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Teacher Guide: Wanna Buy Some Drugs? Prior Knowledge Needed: An engaging introductory activity to the Pharmacogenomics module on the Genetic Science Learning Center website Materials:(http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/phar- Student handouts, computers with Internet ma). Students complete a short reading access, prescription drug advertisements and briefl y research medicines to learn (optional), pharmacist fact sheets (optional), that many commonly-used medications labels from over-the-counter medications can have adverse side effects. A short teacher-led discussion follows to intro-duce students to pharmacogenomics, a new application of genetics that might help prevent these adverse reactions and USA grades: 7 - 14improve the effi cacy of medications.
Varies depending on method of research used Pharmacogenomics: Drugs Designed for You Class Time:45 minutes Key Concepts:Prescription and over-the-counter Activity Overview Web Address: drugs can have adverse side affects; pharmacogenomics aims to reduce adverse drug reactions Other activities in the Pharmacogenomics module can be found at:
2004 University of Utah Genetic Science Learning Center, 15 North 2030 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 Teacher Guide: Wanna Buy Some Drugs? TABLE OF CONTENTS
A. Learning ObjectivesB. Background InformationC. Teaching Strategies Additional Resources A. Activity Resources A. Detailed Materials List A. U.S. National Science Education StandardsB. AAAS Benchmarks for Science LiteracyC. Utah Secondary Science Core Curriculum • Antidepressants Linked to Teen Suicide • Commonly Used Medications • Drug Report Form 2004 University of Utah Genetic Science Learning Center, 15 North 2030 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 Teacher Guide: Wanna Buy Some Drugs? I. PEDAGOGY
A. Learning Objectives
• Students will learn that prescription and over-the-counter drugs have side • Students will interpret a drug fact sheet.
• Students will learn that pharmacogenomics aims to fi gure out how people's genetic variations correlate with their responses to a specifi c medication.
B. Background Information
Each year 106,000 Americans die from adverse drug reactions and 2.2 million suffer serious side effects. The same medications that cause these problems greatly benefi t many people, but have little to no effect in others. Simply put, individuals respond differently to any particular medication. Scientists, clinicians and pharmaceutical companies think that variation in response to drugs may be correlated to genetic variation. Two emerging fi elds, pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics, aim to fi gure out how genetic variation leads to variation in drug response, and use this information to: reduce adverse drug reactions, increase effi cacy of medications, and improve the drug development process.
Pharmacogenetics – The study of how genetic variations among individuals are associated with variations in the responses to specifi c drugs. The ultimate goal of this fi eld is to one day tailor drug therapies to individual patients.
Pharmacogenomics – The study of how drugs interact with genes and their protein products. The goal of this fi eld is to use genetic data from large groups to improve the drug development process.
Because they are closely related, both fi elds often fall under the umbrella term of Pharmacogenomics. C. Teaching Strategies
1. Timeline
• One week before activity: - Reserve computer lab for research – 20-30 minutes should suffi ce Note: Students may use drug fact sheets, drug advertisements from
magazines, and/or labels from over-the-counter medications as an
alternative to computer lab research. You may also wish to print a number
of drug fact sheets from the Internet (see Additional Resources for
2004 University of Utah Genetic Science Learning Center, 15 North 2030 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 Teacher Guide: Wanna Buy Some Drugs? sources). If you choose to use paper resources, you may want to collect these materials 2-3 weeks prior to the activity.
• One day before activity: - Copy student handouts, one per student • Day of activity: - Students read a brief article about adverse drug reactions (Page S-1)- Students choose a drug from a list to research (in the computer lab or using resources you have collected), fi ll out a brief report form (Page S-3) and share what they learned with the class - Introduce and defi ne "pharmacogenomics" and discuss how it may help avoid adverse side affects to medications (see Background Information, page 1 and Classroom Implementation, pages 2-3, or Additional Resources, pages 3-4) 2. Classroom Implementation
• Ask students to read Antidepressants Linked to Teen Suicide (page S-1).
◦ How many of you have had, or know someone who has had an adverse reaction to a medication? ◦ Do medications always work as intended? • Have each student pick out a drug to research from the Commonly Used Medications list (page S-2). Students may also research a medication that is not on the list.
• Allow students time in the computer lab to research the drug they have chosen and to fi ll out the Drug Report Form, page S-3. See the list of suggested
websites in Additional Resources.
Note: Students may use drug fact sheets, printed drug advertisements
from magazines and labels from over-the-counter medications as an
alternative to computer lab research.
• Ask each student to share the information on their Drug Report Form with the rest of the class.
• Share with students the following information: ◦ Each year 106,000 Americans die from adverse drug reactions and 2.2 million suffer serious side effects.
◦ For others, drugs have no effect, good or bad.
2004 University of Utah Genetic Science Learning Center, 15 North 2030 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 Teacher Guide: Wanna Buy Some Drugs? ◦ Researchers think that each person's response to a drug may be infl uenced by genetics.
◦ Scientists, physicians and pharmaceutical companies are creating a new fi eld called "pharmacogenomics" that aims to fi gure out how people's genetic variations correlate with their responses to a specifi c medication.
◦The ultimate goals of pharmacogenomics are to: (a) tailor medical treatments to the individual, increasing effi cacy and reducing adverse reactions and (b) use genetics to inform the drug development process.
• Explore the Pharmacogenomics module on the Genetic Science Learning Center website (see Additional Resources) for more detailed online and
print activities about pharmacogenomics.
• As students share the information on their Drug Report Form (page S-3), create a list of possible side effects. Discuss whether some types of side effects are more common than others. Compare and contrast the side effects of drugs designed for similar purposes.
• Have students research the FDA's regulations concerning the advertisement of medications.
• Have students analyze drug advertisements, noting the target audience, when and where the advertisements are more prevalent, and visual clues about the medical conditions for which the drug is prescribed.
• Have students research current drug controversies and/or drugs that have been pulled off the market.
• Have students research the FDA's drug approval process.
• Have students create their own advertisement for the drug they research.
• Students may work in pairs or groups to research their medication of choice.
• To assign medications for research: Before class, prepare 3" x 5" cards with one medication from the Commonly Used Medications list (page S-2) on each card. Have students select a card, or hand a card to each student or group. • Skip reading the Antidepressants and Teen Suicide article (page S-1) short • Read the Antidepressants and Teen Suicide (page S-1) but do not research individual drugs.
2004 University of Utah Genetic Science Learning Center, 15 North 2030 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 Teacher Guide: Wanna Buy Some Drugs? 5. Common Misconceptions
• All prescription medications are safe for everyone. • All over-the-counter medications are safe for everyone. II. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
A. Activity Resources linked from the online Activity Overview at:
• Website: Pharmacogenomics: Drugs Designed for You - Students learn about a new fi eld in genetics that aims to tailor medication to the individual and inform the drug development process.
• Websites: Each contains a searchable data base with information on the uses and side effects of a number of prescription and over-the-counter medications. Searchable by brand name.
Medline Plus (from the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health) PDRHealth (consumer information from the Physicians Desk Reference) Drugs.com RxList Health Square A. Detailed Materials List
• Student handouts, pages S-1 to S-3 • Computers with Internet access• Printed drug fact sheets from the Internet (optional - see Additional Resources • Drug advertisements from magazines (optional)• Drug fact sheets from the pharmacist (optional)• Labels or fact sheets from over-the-counter medications (optional) A. U.S. National Science Education Standards
• Content Standard C: Life Science - Reproduction and Heredity; the characteristics of an organism can be described in terms of a combination of traits. Some traits are inherited and others result from interaction with the environment.
2004 University of Utah Genetic Science Learning Center, 15 North 2030 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 Teacher Guide: Wanna Buy Some Drugs? • Content Standard C: Life Science - Molecular Basis of Heredity; in all organisms, the instructions for specifying the characteristics of an organism are carried in DNA.
• Content Standard F: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives - Personal and Community Health; many diseases can be prevented, controlled or cured.
B. AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy
• The Human Organism: Physical Health - new medical techniques, effi cient health care delivery systems, improved sanitation, and a fuller understanding of the nature of disease give today's human beings a better chance of staying healthy than their forebears had. • The Designed World: Health Technology - knowledge of genetics is opening whole new fi elds of health care. C. Utah Secondary Science Core Curriculum
Intended Learning Outcomes for Seventh and Eighth Grade Integrated ScienceStudents will be able to:5. Demonstrate Awareness of the Social and Historical Aspects of Science a. Cite examples of how science affects life.
Intended Learning Outcomes for BiologyStudents will be able to:5. Demonstrate Awareness of the Social and Historical Aspects of Science a. Cite examples of how science affects human life.
Standard 4: Students will understand that genetic information coded in DNA is passed from parents to offspring by sexual and asexual reproduction. The basic structure of DNA is the same in all living things. Changes in DNA may alter genetic expression.
Objective 3: Explain how the structure and replication of DNA are essential to heredity and protein synthesis f. Research, report, and debate genetic technologies that may improve the quality of life (e.g., genetic engineering, cloning, gene splicing).
2004 University of Utah Genetic Science Learning Center, 15 North 2030 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 Teacher Guide: Wanna Buy Some Drugs? V. CREDITS
Activity created by:
Andee Bouwhuis, South Hills Middle School, Riverton, UT
Donna Capasso, Adele C. Young Intermediate, Brigham City, UT
Lori Oman, Altamont High School, Altamont, UT
Erin Brown, Mountain Ridge Junior High, Highland, UT
Molly Malone, Genetic Science Learning Center
Pete Anderson, Genetic Science Learning Center (illustrations)
Funding:
Funding for this module was provided by a Science Education Partnership
Award (No. 1 R25 RR16291) from the National Center for Research
Resources, a component of the National Institutes of Health.
2004 University of Utah Genetic Science Learning Center, 15 North 2030 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 Teen Suicide and Antidepressant Use In September 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced that use of antidepressants may increase suicidality (suicidal thoughts and actions) in children. An independent panel at Columbia University, assembled at the FDA's request, reviewed 25 studies that included 4,000 patients and eight commonly prescribed antidepressant medications. The panel found a consistent link between increased suicidal tendencies in children and teens who were using the medications. In fact, the panel concluded that children who were taking antidepressants were 1.8 times more likely to show suicidal thoughts or behaviors than patients who were taking placebos. The FDA now believes that antidepressant medication may cause two to three percent of children to have suicidal thoughts or actions when they otherwise wouldn't.
The FDA has been advised to include a warning label on antidepressants and educate patients, and the parents of patients, about this potential side effect. Health professionals and researchers are quick to point out the vast benefi ts of these medications however, cautioning against a ban of pediatric use of antidepressants.
2004 University of Utah Permission granted for classroom use.
Wanna Buy Some Drugs?: Drug List 2004 University of Utah Permission granted for classroom use.
Brand Name of Drug: Clinical Name of Drug: Possible Side Effects: 2004 University of Utah Permission granted for classroom use.

Source: http://teach.genetics.utah.edu/content/precision/WannaBuySomeDrugs.pdf

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