Vaz newsletter - march 2016 - final

Publication of the Veterinary Association of Zambia—Vol. 4 (4) THE VETERINARIAN Position Statement from the Veterinary Association of Zambia
on the use of "Veterinary Prescriptions" to purchase
"Prescription-Only Medications" from veterinary drug outlets
The Veterinary Association of Zambia Executive Committee dosages, and for the wrong conditions). Greater veterinary supports the move by the major suppliers of veterinary medi- supervision of prescription medicines can help to ensure that cines in Zambia, to comply with provisions of the Medicines medicines are used more strategically, and that withdrawal and Allied substances Act (Act No. 3 of 2013), which requires periods are strictly adhered to. It is thus, an ethical obligation authorised persons to use prescriptions for the purchase of of veterinary professionals to educate their clients about the those medicines which are classified as prescription only med- correct use of these drugs at the time that the clients are being ications (POMs), anaesthetics, scheduled drugs and those la- issued with these prescriptions. belled ‘for use by or under the control of a veterinarian only.' This Act has empowered the veterinary profession to regulate In order to ensure that prescription medicines are only sold to veterinary medicines without the prerequisite supervision of a legitimate personnel, it is recommended that all veterinarians pharmacist (as had been in the repealed Pharmaceutical Act). begin to issue written prescriptions (for all prescription medi- The Executive Committee thus, supports and encourages the cines) in the required format. use of prescriptions by its members who wish to access these This further requires that legitimate veterinary professionals drugs, for their own use, as well as for their clients, as a obtain their certificate and registration numbers, in order that means of contributing towards compliance with the Medicines suppliers of medicines may differentiate legitimately trained and Allied Substances Act. This will also contribute towards veterinary professionals, from those who are trading in veteri- the improving the regulation of medicines in the veterinary nary medicines illegally. The Veterinary Association of Zambia will be working with The situation that has existed hitherto, allows unscrupulous, all stakeholders to ensure that stricter prescription enforcement and unregulated usage of many medicines which should only is done in a "phased in" manner to allow the industry to adjust, be administered under the directive of a veterinarian, or a su- and to give veterinarians and paraprofessionals time to register pervised veterinary paraprofessional. with the relevant authority, and get their prescription pads The unregulated usage of veterinary pharmaceuticals poses a printed. This phasing in will also give livestock farmers and danger to both human and animal health, in that it promotes the animal-owning-public adequate time to locate their nearest antibiotic resistance. As well as this, many medicines are be- veterinarian, or supervised veterinary paraprofessional,and ing used incorrectly (e.g. in the wrong species, at the wrong establish a working relationship. INSIDE THIS ISSUE:
VAZ 2016 Scientific day BEGINNING
Veterinary Puzzle

The scientific day presentations to look forward to on the 28th of April in Ndola.

Risk Factors for Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Zambia – Dr Raymond Hamoonga
Molecular characterization of Rift Valley fever virus isolates from Mozambique
and phylogenetic comparison with selected other isolates – Dr Benjamin Mubemba
Sale of Veterinary Medicines – Dr
Zuma Munkombwe

Prevalence of Giardia in Dairy Cattle in Lusaka and Chilanga Districts, Zambia
- Dr Clifford Kakandelwa
Evidence of Cyanthostome resistance in horses in and around Lusaka, Zambia – Dr Kabemba E. Mwape

The Unusual Pets – Exotic Animal Medicine – Dr Ntombi Mudenda
Sample Collection,
Packaging and Transpor-
tation - Dr Ngonda Saasa
Validation of a human African typanosomosis Loop-Mediated Isother- mal Amplification Kit for detection of Typanosoma evansi infection - Dr
Victor Zulu

Animals Do Matter… - Mrs. Debbie

Microchipping and Tatooing for Animal Identification – Dr Alison Mckendrick
Quick Tests - Agrivet
An App for Veterinary Practices – Ms. Annabel

A training needs assessment of Zambian veteri- nary professionals and paraprofessionals – Dr Kabemba E. Mwape
THE VETERINARIAN • coping; healthy; disease prevention; nutrition ANIMAL WELFARE
⇒ Mental (Feelings) • comfortable; safe; not suffering from unpleasant states; In the last issue of The Veterinarian Newsletter as we humane handling and slaughter continued looking at animal welfare, we concluded that ⇒ Aspects of Naturalness domestic animals should be kept in ways that allow • coping; able to express innate behaviour. them to perform their natural behaviours in accordance with natural selection. Another set of key statements that combines all elements of welfare are known by the term the Five Freedoms. The Related to mental states and aspects of naturalness is the Five Freedoms were based on the concerns and recom-idea that animals need to perform certain highly moti- mendations laid out in the Brambell Report (discussed vated behaviours that are typical of their species. Those above), published in the UK in 1965. They also relate to behaviours would have developed in their wild ances- physical functioning, mental state/feelings and natural tors to enable them to obtain essential resources and therefore, to survive (e.g. in calves, the act of suckling to ingest milk from the mother; in pre-parturient sows, behaviour. The Five Freedoms overlap with the three as-pects of welfare: physical, mental and naturalness. For example, to achieve functioning we need freedom from injury and disease, freedom from hunger and thirst, free- building a secluded nest in which to give birth). The dom from thermal discomfort, freedom from fear and dis- need to show a behaviour originates in the brain and tress, and so on. therefore it is generally understood now that if animals do not live in an environment that permits these behav- Previously, it was clarified that being concerned about iours the animals are likely to experience negative emo- animal welfare means being concerned about animal suf- tions and therefore to suffer. This has given rise to the fering. It was observed that only sentient animals can suf-idea that animals have behavioural needs and that being fer. It has also been clarified what animal welfare is, and in an environment that enables animals to express the that it is a complex concept that includes the physical, behaviours can be a source of positive emotion and mental and aspects of naturalness. We have also seen that hence good welfare. because veterinary medicine has not traditionally been concerned with animal behaviours that are not signs of These examples show that animal welfare is a complex disease, veterinary medicine has not traditionally covered concept with three important areas – physical, mental all of animal welfare. and aspects of naturalness. The best definition therefore seems to be one that combines all three areas. That is Individuals value these various aspects of animal welfare what the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) differently. That is what makes animal welfare controver- uses. The OIE represents around 178 countries and ter- sial, and the arguments have not changed over many mil- ritories, and is taking the lead in promoting animal wel- lennia. In the next issue we will look briefly at the histori- fare standards around the world. Its statement regarding cal context, and see how animal welfare science devel- welfare stresses the importance of scientific evidence. oped. This definition covers all three aspects of animal wel- Compiled from Concepts in Animal Welfare 3rd Edi-
⇒ Functioning (Physical) tion 2014.
By Dr. Kabemba E. Mwape, Lusaka.

Presenting Problem and history: An 8 year old Chihuahua Anaesthesia was applied with propofol and ketamine for in-
was presented with a mass on its ventral abdomen. The owner duction and halothane gas anesthesia for maintenance. The
reported that they noticed that the mass would appear when the patient was placed in dorsal recumbence, and the ventral ab-
dog was on heat and disappear after heat. However the owner domen was aseptically prepared in a standard fashion. A ven-
noticed that this time the mass had increased in size and the dog tral midline laparotomy was done in which the left uterus
had also become less active. Ann increase in the frequency of horn in an inguinal hernia was detected. The right uterus horn
urine voiding was also observed. All vaccinations were up to was normal and totally localized in the abdominal cavity.
Bilateral ovariohysterectomy was performed upon the own- ers' request. The peritoneal cavity was lavaged with warmed- Physical examination: Examination of the bitch revealed nor-
sterile slution and a herniorraphy performed in a horizontal mothermia, tachycardia, polyuria, respiratory sounds (wheezes), mattress pattern. Postoperatively, antibacterial therapy was obesity with body condition score of 5/5, a mass involving the applied, analgesic Tramado, Furosemide, Enalapril and an left caudal mammary glands Elizabethan collar was used until remov- and generalized lymphade- ing skin sutures. During the first week nopathy. Mild anorexia and after surgery, the bitch was clinically nor- lameness related to inguinal mal. There was no recurrence over the swelling were noted. A swell- ing, in the form of a soft pain- Hernia graviditatis (hysterocele) is a spe- less oval shaped mass, and cific form of inguinal hernia. Some herni- localized on the left inguinal as are diagnosed during oestrus stage or mammary gland, was ob- pregnancy as estrogens may alter the con- served. There was a bit of nective tissue function while the majority compressibility on palpation of cases are presented when pregnancy and heat. Auscultation re- has advanced to about 30 days as in the vealed a heart murmur. current case. Congenital inguinal hernias Tentative Diagnosis: Malignant Mammary Gland tumor based or hernias present at birth are less commonly seen. Although
with differential diagnosis of cutaneous lymphosarcoma, ingui-
the pathogenesis is unclear, an inherited factor impairing the nal hernia, local abscess and mastitis. To confirm diagnosis, process of fibrosis and union of abdominal aponeuroses and ultrasonographic and radiographic examination of both the resulting in weakness and defective formation of the inguinal mass and the abdominal cavity was performed. ring and linea alba has been suggested. In our case, due to the obesity there was enlargement of the entrance to the vaginal Ultrasonography– A hypo echoic area containing luminal or-
process causing trauma hence weakening of the abdominal gan/tissue containing fluid was seen. The tubular structure was wall due to altered nutritional or metabolic status, and in- presumed to be the uterus as neither peristaltic activity nor pul- creased intra-abdominal pressure. sation could be identified. There were no pathological features detected in the fetus (one) which was seen to be alive (See fig Diagnosis of inguinal hernias is confirmed when the hernia is 1. ) manually reduced and the hernial ring is palpated. In a case of Radiology - Lateral and
a gravid hysterocele, as was the current case, ultrasonography ventrodorsal radiographic and radiography may demonstrate a fetal heart beat after 23 d views of the abdomen of gestation and the appearance of fetal skeletons after 43 d of demonstrated a radiopaque gestation, respectively. Surgical repair following reduction of fetal skeletal tissue seen to the hernia is the only recommended treatment for inguinal have herniated in the her- hernias and al midline approach is preferred because it allows nia content (fig.2). Cardio- visualization of both inguinal rings and repair of bilateral megally was also ob- herniation through a single incision. Conclusion: Hydrometra/mucometra should be considered
when there are no systemic clinical signs or increase in of Hysterocele with live pup- Fig.2 neutrophils in the blood, no fetal structures upon ultraso- py based on radiography nographic and radiographic examinations, and no bacterial and ultrasound results with growth from the uterine fluid. However herni- a fair prognosis. ation of a uterus with sterile fluid accumula-tion should be included in the differential diag- Case management: This
nosis for an intact bitch pre- consisted of repair the in- sented with an inguinal By Dr. Nelson Phiri guinal hernia surgically. Veterinary Surgeon THE VETERINARIAN ETHICS CORNER with Dr. Andrew M. Phiri
A matter of life or death; To operate or not scrutinised. On
to operate
one hand, a fetotomy was It is a question that may be encountered by practising vet- erinarians. It becomes a challenge (ethical responsibility) where a fetoto-when that question leads to the possibility of life or sadly my knife or death. Recently, I and two colleagues were collectively obstetrical wire looking at a dystocia case in a dairy cow. We were at a would be used cross roads. The case involved twin calves whose feet to cut the foe-were stuck and protruding at the vulva of a distressed cow. tuses and allow Only for illus- tration, not actual cow. was to perform a section and do the same as in the Only for illus-
tration, not

actual cow.
one of deciding factors was the ease of the procedure, time it would take to perform the same, the state of the reproductive system after the procedure (best outcome for dam) and efficiency and ease of the procedure. We finally decid- The cow was reportedly to have been in labour for a few ed on doing the caesarean. Surprisingly, after a standard days. It was not very clear if the calves were alive as time C-section, the calves were retrieved ALIVE. One might had substantially progressed from the onset of labour. then, ask, what if fetotomy was instituted instead and Similarly, the cow seemed not to signs of labour or had the outcome were different? Despite the calves being been exhausted by the whole ordeal. Apart from that, the male twins, the farmer proposed to raise them for beef. animal was apparently stable and standing. The attending vet named them after yours truly and another colleague. Dr. Andrew M. Phiri Veterinary Surgeon Lusaka Only for illus- Solutions to crossword puzzle No. 7
tration, not actual cow. 10. Amphipathetic terms of the way forward, to operate or not to THE VETERINARIAN Obituary
VAZ, PO Box 32117
During the month of March, the veterinary profession lost a senior veterinarian, retired Principle Veterinary Officer in the Department of Veterinary Services. [email protected] Dr. Dominic Minyoi passed on the 28th of March 2016 and was put to rest on the 1st of April 2016. May the soul of our departed colleague rest in eternal peace. [email protected] WE ARE ON FACEBOOK
Veterinary Crossword Puzzle No. 8
Veterinary Association of Zambia (Public Page)
VAZ GROUP (Members Only).
1. Absence of a major portion of the brain during embryonic development (11) 2. Medical term for a lack of energy and 4. A congenital condition associ- ated with incomplete brain devel- 3. A biological preparation that provides active immunity to a particular disease 9. Abbreviation for zoonotic dis- ease causing severe breathing 5. Species of mosquito that transmits difficult and sometimes death (4) 10. Zika virus got its name from 6. Genus of spiral-shaped bacteria (9) a forest in this country (6) 7. Black Quarter or Quarter Evil (8) 12. The retention and build up of urates in body tissues (4) 14. The set of life-threatening chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms (10) 16. Set of medical signs and symptoms that are correlated with each other (8) 17. Fatal, degenerative nervous system disease of sheep and 8. The sensation of air under 11. A large, even-toed ungulate within the sub- family Bovinae (5) 13. An infectious agent thought to be the cause of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (5) 15. Roundworms (8) 18. An intoxication caused by the toxins of Clostridium Botulinum in chickens (8) Dr. Humphrey Simukoko Veterinary surgeon


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