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What are prohibited substances ? What samples are collected from the horse ? Most medicines and drugs are prohibited if detected in a If your horse needs veterinary assistance or treatment at Usual y urine and blood are col ected under the direct su- horse at the time of competition. This ruling is based on the an event, your treating/team veterinarian must obtain pervision of an FEI testing official. Each sample wil be split FEI's philosophy that a horse should compete on its own permission from the FEI Veterinary Official before admin- in two parts, known as samples A and B. Sometimes other merits without any unfair advantage that might follow the istering the medication. The appropriate FEI Medication samples may be taken such as leg bandages, hair, or swabs. use of drugs. It is also to prevent horses damaging their Forms must be completed and will be sent to the FEI. The athletic potential by drugs masking unfitness, lameness or information provided wil be considered along with the results All samples will be carefully collected, labelled and of any subsequent medication test. packed, and you or your representative will be asked to sign that the procedure has been witnessed. The samples The Equine Prohibited List includes three classes of Prohib- What is "Elective Testing" ? will be sealed and the package sent to a FEI laboratory.
ited Substances: Doping, Medication Class A and Medica- Elective testing provides a system whereby your treating/ tion Class B.
team veterinarian can request an FEI laboratory to test for What happens next if the report is positive ? certain prohibited substances in the urine of a competition Positive test results typically occur in about 2-3% of all FEI ‘Doping' implies a serious attempt may have been made to horse. The substance(s) given to the horse must be speci- samples. The FEI will notify your National Federation that influence a horse's performance. ‘Medication Classes A and fied. Elective testing could assist you in estimating how there has been a positive test result. You will be informed B' indicate the finding of a prohibited substance that can long a substance may be detectable in your horse's system by your Federation and will be invited to respond. be used in the bona fide veterinary treatment of a horse. following a course of treatment. However, keep in mind Examples of ‘Doping' and ‘Medication' classes of Prohibited that the results of elective testing are unofficial and for Where the positive result falls under Medication Class A Substances are provided in the Equine Prohibited List that your reference only. To make use of this service, carefully or B the administrative sanctioning procedure (also called can be found on the FEI website.
read the instructions and ask your treating / team veterina- the "Fast-Track Procedure") may be offered to the Person rian to complete the application form available on the FEI Responsible by the FEI based upon the objective criteria Is any medication allowed ? established by the Judicial Committee. Al positive findings Yes. Certain medications are permitted under FEI Rules. which do not fal under the above criteria or do fal under Dop- These currently include rehydration fluids, antibiotics (with What information is available on detection time ing Prohibited Substances wil be administered according to the exception of procaine penicillin) and anti-parasite drugs for commonly used medicines ? the regular judicial procedure (with no "Fast-Track" option).
(dewormers) with the exception of levamisole. In addition, Testing laboratories collect data on the detection times for some drugs to treat or prevent gastric ulcers may be given certain substances commonly used in the routine veterinary You may then ask for the B-sample to be analysed. You (i.e. ranitidine, cimetidine and omeprazole). The use of al- treatment of sports horses. Substances for which detection will have the right to be present or be represented during trenogest (Regumate) is currently permitted for mares with times have been or are being established can be found on the identification and the opening of the sample to verify oestrus-related behavioural problems. Please note that only the FEI website and are listed together in what is called the that the B sample container shows no sign of tampering saline is permitted as an inhalation in a competition horse. and that the identifying numbers match the sampling pa-perwork. Please note that costs for the B-analysis may be Can I treat my horse during or prior to a competition ? It is very important to realise that a detection time is NOT invoiced if the results are positive.
If your horse needs medication and is scheduled to com- the same as a withdrawal time. The detection time is the pete in a competition shortly, you must discuss the options approximate period of time for which a drug remains in a Who is responsible ? with your treating/team veterinarian. Different drugs take horse's system such that it can be detected by the laboratory The Person Responsible for the horse is normally the com- different times to clear from the horse's system. If several and is provided only as a guide to you and your veterinarian. petitor who rides or drives the horse during an event, but drugs are used at the same time the detection periods can The withdrawal time for a drug must be decided upon by the owner and other support personnel including grooms often be unpredictable. With the exception of the permitted your treating/team veterinarian and is likely to be based and veterinarians may be regarded as additional Persons medications described above, your horse must be "clean" on the detection time plus a safety margin, chosen with Responsible. In Vaulting, the lunger is an additional Per- at the time of competition. professional judgment and discretion of your veterinarian, son Responsible.
to allow for individual differences between horses such as If your horse was treated during transport to an event or size, metabolism, degree of fitness, recent illness or disease, In the case of a borrowed horse, even if the owner is close to competition or you have any doubt as to whether considered as a Person Responsible under the FEI Rules, a substance is still present in the horse's system, you must this does not discharge the rider of his/her responsibility. report this immediately upon arrival at the show to the FEI The existence or non-existence of a detection time for a Therefore, riding a borrowed horse necessitates the rider Veterinary Official and obtain permission for competition particular substance shall not affect the validity of a posi- assuring himself/herself that they have full information by arranging for your treating/team veterinarian to com- tive finding or the determination of a medication or anti- on all possible treatments and medications that have plete and sign the appropriate FEI Medication Form.
doping violation according to the FEI Rules.
been administered to the horse.
What is the "strict liability" principle ? Under the FEI Rules, the Person Responsible is strictly lia- Please note that substances in the Medicine Box must NOT ble whenever a Prohibited Substance is found in a horse's be considered as "permitted medication". The value of using bodily specimen. This means that a violation occurs substances in the Medicine Box to treat your horse is that whether or not the Person Responsible intentionally or relatively good information on detection times is available. unintentionally, knowingly or unknowingly, used a Pro- Always refer to the Veterinary section / Medication Control hibited Substance or was negligent or otherwise at fault. of the FEI website for up to date relevant information.
It is very important therefore for the Person Responsible THE FEI COMPETITOR GUIDE TO DOPING to understand not only what is prohibited, but also what Please keep in mind the possible contamination of food by AND MEDICATION CONTROL might potentially cause an inadvertent violation.
prohibited substances. You should discuss this problem with at the heart of horse sport
your food supplier. Food for competition horses should be What about stable security ? certified free of prohibited substances. Avoid buying prod- A minimum level of stable security is obligatory in the ucts in retail outlets for which specifications are unclear or majority of FEI competitions, mostly to ensure rest for from retailers you do not know very well. This also applies the horses and for stewarding purposes. In certain lower to herbal products or feed additives.
level events, the FEI requirements are sometimes waived (see FEI Bulletin and website for further information). There is evidence that some drugs excreted in a horse's However, regardless of the level of stable security, the urine can be reingested if the horse eats its bedding (par- competitor is still the Person Responsible. This means ticularly straw). You should always ensure that your horse that an absence of stable security cannot be used as a has clean bedding and that the bedding could not been valid excuse if your horse tests positive. contaminated by another horse. What is involved in sanctioning ? If one of your horses receives treatment, make sure that Should any Prohibited Substances be reported as being the medicines administered cannot spread to competition present in your horse at the time of competition, you and horses in adjacent stables. Isoxsuprine (a treatment some- your horse will be automatically disqualified from the times used for navicular disease and laminitis) is a well- known contaminating substance. If a horse was treated for some time in one box, do not subsequently stable a compe- When Doping Prohibited Substances are found, the FEI tition horse in this box without thoroughly cleaning it.
may provisional y suspend the Person Responsible and / or his or her horse prior to a ful hearing before the FEI Judicial Keep a medical record for your horse as well as for any bor- rowed horses. Ask the treating/team veterinarian and the grooms to document in writing all treatments administered In addition, sanctions for violating anti-doping regula- to the horse stating date, time, substance(s) administered, tions may range for a first time offender from a warning dose, route (e.g. intravenous) and name and qualifications to a two (2) year ban for Doping substances and up to a of veterinarian. one (1) year ban for Medication Class A substances. You will be given the opportunity to establish a basis for elim- Do not allow anybody to "fix" your horse for the next com- inating or reducing the sanction. Your explanation will be petition. Remember that a positive doping case cannot be considered by the FEI Judicial Committee. A fine up to undone and can seriously damage your professional reputation.
CHF 15,000 may also be awarded against you. There is a right of appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Fédération Equestre Internationale, June 2006 Sport, situated in Lausanne, Switzerland.
For more information, please contact the Veterinary or Legal Departments Fédération Equestre Internationale
t +41 21 310 47 47
of the FEI. Always refer to the Medication Control section of the FEI web- Avenue Mon - Repos 24 f +41 21 310 47 60
site for up to date relevant information (www.horsesport.org), including modifications to the Equine Prohibited List and other FEI Rules and Re-

Source: https://www.britisheventing.com/library-media/documents/FEI_Competitor_Guide_to_Doping_and_Medication_Control.pdf


Trasferimenti di diritti tecnologici, accordi transattivi e aggregazioni di brevetti nel Regolamento (UE) n. Funzionario presso l'Autorità Garante della Concorrenza e del Mercato Trasferimenti di diritti tecnologici, accordi transattivi e aggregazioni di brevetti nel Regolamento (UE) n. 316/2014* di Marco Lo Bue** Funzionario presso l'Autorità Garante della Concorrenza e del Mercato


M.I. Muglali, A. Erbe, Y. Chen, C. Barth, P. Koelsch, M. Rohwerder: Electrochimica Acta, 90, 17- 26 (2013). Final copy-edited version of the manuscript is available from: Modulation of electrochemical hydrogen evolution rate by araliphatic thiol monolayers on gold Mutlu I. Muglalia, Andreas Erbea,∗, Ying Chena,b, Christoph Barthc, Patrick Koelschc,d, Michael Rohwerdera,1,∗∗