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Goats: vaccination
Goats are susceptible to a number of diseases. This programme is only an indication of the type of vaccinations that should or can be given to goats. To determine if it is necessary to use a specific vaccine various factors have to be taken into account, such as area, the diseases which occur in your area and the management system. Whether the animals are kept in intensive farming systems is another important consideration. Consult your local veterinarian if you have questions about specific vaccinations.
Vaccination programme Kids (4–5 months • Epididymitis (male goats) • Quarter evil (Brucella melitensis) (1st inoculation) • Enterotoxaemia (1st inoculation) • Anthrax (in areas where the disease occurred in the last 5 years) • Enzootic abortion (4–6 weeks before (Chlamydia) • Wesselbron disease* breeding season) • Rift Valley fever • Enterotoxaemia • Rift Valley fever (5–6 months old) • Wesselbron disease* • Quarter evil (nd inoculation) • Botulism (nd inoculation) • Anthrax (only if disease occurred in the area for the last 5 years) From 15 March breeding season *If not immunised before • Tetanus (if kids are castrated (not immunised before) using rubber ring) (1st inoculation) (6–8 weeks before (1st inoculation) • Vitamins A, D, E • Tetanus (if kids are castrated (not immunised before) using rubber ring) (nd inoculation) (–4 weeks before (nd inoculation) • Vitamins A, D, E (–4 weeks before • Vitamins A, D, E • Heartwater (in heartwater • Enterotoxaemia (alum) • Bluetongue rarely occurs in goats as severely as it does in sheep, and therefore is not mentioned in the list.
• Rift Valley fever and Wesselbron disease are rainfall related (distributed by mosquitoes) and animals should only be vaccinated if these conditions occur. These diseases can result in heavy losses.
• Lamb dysentery does not often occur in goats and vaccination is therefore not mentioned.
• Pasteurella is stress related, caused by adverse weather conditions, weaning and change of diet. The animals should be vaccinated preferably  months before a possible stressful time.
Clostridium perfringens, also known as Clostridium welchii type D Symptoms:
• Acute death of animals. • Laboured breathing, salivation, diarrhoea. • Twitching muscles, rolling eyes, grinding of teeth. • Many animals in one herd (herd problem).
Treatment:
Unsuccessful, because disease is noticed too late.
Prevention:
• Vaccinate all animals according to the vaccination programme. • Kids are vaccinated  times with an interval of 4–6 weeks. • Adults are vaccinated annually. • Do not make sudden changes in diet, grazing or deworming. • Vaccinate at least  weeks before deworming. • In a severe outbreak you may consider treating all animals once with a long-acting tetracycline.
Pasteurella haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida (bacterium) Symptoms:
• Acute death of animals. • Fever, lack of appetite, rapid breathing. • Coughing, loss of condition, difficult breathing, discharge from nose • Animals lie down with neck stretched out.
Treatment:
Inject with sulpha or oxytetracycline (Sulphatrim or Liquamycin L A).
Prevention:
• Vaccinate all animals according to vaccination programme. The vaccine does not give complete protection, therefore cases of pasteurella can still occur. • Kids are vaccinated  times with an interval of 4–6 weeks, with an • Adults are vaccinated annually with an alum vaccine. • This disease is stress related. Make sure animals are protected against possible stress: weather, weaning, scarcity of feed, etc.
Brucella ovis (bacterium) Symptoms:
• At first swelling of the testes, later only a hard area in the testes. • Leads to infertility of the males.
Treatment:
• No treatment. • Infected animals should be removed from the herd.
Prevention:
• Vaccination of male goats at weaning. • Males should be tested for diseases before introduction into a herd. • Do not vaccinate female goats, this may cause abortion.
Chlamydia psittaci (bacterium).
Symptoms:
• Low kidding percentage. • Abortion in later stage of pregnancy. • Weak lambs.
Treatment:
• No treatment. • Infected animals should be removed from the herd.
Prevention:
Vaccination of all animals before annual breeding season.
Rift Valley fever
Symptoms:
• Acute death of kids. • Kids show fever, tremors and weakness, adults abort.
Treatment:
No treatment.
Prevention:
• Vaccination (once per animal, lifelong immunity). • Vaccination together with that for Wesselbron disease.
Symptoms:
• Acute death of kids, not as acute as in RVF. • Kids show fever, tremors and weakness, adults abort.
Treatment:
No treatment.
Prevention:
• Vaccination (lifelong immunity). • Vaccination together with that for Rift Valley fever. • These two diseases are difficult to distinguish.
Cowdria ruminantium (Rickettsia) Symptoms:
• Loss of appetite, listlessness, rapid breathing. • Followed by muscular tremors, circular movements, grinding of • Recovering animals show diarrhoea. • Immune animals show a slight fever.
Treatment:
• Treatment should occur as early as possible (preferably before the nervous symptoms occur). • Oxytetracycline (Liquamycin L A).
Prevention:
• Vaccination after  weeks of age may cause severe disease reaction, therefore end treatment on day 8 or 9 with long-acting tetracycline in a lower dose than prescribed. • Eliminate transmission (the bont tick) by dipping. • Do not import animals from a heartwater-free area into a heartwater area without vaccination.
Clostridium chauvoei (bacterium) • Fever, loss of appetite, stiffness and swelling of affected area. • Initially the swelling is hot and painful, but soon becomes cold • Overlying skin becomes dark. • Death occurs within 4–6 hours.
Treatment:
• Early treatment is necessary, as soon as fever occurs. • Treat with penicillin or oxytetracycline (usually unsuccessful).
Prevention:
• Vaccination, twice at about weaning age, repeat annually. • Disease is almost always result of infection of a wound, management practices (castrating, etc.) and environmental causes (steekgras, thornbushes, etc.). • Hygiene is very important. • Destruction of carcasses by burning. Clostridium botulinum (bacterium) Symptoms:
• Stiffness of the limbs (noticed in leg and neck muscles). • Followed by partial or complete paralysis of all muscles. • Tongue may protrude. • In less acute cases, animals have difficulty feeding and drinking.
Treatment:
No treatment.
Prevention:
• Vaccination (especially if animals are fed with chicken litter), twice at about weaning age, repeat annually. • Destroy all carcasses. • Bacteria form spores which occur in the soil. Make sure animals do not suffer from mineral deficiency and show signs of pica.
Blue udder
(Blue bag)
Staphylococcus areus or Pasteurella haemolytica (bacterium) Symptoms:
• Occur in female goats soon after kidding or even before. • Udder becomes infected, swollen and painful, later it turns purple • Loss of appetite and fever, milk is abnormal and may cause death • Toxins produced by the bacteria cause general disease signs and eventually death.
Treatment:
• Difficult and costly to treat. • Penicillin or oxytetracycline.
Prevention:
• Vaccination, animals that have not been immunised before are given two vaccinations, 6–8 weeks and –4 weeks before kidding. Repeat annually.
Bacillus anthracis (bacterium) Symptoms:
• Acute death without any symptoms. • High fever, shivering and trembling, sometimes diarrhoea. • Rapid bloat and decomposing of the carcass. Rigor mortis does not • After death blood appears at the natural openings (nose, anus, etc.). NEVER OPEN THE CARCASS!! This will spread the disease.
NEVER OPEN THE CARCASS!! This will spread the disease.
Treatment:
No treatment. Disease is noticed too late.
Prevention:
• Vaccination if there are known cases in the area for the last 5 years. • Vaccination at weaning, 5 to 6 months of age, repeat annually. Bury and burn carcass to prevent spread of the disease. • Prevent animals from grazing near the infected areas.
NOTIFY THE ST
THE STATE VETERINARIAN!
Symptoms:
Development of one or more abscesses in the lymphatic glands.
Treatment:
Open mature abscess with a clean scalpel or knife on a soft spot. Squeeze the pus out of the abscess and collect it in a tin or plastic bag (do not leave it lying around). Rinse the empty abscess with hydrogen peroxide. Fill the empty abscess with a disinfectant cream and spray with a disinfectant. Inject the animal with penicillin to prevent secondary infection.
Prevention:
• Vaccination repeated every 6 months (not very successful, treatment of the disease might be more economical). • Does not provide complete cover. The disease might still occur.
Clostridium tetani (bacterium).
Symptoms:
• Muscular stiffness, noticeable in neck and legs. • Animal cannot eat or drink. • Sensitive to any light touch, sharp noise or bright light. • Animal may lie down on its side with stiff limbs stretched out and off the ground.
Treatment:
• Treat the animal with penicillin. • Keep animal in a dark, quiet place.
Prevention:
• Vaccination, twice, a month apart before kidding, then annually 1 month before kidding. • Disinfecting of any wounds (castration, etc.). • Do not use elastic bands for castration.
For further information contact the ARC-Animal Nutrition and Animal Products Institute Private Bag X, Irene 165 Tel: 01 6 905 the Boer Goat Breeders' Association of South Africa Tel: 04 4 10 or 04 4 10 Döhne Agricultural Development Institute This publication is available on the web at: www.nda.agric.za/publications 00 Third print00 Second print1998 First print Directorate Agricultural Information Services, Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Boer Goat Breeders' Association of South Africa and Döhne Agricultural Development Institute Printed and published by Department of Agriculture Resource Centre, Directorate Agricultural Information Services Private Bag X144, Pretoria, 0001 South Africa

Source: http://www.nda.agric.za/docs/Infopaks/goats.pdf

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Reaction Analytics Inc. 2711 Centerville Road Suite 5992 Wilmington, DE 19808 Application Note # 008 Forced Degradation Study Summary: The degradation of famotidine is studied under isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. For isothermal testing the temperature was held constant as samples were drawn over time. Data was required at several different isotherms in order to calculate the Activation Energy. With the nonisothermal method the temperature was ramped across a temperature range as samples were collected. The results for either temperature profile match with each other and with results from literature Work Flow: