lta'). D77 47 binahj8' azee'77['7n7 [a' ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 22h d7n7s44h7g77 haash99 n7zahj8' hwe'iina' naat'i' doolee[7g77 yee ho[ hodoolnih. So many years / extension of time, life, an estimate. Five fingered people, in groups, their health conditions, with, similar types of illness, living (age, men/women, skin/ethnicity, health conditions, similar illnesses). Based on this statistic, doctors, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, as it grows, certain amount of time left to live, will tell to him/her.
Lifestyle Changes – Lifestyle refers to how a person lives his or her life everyday –
what they eat and drink, whether they smoke cigarettes or chew tobacco, what they do for
work, how well they care for their bodies, etc. Changes from traditional lifestyles to more
modern lifestyles are thought to contribute to an increase in cancer rates among many tribes
of Native Americans. For example, consuming more processed foods compared to natural
foods from the land has been a significant lifestyle change for many Native Americans.
Modern technologies and conveniences such as fast foods, piped running water, paved
roads and cars and pickup trucks has made it much easier for many people to live, but
this has resulted in less physical activity and more sedentary lifestyles. These changes
in diet and physical activity may be linked to the development of certain types of cancers
(as well as overweight, obesity and diabetes).
T'11 1kw77j9 iin1 joot'ih7g77 47 ajiy1n7g77 d00 jidl1n7g77, [a'da 47 kind66' n1t'oh 47 doodago n1t'oh yit'aa[7 chojoo['9, naanish 1j7['98gi d00 t'11 h0 jiz98gi hats'77s baa 1hojily3. !ko d99j9 [ahgo 1t'4ego iin1 nidaat'i', t'11 47 biniinaa ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 d77 bits8' yisht[izhii k44dahat'99g00 t'11 y4ego bee b22h dahaz'3 sil99'. Ch'iy11n tsx98[go dood9[7g77 yiy3, a[k'id33' 47 k'44'd7dl4ehgo nizh0n7go ch'iy11n deiy33 n7t'66'. Yee big11l naat'i'ii h0l= d00 t0 bi[ yah adaazl9, atiin hashdl44zh d00 chid7 bee ch'aana'ad1 t'47 chodeiyoo['9. Doo bitah dahodis44hg00 ay00 1dan7ld77l 47 biniinaa ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 d00 ats'77s ch'iy11n doo hazh0'0 choyoo['98da 1daat'4h7g77 t'47 ay0o bidad44[n7. Every day, life, one walks/lives, that eating and drinking, some store-bought tobacco or chewing tobacco, use it, their work style and just up to one, taking care of one's body. Today lifestyles have changed, for that reason, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, Native Americans, the rate has increased among them. Fast foods are, mostly, eaten, long ago, farming, good food, they ate. Transportation and running water in homes, paved roads and use of vehicles are used. Lack of exercise, for these reasons, overweight, cancer and diabetes, are worse among them.
Localized Cancer – A localized cancer is a cancer that has stayed in one area in the body
and has not spread (metastasized) beyond the original place where it first began to grow.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 ats'77s biyi'di d7n7s4ehgi t'47 h0l=, n11n1 [ahg00 ats'77s biyi' doo n11d7n7s4ehda. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, in the body, it grows, only, existing there, to other area of the body, it has not grown.
Lymphatic System – The lymphatic system includes the tissues and organs that produce,
store, and carry lymph and white blood cells (called lymphocytes) that fight infections and
other diseases. This system also includes the bone marrow, spleen (near the stomach),
thymus (near the heart), lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels (a network of thin tubes that
carry lymph and white blood cells). Lymphatic vessels branch, like blood vessels, into all
the tissues of the body.
Ak11z yee had7t'4h7g77 di[ [igai7 77['99 d00 hasht'e' nidayiikaah d00 ats'77stahg00 h0l=-go 1day0sin. Awol, at4l7, ak11z dah naaznil7g77, d00 ak11z bitoo' 47 ats'oos nahalingo t'11 1t'4 ats'77s yee had7t'4. Tonsil/lymph nodes, and, with it, the makeup of it, blood, white ones, it makes, and, keeps it in one area/storing it, and, among body, it exists, it keeps it. Bone marrow, spleen, lymph node fluid, like blood vessels, all of the body, with it, the makeup of it. Lymph – Blood flows in the body from the heart to the arteries, then to the smaller
arterioles and then to the even smaller capillaries. From the capillaries, it flows into
veins and then back toward the heart. Most capillaries in the body are designed so
that they "leak" clear fluid of the blood (but not blood cells) as the blood is passing
through the capillaries. This clear fluid from the blood that leaks out of the capillaries
makes up the lymph. It "bathes" the cells of the body but also picks up bacteria and
any loose metastasized cancer cells that may be present. The lymphatic vessels carry
the lymph to the lymph nodes, where bacteria, loose cancer cells and any other
materials that do not belong may be filtered out by the lymph nodes.
B22h h11['44l7g77, bits'3h1lts'22[7g77 ni[t00l7go ak11z dah naaznil7gi y22h hayii['ee[. It filters, the leaked, clear fluid, lymph nodes, filtered. Lymph Node – Lymph nodes (also called lymph glands) are the small bean-shaped
parts of the lymphatic system that act as filters, protecting the body from infection
and disease. Each lymph node is a rounded mass of lymphatic tissue that is
surrounded by a strong protective covering of connective tissue. As lymph filters
through the lymph node, the lymph node removes cells that may be carried in the
lymph. These may be bacteria cells from an infection in the body, or they could
also be cancer cells that have broken off from a tumor and are being carried to
other parts of the body in the lymph. This is why cancer sometimes spreads from its
original location (such as in the breast) to nearby lymph nodes (such as in the armpit).
Lymph nodes are located along the lymphatic vessels, and are concentrated in such
areas as the armpit, groin and side of the neck. Lymphocytes, which are one type of
white blood cell, are present in lymph nodes and attempt to destroy any bacteria that
are caught in the lymph node and filtered out from the lymph.
Ak11z ats'77s yee had7t'4ego 1daa[ts'77s7go dah dadijoolgo dah naaznil. D77 hak11z ats'77stahg00 ha'1t'77 sh99 doo y1'1daat'4h7g77 nahg00 hadayii['ee[ d00 adi[ daalgai7g77 h0l=-go 1y0sin. Tonsil/lymph nodes, body, with it, make up of it, very small, round lumps in place. This, tonsil/lymph nodes, among the body, bad stuff, filters out, and blood, the white ones, inside it, making it exist.
Malignant Tumor – See the entry on page 48 under "Tumor" in this Glossary.
Mammogram – A mammogram is a picture of the breast made with x-rays.
Mammograms can often show a lump in the breast before it can be felt. When a
mammogram is made, it squeezes the breast. Mammograms also can show a cluster of
tiny specks of calcium. These specks are called micro-calcifications. Lumps or specks
can be caused by cancer, or by precancerous cells, or by other conditions in the breast.
Further tests are needed to find out if abnormal cells are present. If an abnormal area
shows up on a mammogram, more x-rays or a biopsy may be needed.
A biopsy is the only way to tell for sure if cancer is present.
Habe' bigh1'd7ldla'. Habe' biyi'di nit['izgo si'32go 47 bee b44hooz88h. !k0t'4ego 47 hazh0'0 habe' h1 naalkaahgo bee hazh0'0 b44hooz88h. Abe' bee agh1da'dildlaad7g77 47 yaago yi[jishgo yigh1d7[dla'. One's breast, x-ray is done. One's breast, inside it, hard lump, in place, that, with it, it is examined. That way, that, carefully, one's body, test, for one, searching it, with it, carefully, it is known/detected. Breast, x-ray mammogram, that, downward, squeezes it, x-ray done. Mammograms are the best screening tests that health care providers have to find breast cancer at an early stage. However, mammograms are not perfect: o A mammogram may miss some cancers. (This result would be called a "false negative.") o A mammogram may show things that turn out not to be cancer. (This result would be called a "false positive.") o Some fast-growing tumors may grow large or spread to other parts of the body before a mammogram detects them. • Naalkaahgo habe' bigh1'd7ldla'7g77 [ahda d77 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileehgo nayiis77h. • Naalkaahgo habe' bigh1'd7ldla'7g77 [ahda ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 doo 47 1t'44g00 ii[ki'. • Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileehgo [ahda nitsaa yileeh d00 n11n1 [ahg00 d7n7s4ehgo 7nda naalkaahgo habe' bigh1'd7ldla'. • Test, breast, x-ray/mammogram, sometimes, this, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, will miss it. • Test, breast, x-ray/mammogram, sometimes, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, not it, takes a picture of it. • Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, sometimes, big becomes, and to another area, it grows, finally, test, breast, x-ray/mammogram. Mammograms (as well as dental x-rays and other routine x-rays) use very small doses of radiation. The risk of any harm is very slight, but repeated x-rays could cause problems. The benefits nearly always outweigh the risks. The patient should talk with the health care provider about the need for each x-ray. A shield (such as a covering or "apron" with lead in it) is used to protect other parts of the body that are not going to be in the x-ray picture. Medicine
Traditional Medicine – Traditional healing practices and ceremonies
used by Native People. Bits8' yisht[izhii be'aze' d00 binahagha'. Native People, their medicine, and ceremonies. • Western ("White Man's") Medicine – Medicine as practiced by people who
have an M.D. (medical doctor) or D.O. (doctor of osteopathy) degree or license, and by other health professionals, such as dieticians, physical therapists, psychologists, and registered nurses. Other terms for Western or "conventional" medicine include allopathy and allopathic medicine, mainstream medicine, orthodox medicine, regular medicine and biomedicine. Bilag1anaj7 azee' d00 azee'77['7n7 yaa 77[ta'ii. Anglo, medicine, and medical doctor with degree.
Menstruation – Menstruation is the periodic ("monthly") discharge (bleeding) of blood
and tissue from the inner lining of the uterus. From puberty until menopause, menstruation
occurs about every 28 days, but menstruation does not occur during pregnancy.
Ch'ik47 d00 asdz1n7 bee n7n1d7zi'go di[ 22hdii n47yiilts44h. Biishch'id biyi'd66' bik'4sti'7g77 nahg00 k0t'88h 47 bits'33d00 chooyin n1dleeh. Young ladies, and, women, with them, every month, blood, menstrual, when they see it. Their uterus, from inside it, coverings, to there, it does/removes itself, that, from it, menstrual, she becomes.
Metastasis – Metastasis refers to cancer cells breaking loose from a tumor and then
traveling, spreading or moving from one part of the body to another part of the body.
These cancer cells often end up in lymph nodes or in organs such as the lungs or liver.
That is why the lymph nodes, lungs and liver are often the first parts of the body to which a
cancer may spread, but a cancer may also metastasize or spread to other organs of the body.
Hats'77stahdi haa'7da ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e'h0l= yileehgo 47 n11n1 [ahdida dah n11d7n7is44h. Among one's body, somewhere/a part, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, from there, to another part, it will start growing there. When Cancer Spreads – The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another
is called "metastasis." Metastases share or keep the name of the original ("primary")
tumor where the cancer first began to grow. For example, a melanoma (a cancer of the
cells that make pigment to give us our complexion) that begins in the skin can have
cells that enter the bloodstream and spread to organs in other parts of the body such as
the liver or brain. This kind of cancer cells that spread to the liver would be called
metastatic melanoma, not liver cancer.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 haa'7sh99 1[ts4 d7n7s44h, t'11 47 ba'1t'e' n11n1 [ahdi t'11 1k0t'4ego n11d7n7s44h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, somewhere, primary growth, just that, cancer, another area, just the same one, grows. Primary Site The primary site is the place in the body where the cancer first began
growing. The word "primary" means "first."
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 47 hats'77s ts'7d1 1[ts4 bii' d7n7s4h4gi 0oly4. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, one's body, very much, the first site, it grows inside it, it is called.
Microscope – A microscope is an expensive type of equipment that is used to look at objects
that are too small to see with the eyes. A microscope uses lenses made of glass to make
objects appear larger. When a doctor removes a sample of flesh from a patient in a biopsy,
the sample will be examined through a microscope to see if the cells have become cancer cells.
Bii'j8' ad4est'99' t'1adoo le'4 1daa[ts'77s7go an11' doo bee yit'7n7g77 nitsaa 1y0singo ay0o bee n4l'9. Azee'77['7n7 hats8'da hai[ts'ihgo, d77 bii'j8' ad4est'99'7g77 yee yin4['98 doo. Into it, one looks, something, too small, one's eyes, not able to see it, well, with it, big makes it, very, with it, one sees it. Doctor, one's flesh, pinched out, this, into it, one looks, with it, one looks at it.
Monoclonal Antibodies – A type of protein made in the laboratory that can attach to
substances in the body or onto the surface of cells. There are many kinds of monoclonal
antibodies; each one is specially made so that it can find and attach to a different substance or
cell. Monoclonal antibodies are being used to treat some types of cancer and are being
studied for the treatment of other types. They can be used by themselves or they can also be
made so that certain drugs or radioactive materials are attached to them and are then carried
with the antibodies in the blood directly to the cancer cells in a tumor.
(See the entry for "Antibodies and Antigens" in this Glossary.)
Ats'77s yee 1daa 1h1ly32go bee doo bohod44ln7g77 b44'1lyaago h22h 1l'98hgo hats'77stahdi ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hain7t1. Ats'77s bit['00l ba'1t'e' h0l= yileehgo yik'7n7t1ahgo 1adi y7dei[jah. Azee', 47 doodago ha'1t'7ida ba'1t'e' h0l0n7g77, 47 doodago t'1adoo le'4 ay0o 1b0odziilgo bits'1ziil7g77 bi[ a[tah 1l'98hgo hats'77stahdi hats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 y22h 7'ii['88h. Body, with it, one takes care of self, with it, not, one not being harmed, copied, on one, applied to, among one's body, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, looks for it/searches for. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, when it finds it, there at, applied itself to. Medicine, or, something, one that is harmful, existing, or, something, very much, is strong, radiation from it, with it, mixing together, among one's body, one's cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, on to, it applies to it.
Mortality – Mortality refers to death.

Mortality Rate – The mortality rate is the number of deaths that occur in
a population during a specific period of time, such as the average number of
cancer deaths each year for every 1,000 persons in a state or tribe.
B7la'ashdla'ii noon4[7g77 w0lta'. B7la'ashdla'ii noon4[7g77 47 d77 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 bits'33d00 be'iina' dah n7dahidiit'44h, t'11 nih1h1h11h w0lta', [ahda t'11[1h7di dimiil b7la'ashdla'ii dah naazhjaa'g00 bee w0lta'. Five fingered people, their deaths, are counted. Five fingered people, their deaths, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, from it, deaths, every year, counted, sometimes, in thousand persons, counted.
Oncology – Oncology means "the study of cancer."
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'4' h0l= yileeh7g77 baa 0lta' d00 naalkaah. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, the study of it.
Oncologist –
An oncologist may be a scientist who does research on cancer or a doctor
who specializes in the treatment of patients who have cancer. There are also different
specialties among oncologists, such as a medical oncologist and a radiation oncologist.
Some oncologists also specialize in specific types of cancer such as breast cancer or colon cancer.
{a' azee'77['7n7 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'4' h0l= yileeh7g77 nidei[kaah d00 [a' 47 t'11 11j7 azee' 22h 1dei['9. Some, medical doctors, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, research it and some are doctors who treat cancer. Medical Oncologist – A medical oncologist is a doctor who specializes in
treating cancer. Some medical oncologists specialize in a particular type of cancer
or a particular type of cancer treatment.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 azee'77['7n7 t'11 47 t'47 binaanish7g77 nei[kaah d00 azee' bee ni' 1doon7[7g77 22h 77['9. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, doctors, specialized, doing lab test, and, medicine, toward it, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, with it, stopping it, to be, applies to it. Radiation Oncologist – A radiation oncologist is a doctor who specializes
in treating cancers that require radiation for the most effective treatment.
The radiation that is used may be with x-rays or from other forms of radiation.
(For more information, see the description of "Radiation Therapy" under
"Cancer Treatment" on page 18 of this Glossary.)
Azee'77['7n7 bee agh1da'dildlaad7 47 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 yee yinaalnish. Doctor, radiation/x-ray, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, that, with it, the one it works.
Palliation / Palliative Care – The cancer cannot be cured or controlled, but the goal of
treatment is to decrease the discomfort caused by the disease so that the patient may have
pain relief and relief from nausea, vomiting or other effects of the disease. In some cases
a person may have surgery to remove most of a very large cancer so that the tumor will not
cause damage to other organs by crowding; for example: a brain tumor may be decreased
in size (through surgery) to slow the effects of the disease but it may not be possible to
remove it completely to cure the person.
Sih hasingo, y7n7 dilyingo aa 1h1y3. Assurance, with holy people's thought, comfort care. Prostate Cancer – Prostate cancer is a cancer that forms in tissues of the prostate.
Prostate cancer most often occurs in older men. The prostate is a gland in the male
reproductive system that is located just below the urinary bladder and in front of the
rectum. The prostate is part of a man's reproductive (sexual) system. It surrounds the
urethra, which is the tube through which urine flows out of the body. A healthy prostate
is about the size of a walnut. The prostate makes most of the seminal fluid which helps
carry sperm out of the man's body as part of the semen. If the prostate grows too large,
it squeezes the urethra. This may slow or stop the flow of urine out of the body, and for
many men with an enlarged prostate this may be the first sign that they have a problem with
their prostate. (There is more information about the Prostate under "Cancer Screening.")
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hast07 bilizh bik11z bii' d7n7s44h [ahda 47 biniinaa n1'1dlishgo yin7[t['ah. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, older men, their urine, lymph nodes/ prostate gland, growth, sometimes, for that reason, urinating, it becomes difficult.
Prostate cancer is not contagious. A person cannot "catch" prostate cancer from another
person, and a person with prostate cancer cannot give it to someone else. Prostate cancer
is not caused by sexual activity.
D77 bee ach'8' an1h00t'i'7g77 doo t'11 h1ida bits'33d66' yit'ihda. Doo naa[niih 1t'4eda. Doo ida'dilna'da. This, with you, problem, not from another person, you got. It is not contagious. You cannot give it to another person. Risk factors for prostate cancer are: Age: Age is the main risk factor for prostate cancer. This disease is rare in men younger than the age of 45 years. The chance of developing prostate cancer goes up sharply as a man gets older. In the United States, most men with prostate cancer are older than 65. Getting older Family History: A man's risk is higher if his father or brother have had prostate cancer, or if men in his mother's family have had prostate cancer. Race: Prostate cancer is more common in African-American men than in white men, including Hispanic white men. It is less common in Asian and Native American men.
Bits8' yisht[izhii j7l98go Being Native American Certain Prostate Changes: Some men have cellular changes that cause them to be at an increased risk for prostate cancer and these changed cells do not appear to be normal when they are examined using a microscope. Halizh bik11z [ahgo 1t'88hgo Prostate changes Diet: Some studies suggest that men who eat a lot of animal meat and fat may be at increased risk for prostate cancer. Men who eat a lot of fruits and vegetables may have a lower risk for prostate cancer. Ch'iy11n ats8' y4ego neesk'ahgo yid1n7g77 bits'33d00 ihodidoo[t'ih. Food, meat, very fatty, one eats, from it, problems. PSA or Prostate Specific Antigen – PSA is a substance that is produced by the prostate that
may be found in an increased amount in the blood of men who have prostate cancer or benign
prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or an infection or inflammation of the prostate. A lab test is used
to check the level of PSA in a man's blood. A high PSA level is commonly caused by BPH or
prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate). Prostate cancer may also cause a high PSA level.
(See more information about BHP and the PSA Test under "Cancer Screening," and also
the entry on "Antibodies and Antigens.")

Halizh bik11z bihodiit'ihgo bich'8' bitoo' 77['7n7g77 hadi[ bii' yileeh 47 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh. One's urine, its tonsil/lymph nodes, affected, it becomes, toward it, its fluid/juice, the one that makes it, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, becomes.
Psychology : Coping in Response to a Diagnosis of Cancer – learning to accept the
fact that one has cancer, dealing with it in a positive way and making thoughtful decisions
regarding treatment. A positive emotional response to dealing with cancer ("fighting"
cancer, as some people would say) may strengthen a person's body, whereas a negative
response to dealing with cancer (such as "giving up") may actually weaken the body's
ability to resist the growth of cancer.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hohodii[t'i'go h1 b44hooz88hgo bich'8' hadziil d00 ha'j0ln7igo 1zh'd0lzin. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, when it harms, for one, it is known, toward it, one's strength, and, one's faith/hope, coping with it. Acceptance – Acceptance means that the person understands that he or she has
cancer and has begun to make decisions and actions in response to that knowledge.
This can include cancer treatment plans and actions as well as talking with friends and
relatives about what may happen in the future.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hohodii[t'i'go h1 b44hooz88hgo h22h 7'dooln7[7g77 47 doodago doo h22h 7'dooln7[7g77 bohozhdi'11h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, when it harms, for one it is known, treatment or no treatment, one plans it. • Denial – Denial is a way of defending oneself, by not wanting to recognize
and accept a diagnosis of disease. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hohodii[t'i'go h1 b44hooz88hgo t'00 1dajin7 jin7igo doo joodl33g00 1zh'd0lzin. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, when it harms, for one, it is known, merely/just, they are saying, I think, one says it, not believing it, one keeps himself/herself. • Anger – Anger is an emotional response to a negative situation.
Anger is a common reaction to a diagnosis of cancer. H1h1ch8' d00 h1n7jiz'3.
One is angry and short tempered.
Stress – Stress is something in the social or physical environment that can
cause mental tension or even a physical reaction that may lead to illness. Hanaanish d00 honits4keesda hadei'1n1t'88hgo n77[ nijigh1. One's work, and, one's thinking, tension, one is living with stress. • Anxiety – Anxiety is a condition of strong nervousness, uncertainty and fear
resulting from the expectation of a threatening situation. A feeling of anxiety can be so strong that normal physical and emotional functioning is affected. Nits44j7lt[i' d00 tsx99[ 1zhd7l'98go b7ighah7 bik'ee ho[ h0y44'. One becomes emotional with fear and very anxious or nervous of fear. • Supportive Behaviors – Supportive behaviors may include providing support or
assistance to someone, offering to listen, or giving helpful advice or kind assistance. {ahd00 1k1 an7j7lwo' hanahj8' din4 dabidziil. Ach'8' y1ti' d00 aj7ists'33' bee 1k1'an7j7lwo'. Hwe'ajooba' h0l=. Y1'1t'44hj7go t'47 nits7dz7kees d00 y1j7[ti'. From one area, one helps, on one, people, keeping their strength. Toward one, speaking, and listening, with it, one helps. One's faith/kindness, one has. Toward the good side, only, one thinks, and, one talks. Caregiver – A caregiver is a person, such as a doctor, nurse or social worker,
who helps in the prevention or treatment of an illness or disability. A caregiver
may also be a person such as a family member who takes care of a child or a
dependent adult. The caregiver may help with bathing, meal preparation or
daily care.
Azee'77['7n7 yi[ nidaalnishgo haa 1dahaly3. Hooghand00 hashch7inii, hak'4ida haa 1dahaly3. Medical doctor, with him/her, they work, to one, one who takes care. From home, parents or relatives, they care for you.
Risk Factor – A risk factor is something that increases the chances (or likelihood)
that a person may develop a disease. Some examples of risk factors for cancer include
older age, a family history of certain cancers, use of store-bought tobacco products,
certain eating habits (such as too much meat or fat in the diet), obesity, lack of exercise,
exposure to radiation or other cancer-causing agents, and certain kinds of genetic changes.
Nahasdz11n bik11' ho[ haz'1n7gi hanaag00 ho[ 1hoot'4h7g77 t'1adoo le'4 1ch'8' k0j7['9 d00 b44j7gh1h7g77 t'11 bits'33d00 kahodeezt'i'. On earth, one's home, surrounding, state of being, things, taking in, and, expose to, from it/exposed to, may develop diseases. • Heredity – Heredity refers to information that is contained within the genes
of our cells and that can be transmitted or passed down from parent to child. Cancer is not considered to be an inherited illness because most cases of cancer (perhaps 80 to 90 percent of cases) occur in people with no family history of the disease. However, a person's chances of developing cancer can be influenced by the inheritance of certain kinds of genetic alterations (changes). These alterations tend to increase an individual's susceptibility to developing cancer in the future. (See also the entry for "Genetic Risk Factors" on page 28 of this Glossary.) @2h dahwiidoo['aa[ii [ahda t'11 bi[ n11s oo[ch7i[ [eh. Illness, sometimes, just with it, inherited within birthing. • Lifestyle – Lifestyle factors such as a poor diet, not enough physical activity
or being overweight may result in a person being at increased risk for developing several types of cancer. For example, studies suggest that people whose diet is high in fat have an increased risk of developing cancers of the colon, uterus and prostate. Lack of physical activity and being overweight are risk factors for cancers of the breast, colon, esophagus, kidney and uterus. (See also the entry for "Lifestyle Changes" on page 32 of this Glossary.) Doo hazh0'0 ch'iy11n y1'1t'4ehii jiy33g00 d00 doo 1daa 1hojily33g00 t'11 47 bits'33d00 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 doo h1k1sti'da doolee[. Not eating healthy food, and not taking care of self, from it, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, is a risk factor. • Environment – Where we live, where we work and what we are exposed to
may influence our risk for developing cancer. This may include pollution or other chemicals in the air, soil and water, and other sources of exposure such as: Ba'1t'e' dah0l0onii bideezla', n7[ch'ih d00 t0, [eetsoda b44j7gh1ago bits'33d00 kahodeezt'i'go doo h1k1sti'g00 1t'4. Exposure to chemical, air and water, uranium, from it, is a risk factor. Sunlight ( Ultraviolet or UV Radiation ) – from the sun itself or also from
sunlamps and tanning booths. Ultraviolet light from the sun and from sunlamps
can cause early aging of the skin and skin damage that may lead to skin cancer.
Sh1n7d77n bits'33d00 hak1g7 b22h ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh. Hak1g7 t'1adoo hodina'7 sh1n7d77n bee haji[tihgo [ahda bits'33d00 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'4 h0l= yileeh. From the sun light, on the skin, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably. One's skin, rapidly, sunlight, with it, aging, sometimes, from it, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably. Ionizing Radiation – Ionizing radiation can cause cell damage that leads to
the development of cancer. This kind of radiation comes from high energy rays
that enter the Earth's atmosphere from outer space, from radioactive fallout,
from radon gas that comes from the earth, and from x-rays and other sources.
Y1 d00 nahasdz11n bideezla' ats'77s bit['00l yi[ch--hgo [ahda bits'33d00 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh. From the sky and the earth, exposure to radiation, cell damage, sometimes, from it, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably. Radioactive Fallout can come from accidents at nuclear power plants or from the production, testing or use of atomic weapons (nuclear bombs). People exposed to radioactive fallout may have an increased risk of cancer, especially leukemia and cancers of the thyroid, breast, lung and stomach. Radon is a radioactive gas that you cannot see, smell or taste. It forms in soil and rocks. People who work underground in mines may be exposed to radon. Radon may get into a house from the soil that is under the house. People exposed to radon are at increased risk of developing lung cancer. Medical Procedures are a common source of ionizing radiation. Health care providers use radiation (low-dose x-rays) to take pictures of the inside of the body. These pictures help to diagnose broken bones and other problems. Health care providers may also use radiation therapy (high-dose radiation from large machines or from radioactive substances) to treat cancer. The risk of developing cancer from exposure to low-dose x-rays is extremely small. The risk from radiation therapy is slightly higher, since stronger doses of ionizing radiation are used in radiation therapy. For both x-rays and radiation therapy, the medical benefit almost always outweighs the small amount of risk.
Risk Reduction – Risk reduction refers to actions that we can take for ourselves that
may decrease our chances for developing cancer. Examples include: maintain a healthy
weight, get at least 30 minutes of exercise each day, don't use store-bought tobacco, eat a
healthy diet, limit consumption or do not drink alcohol, protect yourself from the sun, and
protect yourself and your partner from sexually transmitted diseases.
T'11 h0 jiz98gi 1j7t'4h7g77 d00 1joot'88[7g77 bee 1daa 1hojily3. !ko ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 bits'22 1j7t'4e doolee[. !zhn7[d1s7g77 yaa 1j0sin, t1diin dah alzhinj8' hatah hozhdis4ehgo hwee an1'1t'11h, kind66' n1t'oh doo chojoo['99g00, ch'iy11n y1'1t'4ehii jiy32go, t0 tsi'na'iil1h7g77 doo ay0o jidl33g00, sh1n7d77n t'11 bee 1daa 1hojily32go bii' nijigh1, d00 hach'oon7 t'11[1'7 1j0singo hazh0'0 jiin1. One's behavior and actions, based on it, one takes care of self. That, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, from it, one can stand. Keeping weight down, exercise for 30 minutes each day, do not smoke store-bought tobacco, eat good food, limit use of alcohol, walking in the sunlight with care, and having one sex partner, living a good life.
Side Effects – Side effects are effects on the person that may be caused by the treatment
that they are given for cancer. Some cancer treatments cause conditions that can be very
uncomfortable. Some of the most common "side effects" are hair loss, nausea, vomiting
and fatigue. There are other side effects that the person may experience depending on
what medicine is used. When a person receives radiation treatment they may also experience
side effects such as those that are described above. The person may become very sick from
these side effects in addition to the sickness they are experiencing from the cancer. These
side effects diminish or disappear when the treatment is completed.
(There is more information about side effects in the first entry under "Cancer Treatment.")
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileehgo azee' bee hona'anishgo bits'33d00 hats'77s [ahgo 1y0sin, hatsii' b4t'ood d00 n7j7kwih [eh. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, medicine, with it, working on it/treatment, from it, one's body, different, keeps it that way, hair loss and vomiting, usually.
Sigmoidoscopy – Sigmoidoscopy is the examination of the large intestine from the
rectum through the last or lower part of the colon (large intestine). This section is not
difficult to reach with the equipment. The doctor uses a thin lighted tube and a little
camera to see inside the colon and rectum and may decide to remove (cut out) one or more small pieces to do lab tests for cancer. Sigmoidoscopy is used for screening for colon and sigmoid cancer. Sigmoidoscopy is similar to but not the same as colonoscopy. Sigmoidoscopy only examines up to the sigmoid, which is the lowest part of the colon, while colonoscopy examines the entire large intestine. (See also the description of sigmoidoscopy in "Cancer Screening" on page 11 of this Glossary.) Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 h1'd4est'98'go bee d7n0ol'88[7g77 d00 bee nidoolkah7g77 bee ajich8'7 g0ne' iilt'ih. Ach'77d77l h0yahd00 nineel'1n7gi d00 ajilchii'gi bee n4l'9. Yii' di[dla' d00 yida'ale'go 47 bee ach'77d77l d00 ajilchii' bii'd00 n4l'9. D77 binahj8' a[d0' n44l'9'32gi haalts'ihgo naalkah. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, looking for it, with it one sees, and instrument, rectum, extend into it. Large intestine, the lower end and, at the rectum, it is examined. The light enters and it takes pictures, inside the colon and rectum, it is examined. This, with it, also, that part examined, pinched out/taken out, and, they do lab test/test it.
Staging
– Staging is done by performing tests or surgery to determine the size of a cancer
and the extent it may have spread from the place where it started (the "primary tumor").
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 haash99 n7zahg00 ats'77stah sil99'7g77 naalkaah. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, how far it has gone, among the body, that it has become, lab test/studying it. Stages of Cancer – To plan the best treatment for cancer, the doctor needs to know
the extent or stage of the disease. The doctor may have x-rays, lab tests and other tests
or procedures done in order to learn the extent of the disease. This information is used
to plan the best treatment for the cancer.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 ats'77stahg00 n11s yig1a[gi b44h0zin. D99' a['22h 1t'4ego a[k44' hon7'32go ats'77stahg00 n11s d7n7s44h. Binahj8' azee' 22h 1dooln7[7g77 bohodit'11h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, among the body, forward, it moves. Four, different ones, one after another, spaces, among the body, forward, spreading, it grows. Treatment is planned. In Situ (Stage One) – "In situ" means "in place." This term refers to a
cancer that is still in the location where it began and has not spread or moved
to additional parts of the body. It is considered to be curable at this stage.
&inda ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh.
T'ahdoo ats'77s n11n1 [ahdi bii' dah d7n7s44hg00.
Just now, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably.
Not yet, body, to another part, it grows.
Local (Stage Two) – A Stage Two cancer is larger than in Stage One
and may or may not have spread to nearby lymph nodes.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 ats'77s biyi'di d7n7s44h d00 binaahg00 t'4iy1 h0l= d00 ak11z biyi'di [ahda d7n7s44h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, in the body, it grows, and, around it, only, when it exists, around it, only, exist, and, lymph nodes, may grow inside it. Regional (Stage Three) – A Stage Three cancer is larger than in Stage Two
and has spread into the lymph nodes. This stage is also called "regional metastasis."
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 han77s1n7d00 binaag00 ats'77s biyi'di d7n7s44h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, from where it starts to grow, around it, inside the body, it grows. Distant (Stage Four) – A Stage Four cancer has spread to a different area
of the body from where it started. This is also called "distant metastasis."

Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 n11n1 [ahgo ats'77stahg00 nahaz'1n7g77 biyi'di d7n7s44h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, at another area, among the body, somewhere, inside, it has grown.
Surgeon – A surgeon is a doctor who removes or repairs a part of the body
by operating on the patient.
Azee'77['7n7 ats'77s nei[gizh 47 doodago ats'77s y1'1t'44h 1n1yoodl7i[go yinaalnish. Doctor, body, cutting it/doing surgery, or, good/whole, he makes it, works.
Surgery
– The word "surgery" is used to refer to the medical procedure of treating
diseases or injuries by operating on the patient in order to remove or repair a part of the body
or to have access into the part of the body where a disease may be present. If the patient is
suspected to have cancer, the purpose of the surgery may be to find out if the patient
actually does have cancer or the extent of the cancer.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hats'77s biyi'di d7n7s4h7gi t'47 nahg00 haalgishgo hona'anish. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, in the body, it grows, remove by operation.
Symptoms of Cancer – There are many different symptoms known to be associated
with certain types of cancer. As cancer grows in the body, it causes changes to take place,
producing symptoms. The symptoms that appear depend on the size of the cancer, the location,
and which organs or body parts are nearby to the cancer. The symptoms are the feelings that
the patient has that something is not right inside his or her own body, and they should be
promptly reported to the health care provider.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hats'77s biyi'di d7n7s4ehgo hatah doo 1k0hoot'44g00 1y0sin7g77 bee baa 1kozniiz88h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, in one's body, when it bothers/harms one, producing symptoms, with it, one will know. • Changes in Bowel or Bladder Habits – Diarrhea, constipation or changes in
the size of stool may indicate colon cancer. Pain with urination, blood in the urine or feces, or change in bladder function or difficulty urinating could be related to bladder or prostate cancer. {ahda hach'77d77l d00 halizh bizis biyi'di d00 halizh bik11z biyi'di ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileehgo hats3 hodiniih, hachaan n1t['iz, hachaan t'11 a['22 1dan7[tso, neezgaigo n7'j7dlish d00 di[ halizh bitahgo, hachaan di[ bitahgo 47 doodago ch'4ehda ajilizh [eh. Sometimes, colon, and, bladder, and prostate, inside, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, diarrhea, constipation, changes in the size of stool, painful urination, blood in the feces, or difficulty urinating. • Sore that Stays for a Long Time – Skin cancers may bleed and resemble sores that
do not heal. Sores in the mouth that do not heal may indicate oral (mouth) cancer, espe- cially if the person smokes store-bought tobacco, chews tobacco, or frequently uses alcohol. Hak1a'gi 47 doodago haz44' g0ne' [00d dinidleeh. Skin or mouth, sore, stays for a long time. • Unusual Bleeding or Discharge – Blood in the sputum (spit or saliva) may indicate
lung cancer. Blood in the stool may indicate cancer of the colon or rectum. Abnormal bleeding not related to menstrual periods may indicate cancer of the cervix, vagina, or uterus. T'1adoo hooy1n7 hazh44' di[ bitahgo [ahda haj47yilz0lii ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileehgo 1k0t'88h. Hachaan di[ bitahgo [ahda ach'77d77l 47 doodago bee ajich8'7g77 bii' ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh. Asdz1n7 t'11 hoolzhishgi di[ bigh1n1nahgo [ahda biishch'id biyi'd66' ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh. Unusual, spit saliva, blood, in it, sometimes, lung, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably. Stool, blood, among it, colon, rectum, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably. Woman, any time, blood, discharging, sometimes, reproductive organs, inside it, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably. Thickening Lump, Swelling – Many cancers can be felt through the skin, particularly
in the breast, testicle, lymph nodes (glands) and the soft tissues of the body. Any lump
or thickening should be reported to your health care provider.
Hats'77s haa'7da neezhch11d yileeh 47 doodago nit['izgo bii' niilts'i'. One's body, somewhere, swollen, become, or, when it is hard, inside it, forms. • Indigestion, Feeling Bloated or Difficulty Swallowing – Indigestion, feeling
bloated (but not actually being bloated) or difficulty swallowing may indicate cancer of the esophagus, stomach, or pharynx (throat). {ahda haz1g7, habid biyi'di 47 doodago hay1yi'di ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileehgo hats3 na'alyol d00 habid hadei'1t'4 47 doodago ch'44h a'ji[neehda [eh. Sometimes, esophagus, stomach or pharynx, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, may cause, indigestion, feeling bloated or, difficulty swallowing. Recent Changes in a Wart or Mole – A change in color, loss of definite borders
(edges), or an increase in size of any wart or mole should be reported to the doctor without delay. The skin lesion may be a melanoma, which, if diagnosed early, can be treated successfully. Haz55s 47 doodago hazhiin n11s 1anii[ d00 [ahgo 1t'4 yileeh. One's wart, or, one's mole, forward, it spreads, and it changes, become. • Nagging Cough or Hoarseness – A persistent cough that does not go away may be
a sign of lung cancer. Hoarseness can be a sign of cancer of the larynx (voice box) or thyroid. Ay0o jidilkosgo 47 doodago hazh7 dah deeshzhah nahalingo y1j7[ti' jizl99'. K0t'4ego hazoo[ts8' b22h ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh. Very much, when one coughs, or, inside one, scratchy like, one talks, become. When one becomes that way, one's voice box, on it, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably. • Unexplained Symptoms – Unexplained symptoms are symptoms that are vague or
general and do not have any obvious explanation. A person should see their health care provider to be evaluated to determine the cause of the unexplained symptoms, especially if the symptoms have been present for a period of time (such as several weeks). Feeling symptoms that do not have any obvious explanation. T'1adoo hooy1n7 d00 t'1adoo 1t'4h4g00 t'00 haash99 j7t'4e [eh. Suddenly, and, without cause, just, somehow, one feels. o weight loss when someone is not dieting to lose weight Hats'77n7 joolee[. One skinny, one is becoming. o fever that doesn't go away T'11 hatah honeezgai7 hatah honeezgai. Among one, it is painful/feverish. o fatigue for no reason and it does not get better with rest N7zhd7n4esdz11h d00 doo hwiin4ida. One's body is tired. o pain that doesn't go away T'11 jidiniih7 jidiniih. One is in pain, or, with one, painful/hurting. having an intuition or sense that something is wrong Hats'77s 47 doodago ha'1t'77 sh99 ho[ halne'go t'11 h0 baa 1kozhn7zin. One's body or, something, with one, communicate, one knows.
Testicular Cancer – Testicular cancer is cancer that forms in tissues of the testis
(the egg-shaped organ inside the scrotum that makes sperm and male hormones). Testicular
cancer usually occurs in young or middle aged men. There are two main types of testicular
cancer – one type that grows slowly and is sensitive to radiation therapy and a second type
that grows more quickly. This disease is treated very successfully if detected early.
Din44h 47 doodago hast07 bicho' biy55zhii biyi'di ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh. K0t'4ego 22h dahoo'aah7g77 naaki a['22h 1t'4, [a' doo hah noos4e[da d00 [a' 47 t'11 tsx98[go nanise'. Young men, or, older men, his sperm, where it is made, inside it, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably. When he becomes that way, illness, two, different types; one grows slowly, and, one grows fast. Testicular Self Examination ( TSE ) – A Testicular Self Examination is when a
man checks his own testicles to detect any lumps or growths that might indicate an abnormality in the tissue. Din44h 47 doodago hast07 t'11 b7 b7l1din7bin7 yee bicho' biy55zhii yik'ih nidilniihgo nit['iz bii' nidoolts'i[7g77 yee nei[kaah. Young men, or older men, just, themselves, their own testicles, feeling with their fingers, for lumps that might indicate, from having it, they do self examination.
Tissue – A tissue is a group or layer of cells that are of the same kind and that work
together to perform a specific function. Most organs of the body have several different
types of tissue, such as the layers of tissues that make up a stomach or the different tissues
that make up an eyeball.
Ats'77s bit['00l 47 a[k'inaazkaad, t'11[1'7g77 danil7n7g77 d00 ahi[ nidaalnishgo ats'77s yee naalnish. Ats'77s biyi' sil4ii 47 t'11 a['22 1daat'4ego yee had7t'4, abid d00 an11' 1k0t'4. Body cells, are in layers, they of the same kind and work together, the body works with it. Body, inside, organs, are different ones, it is made up, the stomach and eyes are like that. Treatment
Local Treatment – Local treatment is a treatment or medicine that is applied only
to the diseased area of the body.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hats'77s 7iyis77 yain7t'7n7gi d00 binaagi bina'anish. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, only on one's body, where it bothers it, at that area, treatment. Systemic Treatment Systemic treatment is a treatment or medicine that will
reach and affect the entire body even if the disease cannot be seen everywhere. Ats'77stahg00 t'11 1t'4 azee' b22h 1l'9. Throughout one's body/among one's body, just all of it, medicine, on it, applied to/treated.
Tumor – A tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells multiply
more than they should or when they do not die when they should. Tumors may be benign
(not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). A tumor may also be called a "neoplasm."
Hats'77s biyi'di ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh 47 doodago haash99 n7zah b1 nidahwiizt'i' y65 bil11hg00 noos44[. K0t'4ego hats'77stahdi haa'7da d7n4es32go 47 [a' doo ba'1t'e' h0l==g00 t'11 [1h7gi hasht'ed7t'4. {a' ba'1t'e' h0l= yileehgo t'11 b0h0n77hg00 d7n7s44h d00 hats'77s y4ego y22h dahoo['aah. One's body, inside it, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, or, they live beyond their time. When it becomes that way, among one's body, somewhere, growing, that, one, not, harmful, existing, in one place it stays. One, malignant, existing, just, anywhere, grows, and, one's body, very, on it, harms it. Benign Tumor – Growth (lump) of cells that is not harmful. A tumor that does
not spread to invade other areas of the body that were not already affected.
Ats'77s bit['00l doo ba'1t'e' h0l==g00 d7n7s44h 47 doodago hats8' bii' ni'alts'i'go doo ba'1t'e' h0l==g00 d7n7s44h. Hats'77s k0t'4ego noos44[7g77 47 t'11 [1h7gi hasht'ed7t'4, doo n11n1 h1ajigo hats'77s biih nis4eh da. Cells, among the body, not, harmful, that way, as it grows. One's body, in this way, that grows, that, at one point, stays, not another, to a different place, one's body, it does not grow into a new area. Malignant Tumor – A malignant tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue (cancer)
that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should.
Malignant tumors are generally more serious than benign tumors. They may be life-
threatening. Malignant tumors often can be removed, but sometimes they grow back.
Cells from malignant tumors can spread or travel (metastasize) to other parts of the
body (such as to nearby lymph nodes). Cancer cells spread by breaking away from
the original (or "primary") tumor and entering the bloodstream or lymphatic system.
The cancer cells can invade other organs and form new tumors that damage those organs.
Hats'77stahdi [ahgo d7n4es1n7g77 t'00 n11s noos44[. Hats'77s bit['00l doo hah danin4eda daaleehgo hats'77s n11n1 [ahj8' yii' d7n7s44h. {ahda 47 han11n7s44h. Hats'77s k0t'4ego 47 ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hadi[ bitah yileehgo 47 hats'77s n11n1 [ahg00 bii' d7n7s44h. Among one's body, somewhere, the growth, just, forward, it grows. Body cells, do not die as they should, becomes, one's body, another part, grows in it. Sometimes, it, just grows again. One's body, this way, that, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, one's blood, among it, it becomes, that, one's body, another area, inside it, it grows on.
Ultraviolet ( UV ) Rays ( Ultraviolet Radiation ) – Ultraviolet rays are high energy
invisible rays that are part of the energy that comes from the sun. UV radiation also comes
from sun lamps and tanning beds. UV radiation can damage the cells in the skin and cause
melanoma and other types of skin cancer. UV radiation that reaches the Earth's surface
is made up of two types of rays, called UVA rays and UVB rays. UVB rays have greater
energy and are more likely than UVA rays to cause sunburn, but UVA rays pass deeper
into the skin. Scientists have long thought that UVB radiation can cause melanoma and
other types of skin cancer. They now think that UVA radiation may add to skin damage
that can lead to skin cancer and also cause premature aging of the skin (such as wrinkles
and age spots). For this reason, skin specialists recommend that people use sunscreens that
reflect, absorb, or scatter both kinds of UV radiation. The chííh that Navajos use
(red clay mixed with mutton fat) also provides good protection from UV radiation.
J0honaa'47 bits'1ziil doo yit'7inii naaki a['22h 1t'4ego bits'1ziil, UVA d00 UVB bee w0j7, 47 ay0o bii' nijigh1ago ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hak11' d7n7s44h. Sun, its rays, not, visible ones, two, different, when one is like that, rays from it, UVA, and, UVB, with it, name/call, that, very much, inside it, one walking/contacting it, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, grows on the skin.
Watchful Waiting – "Watchful waiting" is a term that is used to describe careful
observation (monitoring) of a cancer patient's disease through ongoing testing and
follow-up instead of beginning treatment immediately with chemotherapy, radiation,
or surgery. This approach may be taken with a disease that is known to be slow growing
so there is not an urgent need to begin treatment, especially when that treatment is likely
to have a lot of uncomfortable side effects. For example, "watchful waiting" is often used
in relation to patients with early prostate cancer. However, the patient should be sure to
follow up with their doctor during the following months and years to make sure that the
cancer has not returned during the period of watchful waiting.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7iseeh 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 doo n11s noos4[7g77 yee h22h dahoo['aahgo t'00 n1hodi'n4l'88h [eh. Azee'77['7n7 t'11 ah33h baa n7j7d1ahgo hazh0'0 bi[ nidajilnishgo bee haa 1h1y33 d00 bee 1daa 1hojily3. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, not, growing fast, with it growth, only, one gets seen by visiting a doctor. Doctor, often, visit him/her, carefully working with them, one is cared for, and one is taking care of self. APPENDIX I.
Additional information that we decided not to include in the "basic" Glossary.

Cancers are divided into five main groups:
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 ashdla' 1['22 1t'4ego dah naazhjaa':
Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, five, different, types, in groups:
Carcinoma (see the full entry on page 9)
Sarcoma – A sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone, fat, muscle, nerve, joint,
blood vessel, or deep skin. It is a spreading cancer that grows from tissues (flesh) that connect different parts of the body together, such as bones, tendons (which attach muscles to bones), cartilage (found in the joints and in other places), muscle and fat. Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hats'in biyi'di, hak'ah bitahdi, hadoh bitahdi, hats'00z bee ajiniih7g77 biyi'di, ah2dazhdit'32gi, hats'oos biyi'di, 47 doodago hak1g7 a[k'ih sikaad7g77 biyi'di d7n7s44h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, one's bone, inside it, one's fat, among it, one's muscle, among it, one's nerves one feels with, inside it, at one's joints, in one's blood vessels, or, deep inside one's skin, it grows. There are five basic types of Sarcoma. • OsteosarcomaBone cancer.
Hats'in biyi'di ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh. One's bone, inside it, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably. • Fibrosarcoma Cancer that develops from fibrous or connective tissue,
such as the tissue that normally forms tendons and ligaments. Hats'id d00 ooshg66zh biyi'di ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh. One's bone, and cartilages, inside it, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably. • Rhabdomyosarcoma – Cancer of skeletal muscles (muscles that control
voluntary movement; muscles that make the bones and joints move). Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hadoh hats'1oz'a' neiyii[n1h7g77 biyi'di d7n7s44h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, one's muscle, the one that moves the limbs, inside it, it grows. • Leiomyosarcoma – Cancer that develops from smooth muscles
(also called involuntary muscles, such as in the intestines and stomach). Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 hach'77' d00 habid bidoh biyi'di d7n7s44h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, one's muscle, one's intestines and stomach muscle, inside it, it grows. • LiposarcomaCancer of fatty tissue.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 ats'77s bit['00l ak'ah biyi'di h0l0n7g77 bii' d7n7s44h. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, body cells in the fatty tissue, it grows in it, cells in the body that grow uncontrollably. • Leukemia
Lymphoma (see the full entries for these 3 items on page 10)
Myeloma

Chemotherapy Classifications: Types of Chemotherapy Medicines (Drugs)
The chemicals that are used to treat different types of cancer work in different ways
and they also have different effects on the body of the person being treated.
The healthcare provider should explain these different types of medicines
and their effects before beginning to treat the patient with one of these medicines.
Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 t'11 a['22h 1t'4ego bik'ihj8' na'anish. Azee' t'11 a['22h 1daat'4ego bee bik'ij8' adinish. {a' azee' daaldee[, [a' daadl3, [a' bi[ aa'ada'atsih, d00 [a' bee 1dadilt[ah. Cells in the body that grow uncontrollably, just different kinds, use to treat it. Different types of medication, used to treat it. Some medicines are pills, some you drink it, some given as shots, and some apply like creams. Alkylating – The effect is not limited to a specific period of cancer growth. The
medicine interferes with the development of the cancer cells. Cytoxan may cause
bleeding from the bladder, and Cisplatin may cause kidney damage and commonly
causes a large amount of vomiting.
Anti-Metabolites
– The effects are limited to a specific period of growth of the
cell. These medicines interfere with all stages of the beginnings of the cancer cells.
5FU can be in a lotion form and applied like cream to the skin, or also in the form
of a liquid to go into the veins.

Anti-Tumor Antibiotics
– These medicines have non-specific, multiple actions.
The effects are not limited to a specific period of cancer cell growth and these drugs
work in the same way as antibiotics to kill the cancer. Adriamycin is known for
causing a high risk for heart complications. Bleomycin is known to cause the lungs
to become fibrous and to make it difficult to breathe. Both of these drugs have a
limited amount (dosage) that a person can receive during their lifetime.
Plant Alkaloids – The effects are limited to a specific period of cancer cell
growth. They interfere with the ability of the cancer cells to multiply. Taxol
may cause a slow heart rate while it is being given to the patient.

Hormones
– These are molecules that are made by the body and that may
interfere with the cancer's surroundings and make it difficult for the cancer to grow.

Anti-Angiogenesis
– These medicines prevent blood vessels from growing in the
area around the tumor. All cells in the body require a regular supply of blood,
which provides them with oxygen and nutrients for growth. A major area of recent
advances in cancer research and treatment is the development of drugs that prevent
or inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) into areas where the
cancer cells are growing. Since cancer cells typically grow very rapidly, this
treatment slows down or inhibits the growth of the cancer cells by preventing or
inhibiting the growth of new blood vessels in the area around the cancer cells.

The Goals of Chemotherapy are to cure the cancer, control the disease, or control
the effects of the symptoms of the disease, while causing as little damage as
possible to the normal healthy cells in the person's body.
_

Phases of Clinical Trials

Phase I Clinical Trial – The goals are to evaluate how a new medicine should be
given (by mouth or by injection, for example), how much should be given in each
dose and how often it should be given. There is a major emphasis on whether the
new medicine would be safe (even if it does work), what its side-effects might be,
and what safety guidelines should be used when giving this medicine to a patient.
Phase II Clinical Trial – The goals are to study and determine the safety of
the medicine as well as the action or effectiveness of the medicine. For a new
cancer medicine, a Phase II Clinical Trial will also study how it works with specific
types of cancer and how successful it is when fighting the type of cancer for which
it will be prescribed.
Phase III Clinical Trial – The goals are to determine the ability of the patient
to survive the disease (such as cancer) as a result of being treated by the new medicine and also to compare the new medicine to other methods of treatment to see if the new medicine improves the patient's length of life and quality of life. Phase IV Clinical Trial – A Phase IV Clinical Trial is usually done after the new
medicine has already been approved for use with patients, in order to further evaluate
the long-term effectiveness and safety of the new medicine and possibly also to test
the medicine for other uses (perhaps for use in treating other diseases) and for other
dose amounts (larger or smaller doses) that might be used.
APPENDIX II.

Explanatory notes from various discussions of the "Glossary Working Group."

Navajo language terms that have been used in the past to refer to cells: Iin1 bik'==' (similar, from some older materials) A presentation on the draft Glossary was made in January 2007 to a group of nurses and health educators who work with cancer patients. They reported that they used the cancer term at1t'ah nanise' doo y1'1t'44h7g77. They also discussed the more familiar terms Hin11h Hin11hts'00z The Glossary working group discussed this further and decided to continue using the word Hin11h for cell. Others also voiced concerns over the new term at1t'ah nanise' as this was the first time they had heard of the usage of that term for cell. Hats'77stah, hats'77stahdi hats'77s haa'7da Among the body, among the body, at, one's body, somewhere. Ats'77s biyi' haa'7da nooy44[ sil99'. Body, inside it, somewhere, a fast growth, it became. T'11 1dzaag00 noos44[. Just any direction, it is growing. T'11 b0h0ln77hg00 nooy44[. Just anywhere, it is growing fast. T'1adoo 44h0zing00 noos44[. Just without known direction, it is growing. T'1adoo 44h0zing00 nooy44[. Just without known direction, it is growing fast. T'11 1dzaag00 d7n7s44h. Just any direction, it starts to grow. Hin11h t7d7l'88hgo t'11 b0h0ln77hg0 0 nooy44[ yileeh.
Living cell, when it is injured, just any where, it is growing fast, it becomes.
Nizh0n7go hats'77s noos4e[go haa'7sh99 hoolzhishgo [ahgo 1t'88h.
When well beautifully, one's body, somewhere in time, it changes.
Doo 1k0t'44g00 dah d7n7is44h.
Not, the way it should, it starts to grow.
In April 2009, Susie John, Ida Bradley, Sally Joe and Martha Austin-Garrison
were discussing the recent "Community Conversation on Genetics" conducted at the
Shiprock Campus of Diné College. They arrived at the consensus agreement that:
DNA in cells should be called iin1 bit['00l ( "life cells" ).
Cells of the body should be called ats'77s bit['00l ( "body cells" ).

These are the terms (immediately above) for "DNA" and for "Cells" that have been
used in the development of this edition of the Glossary.

In the Navajo language there are two ways to view abnormal growth :
Noos44[. This refers to the growth from its earliest beginning toward its
completion, like the way a seed would grow to be a normal tree or plant. This is a normal state of growth and development. However, when the adverbial phrases t'11 1dzaag00 – "just without direction" or t'1adoo 44h0zing00 – "just without knowing where" (probably refers to "without a definite plan" or "without a defined normal pattern") are used with noos44[ then it explains the abnormal growth or growth that is out of control. Nooy44[. This refers to spreading and it means a multiplication of
something. This phenomenon could be a normal process of a kind of growth. Again, when the phrases t'11 1dzaag00 and t'1adoo 44h0zing00 are placed before nooy44[ then they explain the nature of this growth that is out of control. The Glossary working group members felt that noos44[ "it is growing and
developing" is the best description because noos44[ creates an image of growth from a small beginning to some end. As Dr. Susie John noted, this concept lends itself much more effectively to the diagnosis and treatment goals of early detection and intervention, since early detection and intervention provide the greatest benefits to the patient when (tumor) growth is still in the small beginning stage. Abnormal growth begins with mutation of normal cells. Mutation can result in uncontrolled growth. To explain why mutation happens, Glossary working group participants explained that as follows: Hin11h t7d7l'88hgo t'11 b0h0ln77hg00 nooy44[ yileeh When a cell is injured (also "affected" or "harmed") just without direction, spreading, it becomes. The group discussed whether "injured" is the correct description. However, in clinical interpretation scenarios, an identification or assumption of the cause is usually provided to make sense of what has happened to the body. The members of the Glossary working group discussed and listed some known causes: 1. Genetic factors – bi[ azhch98go; bi[ ooch77[ sil98'go
2. Reasons for mutation uncontrolled growth and development:
a. Virus b. Sunlight c. Radioactivity e. Toxins from air, water, and other pollution It was noted that cancer begins at the point of mutation in a cell. Discussion followed, and there was a consensus on the explanation below: Nizh0n7go hats'77s noos4e[go haa'7sh99 hoolzhishgo [ahgo 1t'88h. Doo 1k0t'44g00 dah d7n7is44h. In a normal and healthy way the body grows and at a certain time it changes. In an incorrect way it begins to grow. Growth (of a tumor) has a beginning; the sooner detected, the better for life. These statements are often used by providers in the clinical setting: Doo 1ch'8' ni'j0dl7ida. Not, toward one self, expected to happen. Ha'1t'7ish biniiy4 1d22h yit'98 doo. What reason for, that one does not want to detect it. Doo bee ach'33h na'anishda. One should not avoid it. From the Meetings at the Northern Navajo Medical Center, Summer 2007 Cancer Ats'77s bit['00l dah d7n7is44h 11d00 ba'1t'e' h0l= yileeh7g77 Hak'aasht'ah nanise' T'11 b7ts4edi 1daa 1h1y3 Bits'33d00 ohodiit'ih7g77 Treatment: Bee bik'ij8' na'anish7g77 Bee ni' 1dooln7[7g77 Bee bii' hazhdoog1[7g77 Bee yisd1zhdoog1[7g77 Distributive Plural form Survival rate: Yii' h11y1h7g77 Bii' h11dzoodz1h7g77 bii' hajookai7g77 Yik11' h11y1h7g77 yik11' haakai7g77, yik11' hahaaskai7g77 Yik'eh deesdl9'7g77 yik'eh dadeesdl9'7g77 yisd11kai7g77, yisd1haaskai7g77 The "Five Ladies of the NNMC" met on February 12, 2008, and considered which terms they needed to focus on. They decided to look again at the Cancer 101 curriculum and at the Diabetes Glossary materials, and that there were about 3 or 4 terms that should receive special attention. They agreed to reverse some of the Navajo word order, so that the site would be identified first, followed by the cancer description: Lymphoma: ats'77s bit['00l ba'1t'e' d7n7s44h7g77 hak11zts'oos biyi'di We probably should reverse that, to site first and then cancer. Hak11zts'oos biyi'di ats'77s bit['00l ba'1t'e' h0l=-go d7n7s44h. Reverse the word order; the same for prostate cancer (immediately below). Halizh bik11z biyi'di ats'77s bit['00l ba'1t'e' h0l=-go d7n7s44h.
Discussion on Lymphatic System
(Lymph Nodes) and Endocrine System (Glands)

The lymphatic system parallels the circulatory system, leading to potential
confusion. Ida suggested the functional distinction that the lymph system acts as a filter -kááz , which differs from the capillaries, arteries, veins, nerves, endocrine glands, etc. Ida: A[k'id33' 47 [00d doo n1dziihii dabidii'n77 n7t'66' then I use the new term. Long ago, that, sore, does not heal, we used to call it. They know what I am talking about. Ida: ats'00z nerve ats'oos blood vessels Ak11z bits'00z to me, that is the nerve Lymph system to me is 47 ak11z dah yikahj7
Gland – because they produce, they do not filter. They produce,
47 alohk'e' dah yikahj7, just like the pancreas, 47 alohk'e' dah yikahj7, similarly for the thyroid, it produces, it is not a filter. The lymph nodes 47 they are filters, that is why we call it ak11z 47 all the lymph nodes, they are filters. The first ak11z I learned about is the tonsil, 47 47 ak11z 1t'4. tó biyáázh – small unit of fluid tó á[náshchíín – male fluids, mixes with female fluids to make the baby (goes back to the Origin Myth) hats'oos – anything to do with the circulatory system hats'óóz – nervous system FEEDBACK AND SUGGESTIONS
For a period of more than 3 years (from the Fall of 2006 through the Fall of 2009), a core "Glossary working group" of more that a dozen persons met about 50 times to develop this Glossary. This core group is listed and described as the "Major Contributors to the Working Group that Produced this Navajo Cancer Glossary" at the beginning of the Glossary. There were an equal number of additional participants who attended one or more meetings on an occasional basis. Nearly all of the Glossary entries were discussed multiple times, with different combinations of persons, and many of these discussions involved lengthy dialog in the Navajo language. One of the key elements of the Mission of Diné College is to strengthen the study of the Diné language and culture, and the extended "deep knowledge" discussions in the Navajo language on these topics of culture, health and disease provided significant satisfaction to all of the participants in this process. Nevertheless, we are well aware that knowledgeable persons will have different preferred ways of describing the topics in the Glossary in different ways, in both Navajo and English. We intend this to be a "first edition" of the Glossary, and the collaboration between Diné College and Mayo Clinic which resulted in the development of this Glossary will continue for years to come, so we definitely expect to produce a revised "second edition" and perhaps more revised and/or expanded editions in the future. Accordingly, we sincerely solicit your comments, suggestions for additional entries or revisions to the entries presented here, and, especially, corrections in either English or Navajo that users of this Glossary would like to submit to us. The "Glossary working group" will continue to function (meeting at the Shiprock Campus of Diné College) as an advisory group for additional cancer-focused projects and activities of Diné College and Mayo Clinic, and this group would gladly accept comments and suggestions from Glossary users. Such comments and suggestions should be addressed to Dr. Garrison (contact information below), but specific comments regarding the Navajo terminology and texts should be addressed to both of the persons identified below. We thank everyone who finds this Glossary to be of value, and hope that this resource will be widely used within both the provider community and the general community of the Navajo Nation. Edward R. Garrison, PhD, MPH Martha A. Austin-Garrison, MA Faculty, Biology and Public Health Faculty, Center for Diné Studies Shiprock, New Mexico 87420 Shiprock, New Mexico 87420


January 2010
Printing expenses for this First Edition generously provided by the
Kayenta Public Health Nursing Program,
a department within the Navajo Nation Division of Health.
This Glossary has been produced through the use of public funds, and accordingly is not to be sold or otherwise used for monetary gain.

Source: http://www.nativeamericanprograms.org/downlds/Glossary%20%20%20(Navajo%20Font%20Embedded).pdf

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ZYPREXA (OLANZAPINE) CLASS ACTION NOTICE OF SETTLEMENT APPROVAL TO ALL CLASS To all Canadian residents who took ZYPREXA ("Primary Claimants") on or before June 6, 2007 or their personal MEMBERS: representatives, heirs, assigns and trustees ("Representative Claimants"), and any other residents of Canada asserting the right to sue the Defendants by reason of their familial relationship with a Primary Claimant, including spouses, common law spouses, same-sex partners, as well as parents and children by birth, marriage or adoption ("Derivative Claimants").

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MANUAL PRÁCTICO DE RIEGO Autores: María José Moñino Espino*, Alberto Samperio Sainz-Aja, Antonio Vivas Cacho, Fernando Blanco Cipollone, María del Henar Prieto Losada. Centro de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas de Extremadura. CICYTEX. Instituto de Investigación Agraria Finca "La Orden-Valdesequera" Departamento de Hortofruticultura. Grupo de riego y nutrición.riegoynutricion@gobex.es