Lomo 2-2010:lomo 3/09

Nutr Hosp. 2010;25(2):275-279
S.V.R. 318
Effects of telmisartan vs olmesartan on metabolic parameters, insulin
resistance and adipocytokines in hypertensive obese patients

D. A. de Luis, R. Conde, M. González-Sagrado, R. Aller, O. Izaola, A. Dueñas, J. L. Pérez Castrillón and E. Romero Institute of Endocrinology and Nutrition. Medicine School and Unit of Investigation. Hospital Río Hortega. RD-056/0013 RETICEF.
University of Valladolid. Valladolid. Spain.
Background: Angiotensin II regulates the production
of adipokines. The objective was to study the effect of
treatment with telmisartan versus olmesartan in hyper-
tensive obese and overweight patients.
Subjects: A sample of 65 overweight and obese patients
with mild to moderate hypertension was analyzed in a
prospective way with a randomized trial. Patients were
randomized to telmisartan (80 mg/day) or olmesartan (40

Introducción: La angiotensina II puede regular la pro-
mg/day) for 3 months. Weight, body mass index, blood
ducción de adipocitoquinas. El objetivo de nuestro tra-
pressure, basal glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL-
bajo fue evalaur el efecto sobre parámetros bioquímicos
cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, HOMA,
del tratamiento con telmisartan versus olmesartan en
QUICKI, leptin and adiponectin were determined at
pacientes obesos hipertensos.
basal time and after 3 months of treatment.
Pacientes: Se analizó una muestra de 65 pacientes con
Results: Sixty five patients gave informed consent and
hipertensión moderada severa y obesidad, mediante un
were enrolled in the study. Patients treated with telmisar-
ensayo clínico randomizado. Los pacientes fueron rando-
tan had a significative decrease of glucose 10.53 mg/dl (CI
mizados en dos ramas; telmisartan (80 mg/día) u olme-
95%: 2.6-18.5), insulin 2.51 mUI/L (CI 95%: 2.07-7.17)
sartan (40 mg/día) durante 3 meses. Se determinaron en
and HOMA 1.08 (CI 95%: 0.39-2.55). Patients treated
el tiempo basal y tras 3 meses los siguientes parámetros;
with olmesartan had a significative decrease of total cho-
peso, índice de masa corporal, presión arterial, glucosa,
lesterol 20.2 mg/dl (CI 95%: 5.8-34.9) and LDL choles-
insulina, colesterol total, LDL-colesterol, HDL-colesterol,
terol 22.6 mg/dl (CI 95%: 9.7-35.6). Only leptin levels
triglicéridos, HOMA, QUICKI, leptina y adiponectina.
have a significant decrease in telmisartan group 7.39
Resultados: Los pacientes que recibieron telmisartan
ng/ml (CI 95%: 1.47-13.31).
tuvieron una disminución significativa de los niveles de
Conclusion: Telmisartan improved blood pressure,
glucosa 10,53 mg/dl (CI 95%: 2,6-18,5), insulina 2,51
glucose, insulin, HOMA and leptin in hypertensive dia-
mUI/L (CI 95%: 2,07-7,17) y HOMA 1,08 (CI 95%: 0,39-
betic patients. Olmesartan improved blood pressure and
2,55). Los pacientes tratados con olmesartan presentaron
una disminución significativa de colesterol 20,2 mg/dl (CI
95%: 5,8-34,9) y LDL colesterol 22,6 mg/dl (CI 95%: 9,7-

(Nutr Hosp. 2010;25:275-279) 35,6). Solo, los niveles de leptina disminuyeron de manera
significativa con telmisartan 7,39 ng/ml (CI 95%: 1,47-

Key words: Adiponectin. Hypertension. Insulin resistance. Conclusion: Telmisartan mejora los niveles de presión
Leptin. Olmesartan. Telmisartan. arterial, glucosa, insulina, HOMA y leptina en pacientes
hipertensos obesos. Olmesartan mejoró los niveles de pre-
sión arterial y el perfil lipídico.

(Nutr Hosp. 2010;25:275-279) Correspondence: D. A. de Luis.
Professor Associated of Nutrition. Palabras clave: Adiponectina. Hipertensión. Resistencia a Executive Director of Institute of Endocrinology and Nutrition.
Medicine School. Valladolid University.
la insulina. Leptina. Olmesartan. Telmisartan. Los Perales, 16.
47130 Simancas, Valladolid. Spain.
E-mail: dadluis@yahoo.es prospective way with an open-randomized trial. Weused WHO/ISH13 definitions for hypertension defined Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with as systolic and diastolic blood pressure > 140 or > 90 cardiovascular risk factors, including altered levels of mmHg, respectively. These patients were studied in an adipocytokines.1 Epidemiologic evidence of this rising Endocrinology Unit and written informed consent was tide of obesity and associated pathologies has led, in obtained. The study has been approved by the local the last years, to a dramatic increase of research on the ethics committee. Exclusion criteria included a history role of adipose tissue as an active participant in control- of cardiovascular disease or stroke during the previous ling pathologic processes.2,3 36 months, total cholesterol > 300 mg/dl, triglycerides The current view of adipose tissue is that of an active > 400 mg/dl, blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg, the use secretory organ, sending out and responding to signals of sulfonylurea, metformine, acarbose, thiazolidine- that modulate appetite, insulin sensitivity, energy expen- diones, insulin, glucocorticoids, antineoplasic agents, diture, inflammation and immunity. Adipocytokines are angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, psychoac- proteins produced mainly by adipocytes.4 These mole- tive medications, drinking and/or smoking habit.
cules have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesisof the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.
Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived collagen like pro- Procedure and calculations tein identified through an extensive search of adipose tis-sue. Hypoadiponectinemia increased risk of coronary Patients were randomized to telmisartan (80 artery disease together with the presence of multiple risk mg/day) or olmesartan (40 mg/day) for 2 months.
factors, indicating that adiponectin is a key factor of the Weight, body mass index, blood pressure, basal glu- metabolic syndrome.5 Leptin is a 16 KDa protein secreted cose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL- primarily from adipocytes. Recent reports suggest that cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin and adiponectin levels leptin contributes to atheroscleoris and cardiovascular were measured at basal time and after 3 months of disease in obese patients.6 Insulin resistance and hyperin- sulinemia are characteristics findings of this metabolic Body weight was measured to an accuracy of 0.1 kg syndrome (MetS) and are very common in patients with and body mass index (BMI) was calculated as follows: essential hypertension.7 BMI = body weight (kg)/(body height (m))2.
Circulating angiotensin II, the active product of the The homeostasis model assessment for insulin sensi- renin-angiotensin system, is a hormonal regulator of car- tivity (HOMA) was calculated as follows: HOMA = diovascular function and electrolyte metabolism.
(glucose x insulin)/22.5.14 Quantitative Insulin-Sensi- Angiotensin II is also produced by local renin- tivity Check index (QUICKI), a surrogate index of angiotensin systems in many organs including adipose insulin sensitivity, was calculated as follows: QUICKI tissue.8 In addition, angiotensin II regulates the produc- = 1/(log (insulin)+ log (glucose)).15 tion of adipokines. Angiotensin II increases the expres- Blood pressure was measured twice after a 10 min- sion and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines,9 utes rest with a random zero mercury sphygmo- increases leptin ob gene expression and secretion,10 and manometer, and averaged.
reduces plasma levels and gene expression ofadiponectin, and insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatoryadipokine.11 In turn, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with inhibitors of angiotensin II formation orangiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers decreases body Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentra- weight, improves insulin-sensitivity and prevents devel- tions were determined by enzymatic colorimetric assay opment of insulin resistance.12 Telmisartan and olmesar- (Technicon Instruments, Ltd., New York, N.Y., USA), tan are two antagonists of angiotensin II receptors used as while HDL cholesterol was determined enzymatically in the supernatant after precipitation of other lipopro- To clarify the effect of angiotensin II system block- teins with dextran sulphate-magnesium. LDL choles- ade on adipocytokines, we studied the effect of treat- terol was calculated using Friedewald formula. Plasma ment with telmisartan versus olmesartan in a random- glucose levels were determined by using an automated ized clinical trial in hypertensive obese and overweight glucose oxidase method (Hitachi 917, Roche Diagnos- tics, Mannheim, Germany). Insulin was measured byenzymatic colorimetry (Insulin, WAKO Pure-Chemi-cal Industries, Osaka, Japan).
Subjects and methods
A sample of 65 obese and overweight patients with Leptin was measured by ELISA (Diagnostic Sys- mild to moderate hypertension was analyzed in a tems Laboratories, Inc., Texas, USA) with a sensitivity Nutr Hosp. 2010;25(2):275-279 D. A. de Luis et al.
Table III
Clinical and epidemiological characteristics Clasical cardiovascular risk factors of study population Telmisartan (n =34) Olmesartan (n = 31) Total ch. (mg/dl) 51.2 ± 10.7 50.9 ± 12.9 Systolic BP (mmHg) Diastolic BP (mmHg) BP: Blood pressure; ns: no significative.
LDL-ch: low density lipoprotein. HDL: high density lipoprotein.
of 0.05 ng/ml and a normal range of 10-100 ng/ml.
Chol: Cholesterol. TG: Triglycerides. Adiponectin was measured by ELISA (R&D systems, (HOMA): Homeostasis model assessment, HOMA = (glucose x Inc., Mineapolis, USA) with a sensitivity of 0.246 ng/ml and a normal range of 865-21424 ng/ml. Ratio (QUICKI): Quantitative Insulin-Sensitivity Check index, QUICKI =1/(log(insulin)+ log(glucose)) adiponectin/leptin levels were calculated.
T Student test and Wilcoxon test were used as statistical methods.
(*) p < 0.05, in each group with basal values.
Table II shows a significantly decrease in systolic A power calculation based on weight improvement and diastolic blood pressures without changes in was performed. Thirty patients in each group were nec- weight, with both treatments. essary to detect a change of 6 ng/dl in leptin levels, with Table III shows the differences in classic cardiovas- an error type I < 0.05 and a statistical power of 80%. cular risk factors. Patients treated with telmisartan had The results were expressed as average ± standard a significantly decrease of glucose 10.53 mg/dl (CI deviation. The distribution of variables was analyzed 95%: 2.6-18.5), insulin 2.51 mUI/L (CI 95%: 2.07- with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Quantitative variables 7.17) and HOMA 1.08 (CI 95%: 0.39-2.55). Patients with normal distribution were analyzed with a two- treated with olmesartan had a significantly decrease of tailed, paired Student's-t test and ANOVA test. Non- total cholesterol 20.2 mg/dl (CI 95%: 5.8-34.9) and parametric variables were analyzed with the Friedman LDL cholesterol 22.6 mg/dl (CI 95%: 9.7-35.6).
and Wilcoxon tests. Qualita tive variables were ana- Table IV shows differences between basal and after lyzed with the chi-square test, with Yates correction as treatment levels of adipocytokines. Only leptin levels necessary, and Fisher's test. A p-value under 0.05 was have a significant decrease in telmisartan group 7.39 considered statistically significant.
ng/ml (CI 95%: 1.47-13.31). Sixty five patients gave informed consent and were The major finding of this study was that telmisartan enrolled in the study. Baseline characteristics of 80 mg per day significantly improved insulin, HOMA, patients were presented in table I, without statistical glucose and leptin levels. However, olmesartan improved lipid levels. Both drugs had the same benefi-cial effect on blood pressure levels.
Recently, Furuhashi et al.16 showed that blockade of Changes in anthropometric variables and blood pressure the renin-angiotensin system by angiotensin-convert- Telmisartan (n =34) Olmesartan (n = 31) 78.9 ± 11.1 79.0 ± 10 Telmisartan (n =34) Olmesartan (n = 31) Systolic BP (mmHg) 150.7 ± 19.1 126.3 ± 7.7* 145.6 ± 15.1 124.8 ± 9.6* Diastolic BP (mmHg) Adiponectin (ng/ml) 20.2 ± 17.3 21.4 ± 19.5 38.8 ± 30.5 31.4 ± 28.3* BP: Blood pressure.
T Student test and Wilcoxon test were used as statistical methods.
T Student test and Wilcoxon test were used as statistical methods.
* p < 0.05, in each group with basal values.
* p < 0.05, in each group with basal values.
Adipocytokines; telmisartan vs Nutr Hosp. 2010;25(2):275-279 ing enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and/or angiotensin II show that angiotensin II promotes it. Leptin gene expres- receptor blocker (ARB) decreased adipocyte size with sion is under the control of PPARgamma. PPARgama improvement in insulin sensitivity. This previous data represses the expression of leptin ob gene.28 In animal may partially explain our results with telmisartan.
models, angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers enhanced Other study17 suggests that other ARB (candesartan)- insulin sensitivity and improved the serum lipid profile in induced decrease in plasma insulin level might be induced an increase in plasma adiponectin in patients In summary, the administration of telmisartan with renal dysfunction. In agreement with these results, improved blood pressure, glucose, insulin, HOMA the blockades of renin-angiotensin system are reported and leptin in hypertensive obese patients. Olmesartan to decrease plasma insulin level and to increase plasma improved blood pressure and lipid levels. These results adiponectin level in patients without renal dysfunction, suggest that telmisartan could be more useful in prevent- too.18 Our study did not show modification in levels of ing atherosclerosis in these patients than olmesartan. adiponectin, but telmisartan decrease leptin levels. Recently, telmisartan displays the ability to act as partial agonist of PPARgamma,19 this stimulation induces the differentiation of pre-adipocytes to matureadipocytes, increases the subcutaneous fat and reduces 1. Fantuzzi G. Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation. the visceral fat related with insulin resistance. Several J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005; 115: 911-9.
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