Consensus Statement on the Diagnosis
and Treatment of Children with Idiopathic Short
Stature: A Summary of the Growth Hormone
Research Society, the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric
Endocrine Society, and the European Society for
Paediatric Endocrinology Workshop

P. Cohen, A. D. Rogol, C. L. Deal, P. Saenger, E. O. Reiter, J. L. Ross, S. D. Chernausek,M. O. Savage, and J. M. Wit on behalf of the 2007 ISS Consensus Workshop participants Department of Pediatric Endocrinology (P.C.), Mattel Children's Hospital at University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095;Department of Pediatrics (A.D.R.), University of Virginia, and ODR Consulting, Charlottesville, Virginia 22911; Endocrinology Service (C.L.D.),Sainte-Justine Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1C5; Department of Pediatrics (P.S.), Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NewYork 10467; Baystate Children's Hospital (E.O.R.), Tufts University School of Medicine, Springfield, Massachusetts 01199; Department ofPediatrics (J.L.R.), Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107; Department of Pediatrics (S.D.C.), University of OklahomaHealth Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104; Centre for Endocrinology (M.O.S.), the London School of Medicine and Dentistry,London E1 2AD, United Kingdom; and Department of Pediatrics (J.M.W.), Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands Objective: Our objective was to summarize important advances in the management of children
with idiopathic short stature (ISS).
Participants: Participants were 32 invited leaders in the field.
Evidence: Evidence was obtained by extensive literature review and from clinical experience.
Consensus: Participants reviewed discussion summaries, voted, and reached a majority decision on
each document section.
Conclusions: ISS is defined auxologically by a height below ⫺2 SD score (SDS) without findings of
disease as evident by a complete evaluation by a pediatric endocrinologist including stimulated GH
levels. Magnetic resonance imaging is not necessary in patients with ISS. ISS may be a risk factor for
psychosocial problems, but true psychopathology is rare. In the United States and seven other
countries, the regulatory authorities approved GH treatment (at doses up to 53 ␮g/kg䡠d) for chil-
dren shorter than ⫺2.25 SDS, whereas in other countries, lower cutoffs are proposed. Aromatase
inhibition increases predicted adult height in males with ISS, but adult-height data are not avail-
able. Psychological counseling is worthwhile to consider instead of or as an adjunct to hormone
treatment. The predicted height may be inaccurate and is not an absolute criterion for GH treat-
ment decisions. The shorter the child, the more consideration should be given to GH. Successful
first-year response to GH treatment includes an increase in height SDS of more than 0.3– 0.5. The
mean increase in adult height in children with ISS attributable to GH therapy (average duration of
4 –7 yr) is 3.5–7.5 cm. Responses are highly variable. IGF-I levels may be helpful in assessing com-
pliance and GH sensitivity; levels that are consistently elevated (⬎2.5 SDS) should prompt consid-
eration of GH dose reduction. GH therapy for children with ISS has a similar safety profile to other
GH indications. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93: 4210 – 4217, 2008)
Abbreviations: CDGP, Constitutional delay of growth and puberty; GnRHa, GnRH analog; Printed in U.S.A.
ISS, idiopathic short stature; SDS, SD score.
Copyright 2008 by The Endocrine Society doi: 10.1210/jc.2008-0509 Received March 4, 2008. Accepted August 27, 2008.
First Published Online September 9, 2008 J Clin Endocrinol Metab. November 2008, 93(11):4210 – 4217 J Clin Endocrinol Metab, November 2008, 93(11):4210 – 4217 Shortstatureisoneofthemostcommonconcernspresenting there is a greater perceived disability of short stature in boys
to pediatric endocrinologists and other physicians caring compared with girls, irrespective of social class. Children with for children. A variety of disease states must be considered and dysmorphic phenotypes, such as skeletal dysplasias or Turner ruled out in children presenting with severe short stature, yet a syndrome, and those with birth weight or length that are small large number of such children remain without a definitive diag- for gestational age should be excluded from the ISS diagnostic nosis and are labeled as having idiopathic short stature (ISS). The category as are children with clearly identified causes of short Growth Hormone Research Society together with the Lawson stature (e.g. celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society and the European Society chronic arthritis, GHD or GH resistance, hypothyroidism, Cush- for Pediatric Endocrinology agreed upon the organization of an ing's syndrome, etc.).
international workshop in 2006 and convened it on October17–20, 2007, in Santa Monica, CA, to review and weigh avail-able evidence related to the evaluation and management of chil- dren with ISS. Leading experts in the field, including represen-tatives of all international pediatric endocrine societies were ISS should be subcategorized, principally based on auxological invited to participate in creating a consensus document on the criteria. The main distinction is between children with a familial topic. Industry supporters of the Growth Hormone Research history of short stature, whose heights are within the expected Society were invited to send representatives to the meeting. These range for parental target height and those children who are short individuals participated in all discussions leading to the devel- for their parents. Although the midparental height is commonly opment of the consensus document and attended sessions pre- calculated by the Tanner method (average of the father's and senting the consensus statements but did not participate in the mother's height plus or minus 6.5 cm), a more accurate estimate writings of, or vote on, the statements. The workshop partici- can be achieved using a corrected target height SDS, which is pants identified and addressed key issues employing a previously calculated as 0.72 ⫻ average of father's and mother's height SDS defined model used to achieve consensus statements for the di- and the lower limit of the target height range as corrected target agnosis and management of adult and pediatric GH deficiency height minus 1.6 SDS (8). It is generally accepted that, on aver- (GHD) (1–3) and produced this comprehensive statement that age, adult height achieved in children with ISS is below the pa- integrates clinical practice recommendations for the approach to rental target height (9).
children with ISS. Two discussion documents were prepared by ISS should also be classified by the presence or absence of the organizing committee (without industry involvement) before bone age delay, indicating the probability of delayed growth and the workshop, one on the evaluation and the other on the man- puberty. Subcategorization may help to predict adult height, agement of children with ISS. These two review papers are pub- which would be expected to be greater in a child with delayed lished separately (4, 5), and the reader is invited to review them maturation. Short individuals with no family history of short for further details. The workshop followed a rigorous structure stature generally have a lower adult height in comparison with of breakout group discussion and review of key issues. A writing target height.
group transcribed the group reports and discussion summariesinto a consensus draft that was carefully and critically reviewedby all participants in a plenary forum on the last day. Participants Evaluation of the Short Child
(except industry delegates) voted and reached a majority decisionon each section of the document. They were sent a polished draft The evaluation of the short child always begins with a careful for additional comments and gave signed approval to the final medical history, including family and past medical history, and a comprehensive physical examination, including phenotypiccharacteristics, body proportions, and pubertal staging. Specificattention should be paid to the possibility of consanguinity and Definition and Epidemiology
the timing of puberty in the parents as well as the stature of first-and second-degree relatives. Birth history should be reviewed for ISS is defined as a condition in which the height of an individual abnormalities of fetal growth and perinatal complications and is more than 2 SD score (SDS) below the corresponding mean information collected pertaining to past illness or symptoms of height for a given age, sex, and population group without evi- chronic disease, medication use, nutritional status, and psycho- dence of systemic, endocrine, nutritional, or chromosomal ab- social and cognitive development. The child's and the parents' normalities (6). Specifically, children with ISS have normal birth perceptions of the problem as well as their levels of concern weight and are GH sufficient. ISS describes a heterogeneous should be assessed. Every effort should be made to obtain and group of children consisting of many presently unidentified plot all previous growth measurements on the appropriate chart causes of short stature. It is estimated that approximately 60 – (10). For evaluation of children less than 5 yr of age, the World 80% of all short children at or below ⫺2 SDS fit the definition Health Organization recommends the use of their recently pub- of ISS (7). This definition of ISS includes short children labeled lished growth curves (11). For the assessment of older children, with constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) and the use of ethnic-specific growth charts, where available, is pre- familial short stature. The frequency of referral of these children ferred. For children adopted from developing countries, specific is dependent on the socioeconomic environment; furthermore, charts from the country of origin are advised for the first gen- Cohen et al. Consensus Statement on ISS J Clin Endocrinol Metab, November 2008, 93(11):4210 – 4217 eration. After that, charts specific to the adopting country seem there is a wide variability in GH and IGF-I values and in their more appropriate. The physical exam should begin with quan- interpretation among currently available commercial and in- tification of the degree of growth failure and proportionality house assays. This reflects diverse assay methodology as well as using arm span, sitting height or upper-to-lower segment ratios, the adequacy and applicability of normative data. In the evalu- body mass index, and for children under 4 yr of age, measure- ation of a short child, a hypothalamic-pituitary magnetic reso- ment of the head circumference. Dysmorphic features, which nance imaging is performed in children with confirmed GHD or may indicate a syndromic diagnosis, should be sought, as should if an intracranial lesion is suspected. If a diagnosis of ISS is made, signs of chronic illness or endocrinopathy.
magnetic resonance imaging is not indicated. Although it is clearthat there is variable GH sensitivity among children with shortstature, the IGF-I generation test, although capable of document- Screening Tests and Initial Diagnostic Testing
ing severe GH insensitivity, cannot currently detect more mod-erate degrees. Attempts should be made to improve diagnostic In patients for whom the history and physical exam do not utility by generating better normative data. A search for alter- suggest a particular diagnosis, screening laboratory tests are in- native indices of GH sensitivity should be encouraged.
dicated. These include a complete blood count, erythrocyte sed-imentation rate, creatinine, electrolytes, bicarbonate, calcium,phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, TSH, and free T and IGF-I levels. Screening for celiac disease is also recommended. Akaryotype should be performed in all girls with unexplained In situations where a specific genetic diagnosis associated with short stature, and in short boys with associated genital abnor- short stature is expected (such as Noonan syndrome or GH in- malities. A bone age x-ray should be obtained and reviewed by sensitivity syndrome), the genes of interest should be examined.
an expert. This gives an indication of the child's remaining Online resources exist such as Genetest (, growth potential and may narrow the differential diagnosis. A which identify laboratories capable of performing these tests.
skeletal survey should be reserved for patients with suspicion of Although routine analysis of SHOX should not be undertaken in a skeletal dysplasia, such as those with abnormal body propor- all children with ISS, SHOX gene analysis should be considered tions or a height SDS substantially below midparental height SDS for any patient with clinical findings compatible with SHOX and should be read by an expert in bone disorders.
Investigation of the GH-IGF Axis
Psychosocial Consequences of ISS
GHD must be excluded to make a diagnosis of ISS. This requires With currently available data, it is difficult to generalize on the both clinical and biochemical evaluation, because no single test impact of short stature on psychosocial adaptation. Short stature or set of tests can define GHD. GH testing should be performed may be a risk factor for psychosocial problems, such as social in any patient with a compatible history and physical examina- immaturity, infantilization, low self-esteem, and being bullied, tion or a low height velocity or in whom low IGF-I levels are especially for those referred for evaluation. The large interindi- observed. The majority of experts concur that a patient who is vidual differences in adaptation to short stature and on the im- short, with normal height velocity, no bone age delay, and a pact of being short may be a function of several risk and pro- plasma IGF-I level above the mean for age does not require GH tective factors, including parental attitudes and prevailing testing. A minority recommended pursuing GH testing irrespec- cultural opinions (14). Stress experiences may be frequent, but tive of IGF-I concentration. The choice of GH stimuli to be used true psychopathology is rare (15). Overall, both clinical and pop- is highly country dependent, as is the decision to prime with sex ulation studies indicate that most short individuals are function- steroids. In a child with clinical criteria for GHD, a peak GH ing within the broad range of normalcy; however, it is of note that concentration less than 10 ng/ml has traditionally been used to extremely short children (⬍⫺2.5 SDS) have not been adequately support the diagnosis. At the present time, a new GH reference standard is being introduced that may require a downward ad-justment of the lower limit of normal. In addition, changes inassay methodology influence choice of cutoff values for the di- Ethical Principles in the Management of
agnosis of GHD. Measures of spontaneous GH secretion (noc- Children with ISS
turnal or 24-h profiles) are not indicated for routine assessmentof GH status. In contrast, it is strongly recommended that IGF-I The diagnosis and treatment of children with ISS should be under levels be obtained as part of the evaluation. IGFBP-3 measure- the auspices of pediatric endocrinologists, and management de- ments add little to the evaluation of short stature except in chil- cisions should be evidence based. The interest of the child is the dren younger than 3 yr, where low IGFBP-3 levels are helpful in primary concern. One must discourage the expectation that the diagnosis of GHD (12). Reliable assay performance and ap- taller stature is necessarily associated with positive changes in propriate normative data are critical for successful use of GH and quality of life. Growth-promoting measures should be effective IGF-I measurements in clinical practice. It is acknowledged that and should take into consideration the risks, benefits, and treat- J Clin Endocrinol Metab, November 2008, 93(11):4210 – 4217 ment alternatives including counseling. Treatment must include ment for boys with CDGP with an adult height prediction within continuous and ongoing evaluation of efficacy and safety as well the normal range. Oxandrolone offers the advantage of oral ad- as the option of changing the therapy, the dosing strategy, or ministration, but the disadvantages of being weakly androgenic discontinuation of therapy, when the growth response is poor, and carrying the remote risk of hepatotoxicity.
when an acceptable height is attained, or if the youth withdrawsassent for treatment. The primary goal of treatment is attainment of a normal adult height. A desired secondary goal is reaching a In the United States, Japan, and Europe, IGF-I is approved for normal height during childhood. Physicians are responsible for short stature with severe IGF deficiency associated with normal engaging families in discussion that must involve an honest and GH secretion (or GH insensitivity) (19).
realistic appraisal of treatment expectations for height gain and In ISS children who do not respond to GH treatment, IGF-I the variability of clinical outcome (16).
therapy is a theoretical option; however, data are lacking re-garding efficacy and safety in this population.
Criteria for Treating Children with ISS
GnRH analogs (GnRHa)
Monotherapy with GnRHa in both sexes has shown a small The height criteria for consideration of therapy vary based on and variable effect on adult height gain and is generally not rec- geographical and clinical parameters. In the United States and ommended. Concerns have been raised regarding potential ad- seven other countries, the regulatory authorities have approved verse effects of GnRHa, including on short-term bone mineral GH treatment for children shorter than ⫺2.25 SDS (1.2 percen- density (20) and on the psychological consequences of delaying tile). Among this working consensus group, opinions regarding puberty (21). Combination therapy with GnRHa and GH, how- the appropriate height below which GH treatment could be con- ever, has potential value if the GnRHa is used for at least 3 yr.
sidered ranged from ⫺2 to ⫺3 SDS. Age should be taken intoaccount when deciding to initiate treatment. It is felt that the optimal age for initiating treatment is 5 yr to early puberty; most Aromatase inhibition may facilitate growth in the presence of studies on the GH therapy of children with ISS examined children androgens, whereas bone age advancement is slowed due to in- older than 3– 4 yr.
hibition of estrogen production. An increase in predicted adultheight has been shown in males with ISS (22), but adult height data are not available. There is insufficient evidence for its use in There are no accepted biochemical criteria for initiating GH females with ISS. The long-term efficacy and safety of aromatase treatment in ISS.
inhibitors in males with ISS has not been demonstrated. Theresults of ongoing studies on combined treatment with GH and aromatase inhibitors show that combination treatment for at The clinician should weigh the degree of short stature and the least 2 yr slows down the tempo of bone age acceleration and coping capacity of the child. Therapy would generally not be increases predicted adult height (23). Long-term follow-up of recommended for the short child who is unconcerned about his/ these patients is still required.
her stature; alternatively, the clinician may be more likely toconsider medical or psychological intervention for the child who seems to suffer from his/her shortness. The psychological bene- Psychosocial interventions to support the adaptation process fits of GH therapy in such children have yet to be proven (14).
to short stature and to enhance personal resources for coping However, robust measures to prove the psychological value of with stress experiences as well as social action to reduce preju- GH therapy in such children remain elusive, at least in part dices are worthwhile to consider instead of or as an adjunct to because of the recognized limitations in quantitating out- hormone treatment (14). No data have been reported about the effect of such interventions.
The Role of GH Treatment Alternatives
Are There Specific Therapies for Various
Oxandrolone has been shown to increase height velocity in the short term in several controlled studies but does not signif- In children with CDGP, whose puberty and bone age are sub- icantly increase predicted or measured adult height. Low-dose stantially delayed and who are taller than ⫺2.5 height SDS, tes- testosterone therapy causes short-term acceleration of linear tosterone is the appropriate therapy in boys, where this clinical growth with minimal or no advancement of bone age or de- picture is far more prevalent than in girls. In late-maturing girls, crease in adult height potential. Although both of these drugs are low-dose estrogens represent a theoretical option; however, useful in males with CDGP with mild to moderate short stature there are no published data to support its use. In ISS children (⬎⫺2.5 SDS) (18), testosterone is the most appropriate treat- where CDGP is unlikely, GH therapy could be considered.
Cohen et al. Consensus Statement on ISS J Clin Endocrinol Metab, November 2008, 93(11):4210 – 4217 The Role of Predicted Adult Height in the
individual patient. In most children with ISS, the change in height Decision to Treat with GH
SDS will provide the best indicator of response, but height ve-locity, height velocity SDS, and the change in height velocity The predicted adult height may be inaccurate in individuals but (centimeters per year or SDS) all have utility, and are sometimes can be helpful together with other criteria (family pubertal his- superior, in assessing response when interpreted in light of the tory and midparental target height) in deciding to treat with GH.
patient's clinical situation. Long-term auxological parameters In a longitudinal study of ISS subjects, bone age delay had an that define the success of therapy include adult height SDS, adult impact on the accuracy of prediction. In children with a bone age height SDS minus height SDS at start of GH, adult height minus delay around 2 yr, the average adult height was close to the predicted height, and adult height minus target height. Long- predicted height, and in those with no bone age delay, adult term psychosocial and metabolic outcomes should be evaluated height surpassed the initial prediction substantially, although if in registries for these patients.
the bone age was delayed by more than 2 yr, adult height wasconsiderably below predicted height (24).
Outcome of GH Therapy in Children with ISS
The Role of Current Height in the Decision to
Treat with GH

The mean increase in adult height attributable to GH therapy(average duration of 4 –7 yr) in children with ISS is 3.5–7.5 cm The shorter the child, the more consideration should be given to compared with historical controls (26, 27), with patients' own treatment with GH. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration pretreatment predicted adult heights (28), or with nontreatment (FDA)-approved cutoff in the United States (and seven other control or placebo control groups (29, 30).
nations) is ⫺2.25 SDS, whereas in other countries lower cutoffs Responses are highly variable and are dose dependent. Con- are proposed. Children whose heights are below ⫺2.0 SDS and cern has been raised that higher GH doses (⬎53 ␮g/kg䡠d) may who are more than 2.0 SDS below their midparental target height advance the bone age and the onset of puberty (31), but this has and/or have a predicted height below ⫺2.0 SDS are also believed not been found in other studies (32).
by some experts to warrant treatment consideration.
Multiple factors affect the growth response to GH, many of which are unknown. Children who are younger or heavier, whoreceive higher GH doses, and who are shortest relative to target Defining the Response to GH Treatment
height have the best growth response. These factors account forapproximately 40% of the variance in growth response. Adult Short-term auxological features that suggest a successful first- height outcome is influenced negatively by age at start and pos- year response to GH treatment in individual patients include a itively by midparental height, height at start, bone age delay, and change in height SDS of more than 0.3– 0.5, a first-year height the first-year response to GH (23, 24). The utility of baseline and velocity increment of more than 3 cm/yr, or a height velocity SDS treatment-related biochemical data including IGF-I has not been of more than ⫹1. Restoration to a more normal height during validated in long-term studies, but 2-yr studies suggest that the childhood is an important consideration. Mathematical models rise in IGF-I correlates with short-term height gain (30).
can be used to estimate responses to therapy with the selecteddose (25).
Monitoring for Efficacy and Safety in GH-
Serial IGF-I measurements during GH therapy are useful to Treated Children with ISS
assess efficacy, safety, and compliance and have been proposedas a tool for adjusting the GH dose. No other biochemical tests Children treated with GH should be monitored for height, are routinely recommended in GH-treated ISS patients.
weight, pubertal development, and adverse effects at 3- to6-month intervals. Regular monitoring for scoliosis, tonsillar hypertrophy, papilledema, and slipped capital femoral epiphysis An important rationale for treatment with GH is the assump- should be performed as part of the regular physical exam during tion that it will improve quality of life. Validated instruments follow-up visits. We recommend that after 1 yr, the response to sensitive to the specific domains that are affected in short chil- therapy be assessed by calculating height velocity SDS as well as dren and that are easily administered in the clinic are needed but the change in height SDS. Pubertal stage should be assessed reg- are not currently recommended as part of routine care.
ularly, and bone age may be obtained periodically to reassessheight prediction and for consideration of intervention to modifythe tempo of puberty. IGF-I levels may be helpful in guiding GH Interpretation of Outcome Measures
dose adjustment, but the significance of abnormally elevated Assessing the Success of GH Treatment
IGF-I levels remains unknown. Thus far, no instances of elevatedblood glucose in GH-treated patients with ISS have been re- Short-term outcome measures (i.e. ⬍2 yr) must take into account ported, but there is controversy regarding the need for routine the age, pubertal status, and degree of growth retardation of the monitoring of glucose metabolism.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, November 2008, 93(11):4210 – 4217 GH Treatment Adjustment Strategies
Dosage is usually selected and adjusted by weight. If the growth The average ultimate height gain attributable to GH treatment in response is considered inadequate, the dose may be increased.
children with ISS, as well as the cost, are known (10,000 –20,000 There are no definitive data concerning the long-term safety of dollars/cm), but the short- and long-term benefits for the indi- doses higher than 50 ␮g/kg䡠d in children with ISS. The upper limit vidual and society are unclear (26). It is presently not known of GH dosage used in other pediatric conditions is approximately whether, and how, a gain in height relates to change in quality of 70 ␮g/kg䡠d (28, 33), but the possibility of using such doses varies life. Therefore, GH treatment for children with ISS should be put in terms of national health economics. In the United States, the in the context of the health budget for the specific country. At the current FDA-approved doses for GH in ISS are up to 0.3– 0.37 current time, data demonstrating improved quality of life, better mg/kg 䡠 wk (34). In the future, growth prediction models may psychological health, etc. have not yet been collected in well- improve GH dosing strategies. IGF-I levels may be helpful in controlled studies. Therefore, recommendations for treatment assessing compliance and GH sensitivity; levels that are consis- that increases adult height should be balanced with the high cost tently elevated (⬎2.5 SDS) should prompt consideration of GH of these therapies.
dose reduction. Recent studies on IGF-based dose adjustments inISS demonstrated increased short-term growth when higher IGFtargets were selected, but this strategy has not been validated in The Definition of GH Nonresponsiveness
long-term studies with respect to safety, cost effectiveness, oradult height (31).
The expected result of GH treatment in ISS is an increase in heightSDS and height velocity resulting in increased adult height. Be-cause there is a continuum of GH responses, the definition ofnonresponsiveness is arbitrary. Suggested criteria for poor first- Consideration of Adding Puberty Modulators
year response include height velocity SDS less than ⫹1 or change If height prediction is below ⫺2.0 SDS at the time of pubertal in height SDS less than 0.3– 0.5, depending on age. Emerging onset in either sex, the addition of GnRHa may be considered as tools for the definition of GH treatment failures include predic- discussed above (35, 36). Alternatively, in males, aromatase in- tion modeling and age- and gender-specific growth-response hibitors may be an option (22). However, long-term efficacy and charts (39). If the growth response is lower and compliance is safety data are not available for either of these interventions.
assured, among the options considered may be increasing the Also, the impact of delayed puberty on somatic and psycholog- dose of GH. IGF-I values can be used to assess compliance and ical development is not known. We do not recommend aro- sensitivity to GH. If after 1–2 yr and higher doses of GH, the matase inhibitors for girls.
growth rate is still inadequate, GH treatment should be stoppedand alternative therapies could be entertained.
Duration of GH Treatment
There are two schools of thought about the duration of treat- Future studies on the management of children with ISS should ment. One is that treatment should stop when near adult height involve three major areas. The first is improvement in diagnostic is achieved (height velocity ⬍2 cm/yr and/or bone age ⬎16 yr in tools to categorize the different subpopulations who fall within boys and ⬎14 yr in girls). Alternatively, therapy can be dis- the definition of ISS and their response to therapy. These would continued when height is in the normal adult range (above ⫺2 include molecular genetics, proteomics, and pharmacogenom- SDS) or has reached another cutoff for the reference adult pop- ics, better measures of GH and IGF-I sensitivity, and improved ulation (for example, in Australia, the 10th percentile; elsewhere, prediction models. The second area should involve psychosocial the 50th percentile). Stopping therapy is influenced by patient/ instruments, interventions, and outcomes. A third area is the family satisfaction with the result of therapy or ongoing cost- conduct of well-controlled studies on the use of adjunctive phar- benefit analysis or when the child wants to stop for other reasons.
macological interventions such as the combination of GH andGnRHa, aromatase inhibitors, or IGF-I.
Possible GH Side Effects
The possible side effects in GH-treated children with ISS aresimilar to those previously reported in children receiving GH ISS represents a significant clinical entity within the pediatric therapy for other indications (37). However, the frequency of endocrinology practice, and multiple therapeutic interventions adverse events is generally less (38). No long-term adverse effects may be considered for these patients after appropriate evaluation have been documented. Posttreatment surveillance with focus on has been conducted. Further clinical research and development cancer prevalence and metabolic side effects is recommended, is warranted to optimize the management of these children and but the feasibility of such studies is unclear.
to ensure that treatments are safe and beneficial.
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Informes ………….………………. O. S. PE. C. A. Servicio de emergencia …………. Cubre además de las practicas mencionadas en el Nomenclador Nacional de prestaciones medicas y las contemplada en el programa Medico Obligatorio ( P. M. O. ) una amplísima gama de prestaciones No Servicio Médico Asistencial

Programma provvisorio

I Quaderni ZooBioDi N. 3/2010 Herbal Remedies in Animal Farming Rimedi Vegetali in Zootecnia Giovedì 9 Settembre 2010 XXII SALONE INTERNAZIONALE DEL NATURALE 9-12 settembre 2010 Il Quaderno ZooBioDi N.3/2010 raccoglie i lavori presentati al convegno "Herbal Remedies in Animal Farming - Rimedi Vegetali in Zootecnia" nell'ambito del XXII Salone Internazionale del Naturale che si è tenuta a Bologna il 9 settembre 2010, presso il Quartiere Fieristico Bologna, Sala Opera. COMITATO SCIENTIFICO Mauro Serafini, Università degli studi di Roma, Sapienza Agostino Macrì, Istituto Superiore di Sanità Roberto Balducchi, ENEA BAS-BIOTEC C.R. La Trisaia Renzo Nazareno Brizioli, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Lazio e Toscana Paolo Ranalli, Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura COMITATO ORGANIZZATORE Paola del Serrone, Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura CRA Marcello Nicoletti, Società Italiana di Fitochimica S.I.F. Marinella Trovato, Società Italiana Scienze e Tecniche Erboristiche S.I.S.T.E. Paolo Pignattelli, Associazione Italiana di Zootecnia Biologica e Biodinamica - ZooBioDi Giovanni Giacometti, Associazione Scientifica Internazionale di medicina tradizionale, Complementare e Scienze Affini - OLOSMEDICA SEGRETERIA ORGANIZZATIVA S.I.S.T.E. - Via Filagro, 38 20143 Milano, Tel: 02-45487428 Fax: 02-4548790, PROGETTO GRAFICO Susanna Lolli, ZooBioDi. FOTO Archivio del Laboratorio di Sostanze Naturali del Dipartimento del Farmaco, Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Tutti i diritti riservati Copyright © 2010, ZooBioDi – Associazione Italiana di Zootecnia Biologica e Biodinamica Pubblicazione fuori commercio ISBN 978-88-903475-3-5