Microsoft word - managementplan2006.doc

clearly identify the long-term aims of woodland management with reference to the Statement of Significance. record relevant information about the current condition, status etc. of the woodland as a starting point for the plan; identify a twenty-year outline proposal and a five-year work programme necessary to achieve the long-term aim. Determine Key Performance Indicators; provide a means of recording work carried out and monitoring results to determine whether the desired aims are being achieved. subject to the above - be as simple as possible. SUMMARY OF MANAGEMENT PLAN Summary Information
Entrance at grid ref. SW 637 339 The Dandelion Trust (Freehold) Managed by The Sustainable Trust
Area (ha)
Crenver Grove, lies on the southern edge of the Clowance Estate south of Praze-an-estate is halfway between the towns of Helston and Camborne in Kerrier District in south-west Cornwall. Crenver Grove is a significant local woodland. It is an important feature which contributes to the character of the landscape. It is part of the historic ornamental landscape of the Clowance estate with its links to mining heritage. It is of significance for nature conservation and is a valued community resource actively used by a range of groups and the general public. Management Aims
The aims of management of this woodland are to maintain and enhance its conservation value; to maintain it as a feature within the landscape; to develop its use for educational purposes and for informal recreation. Statutory & other designations
Crenver Grove is covered by the following designations Tree Preservation Order Tregonning and Gwinear Mining Districts with Trewavas (A3), part of the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape World Heritage Site. Clowance Hard Rock Mineral Consultation Area No. 47 KDC Local Plan. Cornwall Nature Conservation site (K/P27 Clowance House and Park). SITE DESCRIPTION
Aspect and Soils
Crenver Grove lies on a north-facing slope in Hayle River catchment area. The underlying geology is of Middle and Undifferentiated Devonian rocks. Devonian slates, shales and siltstones, known in Cornwall as ‘killas'. These rocks give rise to ‘Brown Earth', soils known locally as ‘shillet' which can be loamy or silty and well drained. These are used for dairying, stock rearing or market crops in more favoured locations, but they can be prone to drought conditions in May or June. The area around Clowance has been designated as grade 3 agricultural land in common with 54% of Cornwall. The soils in Crenver Grove are a mull humus approximately 100 to 200 mm thick on average over a yellow blocky shillet containing fragments of stone. The site is surrounded by Grade 3 agricultural land, which is at field capacity for an average of 210 days per annum with a mean average rainfall of 1,076 mm (43 ins). There is a 320-day growing season. No drainage systems exist within Crenver Grove. Landscape setting & Clowance Estate
Cornwall has less than 50% of the national average tree cover and in Kerrier District it is sparse and localised because of local climatic and soil conditions, and of course previous mining activity. Crenver Grove is covered by a Tree Preservation Order, no doubt in part because of this sparse tree cover in Kerrier. The Cornwall Countryside Local Plan identified nine categories of woodland of landscape and amenity value and this categorisation has been included in the Draft Kerrier Local Plan to identify woodland of importance in the District. Crenver Grove falls into categories (b), (g) and (i) The categories are: woods within the AONB or AGLV; woods and groups of trees on elevated ground which are prominent in the landscape and/or can be seen over a wide area; blocks of woodland in open farm land where there is a general absence of hedgerow trees; woodland adjacent to estuaries and areas of open water; woodland which forms an integral part of the landscape value of incised river valleys; woods where the tree species and specimens are of particularly high quality; woodland covered by Tree Preservation Orders; small plantations which are part of the Countryside Agency or Forestry Commission Schemes; and parkland type woodland and groups of trees associated with large estates. Clowance was mentioned in 14th century documents when Geoffrey St Aubyn was married and some time afterwards was granted a licence for chapel there. This has been an important estate in the area for centuries and during that time woodland has been an important part of the landscape. This estate lies within the "South West Cornwall Hinterland" Landscape Character Area described in the Cornwall Landscape Assessment 1994 (CLA). The description of this area makes specific mention of the importance of woodland to its character and says, "several well-wooded estates add to the impression of a fairly lush district". It also says "management of existing woodlands is important". The "Landscape Guidelines" for this Landscape Character Area say that the management of estate woodlands should be encouraged. The surrounding land is predominantly farmland, but there is a road haulier's yard on the ex-mining land to the south. This estate is also defined as being an "Ornamental" historic landscape character zone. The description of this historic landscape character zone says that "An ornamental landscape stands out in the Cornish landscape, mainly though the unusually dense grouping of large and varied deciduous trees." Clearly the wooded parts of the Clowance Estate are of great significance in creating the character of this historic landscape zone. The impact of the development of timeshare houses here is specifically mentioned in the description of this zone in the CLA. The same source says "Cornish ornamental landscapes are regarded as of high importance for their rarity, general good survival, their amenity value and for the light they throw on the higher levels of Cornish society in the early modern period". Furthermore the CLA says that any proposals for change in historic parks "should be guided by a detailed understanding of their historical development". The area around Clowance contains various ancient monuments and the track leading past the east end of Crenver Grove appears to be part of an ancient route from Gwithian. Crenver Grove tales its name from the nearby farm of Crenver, the name of which derives from the Cornish Caer Genver – Genver's Fort – the name of the Iron Age settlement there. Clowance was a later mediaeval house with a deer park, mentioned in documents dated 1667, that no doubt occupied the area that still forms the core of the estate. The surrounding countryside was a prosperous farming area with a number of medieval settlements. The Clowance estate was one of the most important estates, houses and parks in Cornwall. Its ancient manor house was continuously altered. In common with others in Cornwall this estate landscape has been redesigned and was, for example, extensively planted and ornamented from the 1720s and again in the 1770s, and is now an ornamental landscape still focussed on the main house, though degraded by the intrusive development of time-share lodges. The present landscape of woodlands and sweeping picturesque views down to the lake probably owes a lot to John Nicholls, who was a landscape gardener in the style of Capability Brown and may date from the early 1800s. This lake was referred to in a newspaper report of a procession to Crowan Church and banquet to mark Sir John St Aubyn, the fifth baronet's fiftieth year as Provincial Grand Master of the Freemasons a month before the fire in 1836. Most of Crenver Grove as it now exists is shown on the tithe map of 1840, though a triangular field still existed at its north-west corner which was planted later. This wood was planted with Turkey oak, beech and sweet chestnut and there are similar plantations at other estates, such as Pendarves and Tregothnan. This woodland forms one of the belts along the estate boundary. There have been two major fires at Clowance, in 1836 and again in 1843. These destroyed much of the old house and most of the library was destroyed including estate records and the dates at which various plantations were laid out. Details of what existed on the land previously have been lost. However Polsue noted in Lake's Parochial History of the County of Cornwall, published in 1872 that "‘the rich and highly interesting pleasure grounds and thriving plantations of Clowance form a gladdening contrast with the surrounding desolation". The grounds of Clowance were still famous in gardening and horticultural circles until 1921 when the Clowance branch of the Molesworth-St Aubyn family sold the estate. Crenver Grove appears to have been planted in two phases. The largest part of it is shown on the tithe map of 1840 on which it and the woodland alongside the B3303 running south from Praze are labelled as ‘plantation'. The north-east part of the site had not been planted at that date, but may have been planted at the time the house was rebuilt in 1843. The extent of Crenver Grove in 1840
(This plan is based on the 1888-91 Ordnance Survey plan with the area unplanted in 1840 removed. Not to scale) The extent of Crenver Grove in 1888-91 and at present
The St Aubyn family made much of its money from mining and there were numerous mines on and around the Clowance Estate. Just south of Crenver Grove were "Crenver and Wheal Abrahams" and Oatfield mines. Crenver Mine was operating by the middle of the 18th century. Crenver Mine was one of Cornwall's most important copper mines and by 1822 was the deepest mine in Cornwall and employed 560 men and boys underground and around the same number for surface dressing. There was a slump in copper prices in 1829 which led to a period of depression and mine closures. When prices recovered mines were reopened and Crenver was working again between 1864 and 1876. There is what appears to be one small shaft within Crenver Grove about 64m from its southern boundary and 44m from the east end. The surrounding area including Crenver Grove is in Kerrier Council's number 47 Clowance Hard Rock Mineral Consultation Area. The entire estate and Praze-an-Beeble lie within the Tregonning and Gwinear Mining Districts with Trewavas (A3), which forms part of the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape World Heritage Site. Oddly the Crenver and Wheal Abrahams mine site to the south of Crenver Grove is not included in the World Heritage Site. SITE DEFINITION AND BOUNDARIES
Crenver Grove is enclosed on its southern and western sides by the historic Clowance estate wall. This feature, despite its age is still relatively intact. The last 100 metres to the eastern corner has been shortened to about half its original height as a safety precaution, as part of this stretch was particularly broken down. Several major gaps and semi-collapsed sections were repaired as soon as the Dandelion Trust took possession to deter trespassers and wood theft. Several sections are still in need of repair or strengthening. The eastern side of Crenver is bounded by a track. The other sides are secured by Cornish hedges, (stone faced earth banks) and in some places by single strand barbed-wire fencing. In the north-west corner of Crenver Grove, a small area of the woodland belongs to a local farmer, Mr W. Gwennap. An earth bank marks the boundary. This will not be fenced unless live-stock is to be introduced to the adjacent land by the farmer. Fencing this area might interfere with badger movements. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION VALUE
This estate has been identified by the Cornwall Wildlife Trust as a Cornwall Nature Conservation site (K/P27 Clowance House and Park SW 62 34 - 63 34). These are places which include havens of semi-natural habitat which contain a wide diversity of Cornwall's plants, animals and other wildlife. They are important habitat in their own right but also provide wildlife corridors, links or stepping-stones from one habitat to another. These Cornwall Nature Conservation (CNC) sites are an important part of the network necessary to ensure the maintenance of local biodiversity. Although Clowance has been designated as a CNC the ecological importance of the woodlands may not previously have been recognised. Although the woods in the old Clowance estate are identified as ‘main woodland' in the draft Kerrier Local Plan, they are not for example shown as ‘Ancient Woodland' in it. Recent work suggests that some of the woodland on the estate is on sites that may have been wooded for over 400 years. These woodlands may include introduced species, such as sweet chestnut and turkey oak, but they should probably be categorised as "Plantations on Ancient Woodland Sites" and this is because they contain at least 15 ancient woodland indicator species. (These are species identified for the South West by Keith Kirby for English Nature the occurrence of which indicates ancient woodland sites.) The continuity of woodland species on these sites makes them very special in Cornwall and in Kerrier District. They are an important resource within the terms of the Local Biodiversity Action Plan. Crenver Grove contains nine ancient woodland indicator species and may, at least in part, be a plantation on an ancient woodland site. Plant species
The dominant tree species are those that were originally planted. These include Turkey oak, (Quercus cerris), which makes up 50% of the trees in some areas. The other main species are beech (Fagus sylvatica) and sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) and in some parts of the wood they are dominant. There are much smaller numbers of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus). As well as a few old sycamores there are small groups of a few young sycamores in clearings created by fallen trees. Most have been damaged by squirrels and are misshapen. Some other species are present in smaller numbers such as ash (Fraxinus excelsior), sessile and pedunculate oak (Quercus petraea, Q. robur), which occur on the edges of the wood, evergreen oak (Quercus ilex), and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia). There are also a few hornbeam, (Carpinus betulus). The trees on the southern and western edges of the wood are noticeably wind-pruned and are lower than those in the other parts of the wood. The original planting included Scots pine, but only three survive on the southern edge of this wood. Most only remain as fallen rotten trunks and from counting the whorls of branches it is estimated that they only lived for about 40 years. There is also a group of four silver firs, Abies alba, on the southern edge of the wood near Crenver Gate. These firs and some other groups of trees still show the lines in which the trees were originally planted and it seems likely that they were planted at 10 foot spacings. The remaining trees from the original planting are now over-mature in forestry terms. Many of the beech are in poor condition with a significant proportion infected with Ganoderma. They are relatively poor genetic stock in forestry terms. Many of the Turkey oaks have fallen in the past and those remaining show signs of fungal infection and bacterial fluxes. It is unlikely that there is much usable timber in this wood. The Turkey oak will only be suitable for firewood. The sweet chestnut is likely to have internal splitting or shakes. The beech is of poor form and frequently infected with decay fungi. The age structure of this wood is badly out of balance. There is a predominance of old trees with relatively few young ones coming up to take their place. However there is quite good regeneration of beech with some sweet chestnut in glades which have resulted form old trees falling. However one of the main aims of managing this wood must be to ensure its survival as a woodland and to do this it will be necessary to create more opportunities to plant native species of trees. Shrub layer species include holly (Ilex aquifolium), elder (Sambucus nigra), hazel (Corylus avellana). Cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) and Rhododendron ponticum are also present and were presumably planted for game cover. These species have been extensively cleared over the last two years. Subsequently a lot of holly seedlings have germinated. The ground layer is dominated by several species of fern and brambles (Rubus fruticosus). Ivy (Hedera helix) and honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum) are both abundant on the woodland floor and also using saplings and larger trees as support. Common woodland wildflowers can be identified depending on the time of year. These include the bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta ), wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), ramsons (Allium ursinum), wood sorrel (Oxalis acetosella) and wood sage (Teucrium scorodonia). There are at least 12 ancient woodland indicator species present within the wood. These are Allium ursinum Asplenium scolopendrium Blechnum spicant Carex sylvatica Conopodium majus Dryopteris affinis Hyacinthoides non-scripta Hypericum androsaemum Lysimachia nemorum Oxalis acetosella Polypodium vulgare Veronica montana The historic wall surrounding part of the site supports impressive growth of ivy-leaved toadflax (Cymbalaria muralis), smaller fern species and wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca). Fungi, mosses and lichens are abundant on dead wood. The site contains a diversity of organisms, the most noticeable being the badger (Meles meles). Two large setts exist. One in the south-west corner, very close to the quarry, is evidently very old, with an excess of 20/25 tunnel entrances. The other sett is more recent, being less than 20 years old. This is situated around and beneath a fallen tree in the trench in the eastern half of the wood. It could be possible, and following tracks suggests this, that the two colonies contain related animals. Remains of a possible fox (Vulpes vulpes) earth exists in the far north-eastern tip of the site. At least one litter of cubs has been observed here (1985). It is possibly no longer used, being in close proximity to the new badger sett. Foxes are frequently seen in the woods and surrounding countryside. Grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) are common and have been observed stripping bark from trees, particularly sycamore, but have not caused serious damage to other species. The site is likely to contain a high population of small mammals, shrews (Sorex araneus), woodmouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), field vole (Microtus agrestis) etc, due to the relatively large amounts of cover and food provided, especially by bramble thickets. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been seen in the site during food shortages on adjacent farmland. Stoat (Mustela erminea) and weasel (Mustela nivalis) have been observed, as have escaped naturalised ferrets (Mustela furo). Local domestic cats range within this wood. Bird species identified include most of the common woodland species. Wood pigeons (Columba palumbus), rooks (Corvus frugilegus), blackbirds (Turdus merula) and smaller tit (Parus spp.) and finch (Fringilla spp.) species are commonly seen. Jays (Garrulus glandarius), woodpeckers (Picus & Dendrocopos spp.) tree creepers (Certhia familiaris) and cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) have also been identified. Buzzards (Buteo buteo) are a common sight sometimes as many as five, probably related or courting, can be seen and heard above the woods and surrounding farmland. Barn (Tyto alba) and tawny owls (Strix aluco) can be observed in the vicinity. The screech of a little owl (Athene noctua) has been heard on several occasions. Solitary ravens (Corvus corax) can sometimes be seen at the edge of the site. Amphibian activity is low due to the complete lack of standing water, toads (Bufo bufo) can sometimes be found in damp sheltered areas under fallen wood. The common lizard has been found on the edge of the wood. Insect diversity seems high but is in need of more study. Communities
During the time in which this woodland was unmanaged there has been some development of variation and some different communities have been able to develop. However there has been little development of a more natural successional sequence and the woodland is still mostly dominated by the species originally planted. Community types include mature/over-mature woodland and some glades and overgrown rides. Other resources include large amounts of dead trees, both standing and fallen, providing sites for foraging, shelter, nest sites and growth of mosses and fungi. The wall surrounding Crenver Grove provides valuable niches for certain plants and invertebrate communities. At the top of the trophic system, within the site, are the birds of prey, stoat, weasel, fox, ferret, and local domestic cats. Shooting has been banned. ARCHAEOLOGY
There are some features of local archaeological importance. There is a small, roughly circular, mound near the middle of the wood, which could be a tumulus. Crenver Grove contains a quarry in its south-west corner. It is likely this was worked before planting started to provide stone for the wall and/or local building projects. The Clowance estate wall, an impressive structure of local stone, bonded with rab (clay subsoil), which stands up to 2.5m high in places, is a significant feature. The remains of hedge-banks and tracks cross the site. A trench of approximately 4 metres in width and 2 metres depth appears to follow an old field boundary which divided the original plantation and the part added after 1840. This trench was dug by American servicemen stationed at the Clowance house during the Second World War as a D-day practice manoeuvre and presumably deepened an existing ditch. What looks like a small choked shaft may have been a ventilation shaft for one of the several mines to the south of the site? There is no record of any finds of any artefacts of any real historical importance. In some places there are old rubbish tips close to the soil surface, containing bottles, pots, shoes and other items from the beginning of the 20th century and before. DEVELOPMENT & PAST MANAGEMENT
The site was developed as woodland from approximately 1830 and was planted to provide an aesthetically pleasing landscape feature, and for the rearing of game birds, and riding. The presence of ancient woodland indicator species indicates that parts of the site may have been wooded before this date. It is possible for example that the old track-way along the north-east edge of the wood was lined by trees, before the wood was planted. The site was actively managed until the decline of the Clowance estate in the 1920's. After planting the area was managed by full time grounds-men and at least one gamekeeper, who lived in the keeper's cottage to the north. It has been shown that by providing good conditions for game-birds, many other species benefit. Sweet chestnut and sycamore in some very small areas seem to have been coppiced haphazardly in years gone by to provide materials for the estate. It is however possible that what appears to be evidence of coppicing is really the results of livestock getting into the wood and browsing these trees when they were young. Since this management ceased, poaching, wood removal and rubbish dumping have all occurred at varying levels. During that time when no management occurred the rhododendron and cherry laurel spread to cover large areas. They have now been cleared from many areas. Where this has been done natural regeneration of native species is occurring. Since being purchased by the Dandelion Trust in 1990, Crenver Grove has been managed for conservation, recreation and education. This includes repair of the wall in some places, to deter wood removal, trespass and poaching, vandalism and rubbish dumping. A circular walk has been developed in the eastern half of the site. Approximately 400 trees and shrubs of native species have been planted in the last three years in clearings where trees have been wind-thrown. PUBLIC INTEREST
Much public interest was shown when it was revealed that, unless something was done quickly, this wood and Fox Grove in the valley bottom, were likely to be sold to the company running the adjacent Clowance time-share site. Recent changes have seen the building of holiday chalets in clearings created in much of the woodland, which has caused significant local controversy. The development of time-share lodges on their land has led to the removal of trees. Many remaining trees standing by lodges, car parking areas and access roads show signs of stress from root damage. As a result of campaigning, principally by Ms Philippa Richards, the Dandelion Trust stepped in at the last minute to secure the two sites in August 1990. It is likely the time-share company, if they had gained control of the sites, would have increased the number of chalets, roads and facilities potentially resulting in further loss of tree cover. Cash donations and low interest loans were obtained from several sources to secure the future of the woodlands. Equipment has also been lent to help with work, for example the free use of a dumper truck during wall repairs. Local schools have been made aware that this wood is available for use as a recreational resource. Local groups such as the Cornwall Wildlife Trust and the local Friends Of the Earth group are aware of the acquisition of this wood and Fox Grove by the Dandelion Trust. Local groups interested in particular species, such as badgers, make occasional visits. "The Forest School" hold a week of activities for children from five different schools who are unable to go to camp for financial, behavioural, or health reasons. Children from St Erth, Gwinear, Gulval and Nancledra Primary Schools enjoyed days at Crenver Grove. Teachers reported: "The content of their creative writing changed dramatically once they had experienced the practical aspects of lighting fires and building shelters." "A chance for children to express themselves freely without the constraints of the classroom. They are learning so many skills that are important: working together, looking after themselves and others and not to mention respecting the forest and all it has to offer. A great day to see your children in a completely different light!" "The practical skills that you taught them (especially fire lighting!) have given them the confidence to try more." (See "Education Otherwise", for home-educated children, hold weekly meetings with parents. Activities vary; last spring they put up bird boxes with messages on them, such as "keep warm and snug". "New Connections", which works with the homeless and vulnerable bring a group of people every week to help clear arisings. "The Prince's Trust" have built two bridges and want to be involved in future projects. "Falmouth Marine School" have held courses in Crenver Grove to learn how to use green wood in construction. The local hedgehog protection group have held sponsored events and educational days in the wood. The wood is used for puppy training sessions. The "Drym Valley Day Centre" has helped to prepare for events. Bosence Farm, which is a recovery centre, Falmouth Green Centre, RSPB and the Bishop's Forum have all also been involved. These groups will continue to be involved and others are interested in using the wood as a resource, for example Penwith Family Centre will be working with the Sustainable Trust in 2007. ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
The site is 14.17 hectares of deciduous plantation woodland. The relative lack of human interference over the last 60 or 70 years has allowed some development from tended plantation to a more natural ecosystem. No species of national importance have so far been identified in the wood. However the combination of species and features here provide an area of local importance. The presence of ancient woodland indicator species shows that at least part of this grove may have been wooded before its plantation. The most pressing management tasks are increasing the proportion of native tree species and achieving a balanced age structure. The securing of boundaries is also important, though much has been done on this since 1995. Some regeneration of the original plantation tree species is occurring, but should not be relied upon to maintain the wood and in any case none of the original planted species are native to Cornwall. Areas containing fragile habitats, and those areas containing populations of notable species such as the badger will be excluded from active management tasks unless absolutely necessary. The area containing the large badger sett at the west end of the wood should be protected from human interference. Holly is well-established at this end of the wood. It should be encouraged to spread to make access to this area much more difficult from the east. Young holly seedlings from natural regeneration elsewhere in the wood should be planted to fill gaps. EVALUATION
Maintaining and creating new wildlife habitats
The management of the woodland is intended to ensure its survival in the long-term. There is potential to improve its wildlife value. Removal of rhododendron and cherry laurel which has been successfully started will be completed to improve the under-story. Glades and rides may be opened up when opportunities arise to provide butterfly habitat. Appropriate species of wildflower native to the area could be planted when the opportunity arises. These could be grown from seed collected locally to maintain genetic integrity. Producing wood and marketable timber
This wood has little potential to produce usable timber except for use as firewood. Timber production is not a management objective. However opportunities for using small wood for green-wood and rustic furniture will be developed. Regenerating woodland
The woodland will be regenerated by gradually introducing native species to replace the original non-native planted species in the long-term. There is some potential for natural regeneration of native species and it will be encouraged. Enhancing the landscape
Opportunities to develop a distinctive sense of place will be explored and developed. Areas within Crenver Grove have been designed to have specific characters, for example, the open-air, class-room , the yew circle and the new entrance at "Crenver Gate". Local sculptors and artists have already become involved in projects related to this woodland. Suggested projects which are being considered include rebuilding some of the estate wall where it needs repair to include "windows" into the woodland and using some of the white quartz stones scattered throughout the wood to make a feature with local significance. Restoring or improving industrial or derelict land
The land on which the wood was planted may have been affected by mining before about 1830. Crenver Mine was in operation for about a century before Crenver Grove was planted. Opportunities will be sought to use this wood to explain its links to mining heritage and relate to its inclusion within the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape World Heritage Site. Advice should be sought on the mine-shaft to see if it needs to be capped. Providing public recreation
Crenver Grove is open to the public for informal recreation and there is potential to increase its use. Members of the public often walk along the paths which have been developed since the Dandelion Trust bought the site. Volunteers constructed rustic bridges over the 2nd World War trench to allow easy access. The site is relatively level and a wheelchair accessible path has been created from the entrance to the open-air class-room. Events have been organised to involve the public in the management and enjoyment of the wood and more will be arranged. Providing employment
The woodland is unlikely to generate sufficient income to support full-time employment in the time span of this management plan. Providing sporting use
No sporting use of Crenver Grove is planned. Shooting is banned. Involving the local community
Volunteers regularly come to Crenver Grove to carry out conservation tasks and use the wood for recreation and education. They come from, for example, Crowan, Praze an Beeble, Camborne and other nearby settlements. Regular advertising is carried out in a low key way to encourage local involvement and this will continue. Further opportunities will be sought to encourage community involvement. LONG-TERM VISION FOR WOODLAND
In the long-term it is intended to ensure that Crenver Grove's value for wildlife is retained and enhanced, but also to encourage its use as an educational and community resource. In order to secure this vision for the future there are some management tasks that must be undertaken. Because the wood has been neglected for a considerable period, intervention is necessary to rebalance the age structure otherwise there will be too few young trees to maintain this area as woodland with mature trees in the longer term. In order to increase the value of the woods for wildlife the species-balance should be shifted to replace non-native species with native species appropriate to this part of Cornwall. The standing dead trees and trees with large dead limbs in the wood are a significant resource for wildlife. They must be retained wherever possible. However because public access to the woods is being promoted there are safety issues, which must be addressed. The more dangerous trees near paths should be made safe. This may simply involve reducing them in height so that they are less likely to fall. It may be prudent to reduce some to a height at which they could not fall onto the paths. Glades and rides where sunlight reaches into woodland are of benefit to many species of butterfly and plants. It may be desirable to create some permanent clearings within Crenver Grove. Areas away from those used by the public, where the range of species and ages of trees is appropriate, can be managed by minimum intervention. Where trees appear to have been coppiced in the past a small area of coppicing could be re-established. If coppicing is to be successful in the long term, for conservation and also as a source of material for charcoal making or for greenwood furniture manufacture or other woodland crafts then a rotation of cutting should be established to provide the right age of growth. This is likely to be 7 to 15 years for conservation with the longer rotation providing larger material for craft use. Where there is no alternative but to fell dangerous trees for safety reasons they will be felled on a selective basis removing only those trees that must go. SUMMARY OF WOODLAND CONDITION
Crenver Grove is woodland dominated by old non-native species of trees which are all of a similar age. There are few young trees and not enough to replace the old ones as they die or are The canopy is closed and there are relatively few spaces in the wood which are not overhung by branches and would therefore be suitable places to plant new trees. Most of the existing glades created when old trees have fallen have already been planted. The ground flora, the low growing herbaceous plants that cover the woodland floor, are what would occur naturally in a native oak woodland in Cornwall. The ground flora contains some ancient woodland indicator species. This is a narrow woodland in a fairly exposed location. The trees within it are older than the ages at which they would have been felled if this wood had been managed for timber production. The old trees with dead branches and cavities in their trunks and standing dead trees in Crenver Grove provide a valuable habitat which has become a rare resource nationally. The dead wood on the ground in Crenver Grove is also valuable habitat. Some old trees, which are dead, or are in a dangerous condition, stand near footpaths used by the public. 12.10 Allowing old trees to fall naturally as they become decayed or are blown over is unlikely to allow enough space to plant sufficient young trees to maintain the wood in the long-term. 12.11 Natural regeneration, letting trees grow from seed shed by the existing trees, will not replace the non-native species with native ones. 12.12 Some thinning of this wood on a selective basis, removing individual trees, would be beneficial to make space for young trees. However this is unlikely to be acceptable to the owners and a low intervention strategy will be adopted. 12.13 Both Turkey oak and sweet chestnut are capable of growing to significant ages and many of those present could live at least another 50 years. The beech are not likely to last anywhere near as long. Many are infected with Ganoderma applanatum, a fungus that rots roots and trunks and these trees frequently drop large limbs. Meripilus giganteus, another very serious root rotting fungus which attacks beech, is present in the Clowance estate woodlands. 12.14 Thinning beech trees once they have reached an age of over 100 is risky. Trees which were not previously exposed to direct sunlight can be severely damaged by sun scorch and entire beech woodlands die back in a condition known as stand collapse. 12.15 Thinning any stand of trees in an exposed location must be done with care to avoid letting the wind reach trees which were previously protected from it, because they are very likely to be damaged or blown over. 12.16 Any change in woodland managed for conservation and recreation should be 12.17 Dead wood and standing dead trees should be retained in areas which the public do not use. Fallen dead wood should be retained. 12.18 The low intervention policy of the Dandelion Trust will restrict what can be done to manage this wood. However, in the long-term it would be desirable to fell limited numbers of trees to make space for new planting. Dead or dangerous trees standing near footpaths used by the public should be made safe. This should be by reducing the overall height, but without complete removal, to maintain deadwood habitats. In the short-term this will mean that mainly beech trees are removed. The clearings created should be planted with native species of trees and shrubs to increase the diversity and habitat value of the woodland. 12.19 If sycamore begins to invade new clearings intervention will be required, however it is not a significant problem at present and squirrel damage seems likely to provide a control mechanism. 12.20 Holly will become established as the main shrub throughout the wood and this will need control to avoid shading out wild flowers. 12.21 Holly regeneration assisted with relocation of seedlings form other parts of the wood will be used to restrict access to the large badger sett in the west end of the wood. 12.22 Coppicing should be (re)introduced as a small demonstration area to provide wood for craft uses and for charcoal production.
12.23 The ground flora should be enhanced by planting of appropriate native species.
This sets out work proposed in the next five year period and measurable targets for the actual work carried out, e.g. number of young trees planted, glades created etc. New planting or replanting
New planting will take place in areas where the tree canopy is not continuous. The are some parts of the north-eastern part of the wood where there is scope for new planting. Elsewhere there are few opportunities for any large scale new planting. Opportunities for planting will arise when old trees fall. Site preparation will require the clearing of any bramble and possibly the cutting up and removing of fallen trees. New planting will be species of tree and shrub native to the area, with some additions where this seems desirable. The tree species will be predominantly sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and pedunculate oak (Q. robur), with some wild cherry (Prunus avium), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior). Shrubs will include hazel (Corylus avellana), hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus), goat willow (Salix caprea) and sallow (Salix cinerea). Mixtures and planting patterns will be assessed for each location. The plant spacing will generally be 1.5 to 2m when planting in a glade or other clearing. The trees and shrubs planted so far hove not suffered damage from animals or humans. There is little need for weed control, except for periodic clearing of bramble. The success rates of trees and shrubs planted where there are gaps in the canopy has been extremely high – 100% in many areas. "Beating up", which means replacing plants which have died, is unlikely to be necessary. The target is to plant at least one hundred trees each year. Natural regeneration
Natural regeneration of holly is very successful in areas where laurel and rhododendron have been cleared. Although it is not necessarily a preferred species in this woodland because it is not native to the area, beech is also regenerating with reasonable success in some parts of the wood. The edges of the wood where the proportion of native species is higher have dense canopies, which provide limited opportunities for regeneration. There is some regeneration of laurel. These young laurel plants could be potted up and sold as a very minor source of income. Careful control of natural regeneration will be required to meet the aims of maintaining the wood as a landscape feature in the long-term and improving the proportion of native species in the wood. Natural regeneration will not achieve these aims on its own. Where large numbers of a single species germinate in a small area some thinning will be advantageous. The young plants removed could be replanted elsewhere in the wood, provided this meets the aim of improving the proportion of native species within it. No targets have been set for this activity. Felling and thinning
Felling and thinning on a significant scale would not be acceptable to the Dandelion Trust. However there are some trees in areas where the public have access and close to paths which are used very regularly by the public which are in very poor condition. A very small number may have to be felled for safety reasons. However such felling should be kept to a minimum. These older trees in poor condition have a relatively high habitat value because of the cavities in their trunks, their dead trunks and branches and the fungi they support. Removing the upper part of dead trees would enable the retention of standing dead-wood with less risk. A careful balance will need to be struck between the legal duty to keep the public safe within the wood and on the road beside it and the desire to maintain the wood's wildlife value. 13.10 The target is to make the main tracks through the wood safe to meet insurer's requirements. Funding will be sought for training for tree climbing for survey and safety work. Clearance
13.11 The only clearance that is proposed is the removal of invasive species such as rhododendron and laurel. These species have in the past sterilised large parts of the woodland floor preventing the growth of native woodland wild flora. The selective removal of undergrowth will help diversify habitat and improve access. 13.12 There is no existing coppice regime in the wood. There is an opportunity to (re)start coppicing in those areas where it may have occurred in the past. This is generally in the north-west part of the wood away from areas presently reached by public footpaths. This area would also be sheltered from the prevailing winds. The trees which appear to have been coppiced in the past are sycamore and sweet chestnut. Squirrels are certain to strip bark from young sycamore regrowth so this species is unlikely to produced much wood suitable for woodland crafts, however it might yield material for charcoal making. The sweet chestnut however should recoppice well and would yield small wood for craft use. Where sweet chestnut is recoppiced the resulting adjacent clear area should be replanted with hazel. It is recommended that some small coupes of coppice management are established with a rotation of 7 to 9 years for the hazel and up to 15 years for the chestnut depending on the intended end-use. Coppice woodland is frequently notable for its diverse ground flora and there is scope for developing this by planting native wildflower plants. 13.13 No target is being proposed for this activity. It will be dependent on resources and involvement of suitable volunteers. Pollards and veteran trees
13.14 There are no true veteran trees in the wood. The oldest were only planted after about 1830. However there are some spectacular trees with great value as habitat and as landscape features in their own right. These trees should be labelled and celebrated as long as they remain reasonably stable and do not present an unacceptably high risk to the public. 13.15 It is important not to plant up every glade. Open spaces within woodlands have habitat value providing places for wildflowers which need higher levels of light than are found under the trees and which can support a range of fauna including butterflies. The "Yew Circle" will be maintained as an open glade. Other opportunities for creating glades to improve species diversity will be sought. 13.16 The creation of one glade per year is proposed. Other habitats
13.17 The old wall along the southern and western boundaries has value as habitat in its own right. It supports a range of species on its outer face which need more light than is found within the wood. These include for example, Ivy-leaved toadflax (Cymbalaria muralis) and maidenhair spleenwort (Asplenium trichomanes). The vegetation cover on the wall should be maintained where this causes no structural faults. The wall was built without mortar and is susceptible to damage from woody species. 13.18 The target is to repair 10m of wall per year. 13.19 The Cornish hedge on the northern boundary is overhung and shaded by trees within the wood. This has reduced the range of plants growing on it and hence its habitat value. Where the overhanging branches are less dense and extensive there is an opportunity to introduce suitable species of wild flora to improve species diversity. 13.20 Access improvements for management and recreation purposes has been an important part of the improvements carried out in the wood since it was acquired by the Dandelion Trust. The level paths through the wood are greatly appreciated by local people and the various groups who use the wood. More paths should be created and marked to provide controlled access to parts of the wood. Colour coded markers should be provided as an art project in the wood. 13.21 A low key method of presenting information to visitors about the woodland will be developed. It has a significance as a local feature in the landscape with associated links to the historic Clowance estate and because of its part in the social history on the mining industry. It has now been included in the mining landscape World heritage Site. There are physical features in the wood which will be assessed in a planned archaeological survey and these will be explained to tell the story of the wood. This is likely to be done via interpretive boards at the entrances to the wood and also via the Sustainable Trust web site. 13.22 The target is to carry out the archaeological survey within one year. Creating a sense of place

13.23 Opportunities to introduce locally inspired sculpture using natural materials from
within the wood will be developed to create a sense of local landscape character. This may include using fallen timber to create sculpture or using greenwood furniture made within the wood to make usable spaces for the many community groups who use it as a resource. 13.24 The target is to secure grant aid funding within 12 months and start a programme of woodland inspired artistic activities. Other targets
13.25 It is intended to introduce at least one new group per year to Crenver Grove so that they can use it for educational or recreational purposes. 13.26 Woodland user numbers will be surveyed and the target is to achieve 1200 per 14 MONITORING AND REVIEW

Monitoring must be included, so that the results of any management work are measured and evaluated. Lessons from monitoring can then be included in a review of the management plan, which should normally be made every five years. Monitoring involves recording the state of the woodland at the start of the period, the work done and how the wood responded. A set of fixed points from which photographs will be taken at fixed intervals will be established to record changes in the woodland. Photography and simple survey techniques will be used to monitor changes in the wood as glades are created and new trees are planted. The present age structure will be recorded at sample locations and changes monitored. Natural regeneration will be assessed and monitored. Trees will be checked each year after planting to assess success rates. The success of woodland flora establishment by planting or sowing will be monitored. The work carried out to control rhododendron and laurel will be assessed to monitor its effectiveness. Notes will be kept of work carried out including particularly any obvious immediate effects the work has. Notes can be written in a field book or similar or in the plan. 14.10 Details will be recorded of all contract work carried out including contractors' records, haulage/delivery notes, invoices, payments etc; 14.11 Records of community projects in the wood will be kept. They will record the purpose of the event and all measurable outputs. 14.12 The targets set out in Section 14 of this plan will be assessed and recorded annually. 14.13 At the end of the plan period a simple five-year summary of work carried out and the overall achievement of targets and monitoring will be recorded. The progress to the long-term vision for the wood will be assessed. New opportunities and initiatives will be set out. Appendix 1
Species lists based on information from Cornwall Biological Records Unit, John Gregory,
Andy Norfolk and Ben Welch.
Trees & Shrubs
Abies alba
Silver Fir Acer pseudoplatanus Betula pendula Birch, Silver Betula pubescens Birch, Downy Carpinus betulus Castanea sativa Sweet Chestnut Corylus avellana Crataegus monogyna Fagus sylvatica Fraxinus excelsior Hedera helix hibernica Irish Ivy Ilex aquifolium Laurus nobilis Ligustrum vulgare Lonicera periclymenum Honeysuckle Pinus sylvestris Scots Pine Prunus laurocerasus Cherry laurel Prunus spinosa Blackthorn Quercus cerris Oak, Turkey Quercus ilex Oak, Evergreen Quercus petraea Oak, Sessile Quercus robur Oak, Pedunculate Rhododendron ponticum Rhododendron Rosa arvensis Field Rose Rubus fruticosus Salix caprea Goat Willow Salix cinerea Willow, Grey Sambucus nigra Sorbus aucuparia
Asplenium scolopendrium
Harts Tongue Asplenium trichomanes Maidenhair Spleenwort Athyrium filix-femina Lady Fern Blechnum spicant Hard fern Dryopteris austriaca Broad buckler Dryopteris affinis Scaly Male Dryopteris pseudomas Male Fern Polypodium vulgare
Herbaceous Plants
Agrostis gigantea
Common Bent Ajuga reptans Allium ursinum Anemone nemorosa Wood Anemone Angelica sylvestris Anthriscus sylvestris Cow Parsley Cardamine flexuosa Wavy Bittercress Carex sylvatica Wood Sedge Chamaenerion angustifolium Rosebay Willowherb Circaea lutetiana Enchanters Nightshade Conopodium majus Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora Montbretia Dactylis glomerata Cocksfoot Digitalis purpurea Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp Agrimony Fragaria vesca Wild Strawberry Geum urbanum Wood Avens – Herb Robert Heracleum sphondylium Hyacinthoides non-scripta Hypericum androsaemum Juncus bufonius Toad Rush Juncus effusus Soft Rush Lamium purpureum Red Dead Nettle Lysimachia nemorum Yellow Pimpernel Oxalis acetosella Wood Sorrel Plantago major Greater Plantain Polygonum lapathifolium Pale Persicaria Primula vulgaris Ranunculus ficaria Lesser Celandine Ranunculus repens Creeping Buttercup Rumex acetosa Common Sorrel Rumex crispus Dock, Curled Rumex obtusifolius Dock, Broad leaved Silene dioica Red Campion Stellaria holostea Stitchwort Teucrium scorodonia Wood Sage Urtica dioica Common Nettle Veronica montana Wood speedwell
Armillaria mellea
Honey Fungus Calocera cornea Small Stagshorn Chlorosplenium aeruginascens Blue-green wood cups Coprinus plicatiliis Pleated Ink-cap Coriolus versicolor Many-coloured Polypore Cortinarius bolaris Dappled Woodcap Crepidotus variabilis Variable Oysterling Diatrype disciformis Beech Bark-spot Erysiphe circaeae Curcubit Powdery Mildew Exidia glandulosa Witches Butter Fumago vagans Ganoderma applanatum Artists Fungus Hyphodontia sambuci Elder Whitewash Hypholoma fasciculare Sulphur Tuft Hypoxylon fragiforme Beech Woodwart Lepiota procera Parasol Mushroom Lycoperdon perlatum Common Puffball Microsphaera alphitoides Oak Powdery Mildew Mycena vitilis Snapping Bonnet Oudemansiella mucida Porcelain Mushroom or Beech Tuft Phoma hedericola Ivy Leaf-spot Phragmidium violaceum Blackberry Rust Pleurotus ostreatus Oyster Mushroom Podosphaera clandestina Powdery Mildew Podosphaera tridatyla Plum Powdery Mildew Pseudotrametes gibbosa Lumpy Bracket Rhytisma acerinum Acer Tar-spot Russula cyanoxantha Charcoal Burner Russula ochroleuca Common Yellow Russula Sawadea bicornis Powdery Mildew Scleroderma arurantium Common Earth-ball Stereum gausapatum Bleeding Oak Crust Stereum hirsutum Hairy Oak Crust Stereum rugosum Bleeding Broadleaf Crust Tricholoma nudum Wood Blewetts Irpex lacteus Uncinula prunastri Powdery Mildew
Mosses & Lichens
Evernia prunastri
Parmelia caperata
Parmelia perlata
Parmelia sulcata
Phaeographis dendricata
Polytrichum formosum
Ramalina farinacea
Rhizomnium punctatum
Usnea subfloridana
Alcedo atthis
Kingfisher Anas platyrhynchos Ardea cinerea Athene noctua Little Owl Buteo buteo Certhia familiaris Tree Creeper Columba oenas Stock Dove Columba palumbus Wood Pigeon Corvus corax Corvus corone-corone Corvus frugilegus Corvus monedula Cuculus canorus Dendrocopos major Greater Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos minor Lesser Spotted Woodpecker Erithacus rubecula Frigilla coelebs Chaffinch Gallinago gallinago Garrulus glandarius Motacilla alba-yarrelli Pied Wagtail Muscicapa striata Spotted Flycatcher Parus ater Parus caeruleus Parus major Great Tit Passer montanus Phasianius colchicus Pica pica Picus viridis Green Woodpecker Prunella modularis Scolopax rusticola Sitta europaea Streptopelia decaocto Collared dove Strix aluco Tawny Owl Sturnus vulgaris Troglodytes troglodytes Turdus iliacus Turdus merula Blackbird Turdus philomelos Song Thrush Turdus viscivorus Mistle Thrush Tyto alba
Aglais urticae
Small Tortoiseshell Anthocharis cardamines Orange-tip Caloptilia syringella Celastrina argiolus Holly Blue Chloroclysta truncata Common Marbled Carpet Inachis io Maniola jurtina Meadow Brown Pararge aegaria Speckled Wood Phyllonorycter coryli Phyllonorycter maestingella Phyllonorycter quercifoliella Pieris brassicae Large White Pyronia tithomus Gatekeeper – Hedge Brown Stigmella aurella Stigmella hemargyrella Stigmella tityrella Vanesssa atalanta Red Admiral
Other invertebrates
Andricus kollari
Marble-gall wasp Apis mellifera Honey bee Arion ater Black slug Arion subfuscus Dusky slug Bombus lapidarius Large Red tailed Bee Bombus terrestris Large Earth Bee Discus rontundatus Rounded snail. Forficula auricularia European earwig Haplophilus subterraneus Centipede Limax marginatus Tree slug Lithobius variegatus Banded centipede Lumbricus terrestris Common earthworm Ommatoiulus sabulosus Striped millipede Oniscus asellus Common woodlouse Philoscia muscorum Common striped woodlouse Polydesmus angustus Flat-backed millipede Apodemus sylvaticus Wood mouse Clethrionomys glareolus Bank vole Erinaceus europaeus Lutra lutra Meles meles Microtus agrestis Field vole Muscardinus avellanarius Dormouse. Mustela erminea Mustela furo Mustela nivalis Mustela vison Oryctolagus cuniculus Pipistrellus pipistrellus Pipistrelle bat Sciurus carolinensis Grey Squirrel Sorex araneus Talpa europaea Vulpes vulpes
Bufo bufo
Common toad Rana temporaria Common frog
Anguis fragilis
Slow worm Lacerta vivipara Common lizard Natrix natrix Grass snake Vipera berus
Appendix 2 Ancient woodland indicator lists
The following lists have been collated from various sources over the years by Keith Kirby for
English Nature. Species suggested as possible ancient woodland indicators in the South
West and included as woodland specialists in this analysis.

Aconitum napellus

Convallaria majalis Adoxa moschatellina Daphne laureola Allium ursinum Dipsacus pilosus Anemone nemorosa Dryopteris aemula Aquilegia vulgaris Dryopteris affinis Asplenium scolopendrium Dryopteris carthusiana Blechnum spicant Elymus caninus Bromopsis ramosa Epipactis helleborine Calamagrostis epigejos Equisetum sylvaticum Campanula trachelium Euphorbia amygdaloides Carex laevigata Festuca gigantea Carex pallescens Galium odoratum Carex pendula Geum rivale Carex remota Helleborus viridis Carex strigosa Holcus mollis Carex sylvatica C Hyacinthoides non-scripta Ceratocapnos claviculata Hymenophyllum tunbrigense Chrysosplenium oppositifolium Hypericum androsaemum Colchicum autumnale Hypericum pulchrum Conopodium majus Iris foetidissima Lamiastrum galeobdolon
Lathraea squamaria
Lathyrus linifolius
Lathyrus sylvestris
Luzula forsteri
Luzula pilosa
Luzula sylvatica
Lysimachia nemorum
Melampyrum pratense
Melica uniflora
Melittis melissophyllum
Milium effusum
Moehringia trinervia
Narcissus pseudonarcissus
Neottia nidus-avis
Orchis mascula
Oreopteris limbosperma
Oxalis acetosella
Paris quadrifolia
Phegopteris connectilis
Platanthera chlorantha
Poa nemoralis
Polygonum multiflorum
Polypodium vulgare
Polystichum aculeatum
Polystichum setiferum
Potentilla sterilis
Primula vulgaris
Pulmonaria longifolia
Ranunculus auricomus
Ribes nigrum
Ribes rubrum
Rosa arvensis
Ruscus aculeatus
Sanicula europaea
Scirpus sylvaticus
Sedum telephium
Sibthorpia europaea
Solidago virgaurea
Stachys officinalis
Tamus communis
Vaccinium myrtillus
Veronica montana
Vicia sepium
Vicia sylvatica
Viola palustris
Wahlenbergia hederacea


Integrative management of anxiety

Integrative Management of Program in Integrative Medicine James Lake M.D. Private practice, Monterey Adjunct faculty, Stanford Substantiated Non-conventional treatments of anxiety Most work done on non-conventional treatments addressing generalized anxiety, but relatively little research done on panic attacks, phobias, obsessions or compulsions. Kava-kava and L-theanine substantiated for

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